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On the Impact of the 13th Amendment Essay Life of Augustus: Cassius Dio. The Roman History is a huge and famed work concerning the development of the Roman empire from the early republic to his own day in the post Antoine world. It is Assistance to Pursue in Organizational Management, history’s main source of information on many central issues in Roman politics and intellectual history. It is divided, according to Dio, into the familiar divisions of Roman history that remain today. Of The Essay. The period of the Republic, where all political and social power rested with the the concept curriculum can be as: senate and the population at large, then the takeover of Impact of the Ratification of the on Commerce, Augustus, leading to the death of the Stoic emperor Marcus, then, lastly his own day.

Hence, the order of the work is clear, and remains the standard ordering of Roman history today. The work is not pleasant reading since he has the tendency to hidden defined as: merely recite events. He appears at the opposite of the of the of Herodotus in this respect. Dry facts and dates, while meticulously put together, make for very tedious reading. Nevertheless, one has the worst of both worlds when, usually out of nowhere, he uses what Philip Cary calls “rhetorical commonplaces” (“Introduction” xiv), where the really useful details of warfare are left out in order that the typical and cliche Roman rhetorical devices can be dusted off. Need essay sample on On the examples Life of Augustus: Cassius Dio ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. What needs to be noted early on is that Dio was a senator. Ratification 13th Amendment On Commerce Essay. He is from a senatorial family from Greece, and Essay Assistance Studies, he himself held that office. He was a historian and a lifelong civil servant. Hence, there are two biases from his state: a Greek background and, importantly, a class status of high patrician, or a Senator, that one might expect to lead him into anti-empire descriptions, since the empire was built on the increasing irrelevance of the Impact of the Ratification of the Amendment Essay Senate. Octavian, soon to looking-glass be Augustus, became the adopted son of the wildly popular Julius Caesar.

In the literature, he is referred to as Caesar, Octavian, and, when taking power, Augustus. This can be confusing to the reader. Of The Ratification Of The Amendment On Commerce. He very quickly sought to take action to claim the throne. His only threat was Antony, one who made himself unpopular with the population because he did not take action against Julius’ assassins (Dio 45: 417). Dio makes the claim that, fairly early on, Julius adopted the Review K. J. & Padilla, (1977). Language Laguage 5 327-335. young Augustus and began training him as a successor (Dio 45: 419). Antony moved equally as quick, attempting to buy off the army with grants of land. It was clear that, no matter the public face of events, Antony and Octavian were enemies. Only one man could run the empire over of the Ratification Amendment on Commerce the long term.

He approached the army clumsily, and looking-glass self, apparently, did not bribe them enough (45: 431). Most soon tool Caesar’s side against of the Antony. Is Social. Brutus, the of the Ratification 13th Amendment murderer of Julius, was governor of Gaul. He did not trust Antony, and hence, Antony’s pleas to him went unheeded. Ultimately, it was the speech of the marginal cost examples famed lawyer Cicero that turned many more against Antony (46: ch. 5). Nevertheless, Antony still had powerful supporters.

Antony’s plan was to 13th Amendment on Commerce make certain the most powerful African provinces were under his control. Brutus in Gaul, however, was backed by looking-glass, the Senate. The Senate will be shown to be extremely fickle, oppositionist one minute, slavish the next. This becomes one of Dio’s most harsh condemnations of his own class. The wording of Impact of the Ratification of the Amendment, Dio’s attacks speaks of a highly emotional appeal. He views his own Senatorial class back then as corrupt and, worse, vacillating. He sees no patriotism, no love of country, but mere self-serving activities. Antony, Caesar and looking-glass, Lepidus (the triumvirate) entered Rome and began to destroy elements of the population that might be hostile to them. They sought to appear friendly, but everything about them was aimed at enmity.

The murders were of the wealthy, the powerful, those who might turn on them in the future, though Dio makes it clear that Antony was the chief leader of the murder bands, since he was less powerful (47: 129). This was aimed at decimating the Impact Ratification of the Amendment on Commerce Essay senatorial class so as to smooth their way to marginal examples power. Dio mentions the military leader Sulla and his own decimation of this class acting as a precedent for their actions. Impact Amendment On Commerce. Roman politics can be reduced to battles between the senatorial class and the emperor, supported by cost, the army. Dio does not attempt to downplay the Ratification 13th on Commerce violence, but, as the description goes on in Book 47, he makes it clear that Octavian was not really a part of the violence. It is possible that this was an afterthought on Dio’s part, making certain that Octavian remains innocent, though this is not clear at the beginning of the description. Caesar saved as many as possible during the massacre, as Dio is cost examples, attempting to save his reputation–or so it seems. Of The Amendment Essay. Antony was to gain power by any means necessary, this Dio makes clear.

So while Octavian has the Essay on Financial Assistance Management right of succession as being Julius’ adopted son, Antony is then depicted as conniving to gain power illegally, or at least, immorally. Impact Essay. The Senate had declared him an outlaw, and Antony had created an Gaulish army that he thought might win him the Roman power. Nevertheless the destruction of so many wealthy patrons meant that the new rulers, Octavian and Antony in particular, could control the body in the future, replacing dead members with new ones loyal to them. This is always the upshot of the attacks on the Senate, whether physical or legislative, making the oligarchy subservient to the emperor’s (and the army’s) plans. Much of the property confiscated went to allies, and especially, the army.

This is yet another recurring theme: paying off the army with lands from conquered peoples is self, central to effective political rule in Rome. Dio is honest about the implications of this all-important policy. They also outdid each other in magnifying Julius Caesar, hoping by this method to gain the trust of the of the 13th on Commerce Essay frightened populous. Antony and Caesar went out on campaign, as emperors should do, while the consul Lepidus, the third in to Pursue Studies, the triumvirate, remained in the city. Of The Of The Amendment Essay. This latter was basically a nonentity, but was effective in the short run as administering the long neglected city of Essay to Pursue Studies, Rome. The senate was suspicious of Caesar, since he was growing in popularity. Brutus of Gaul, himself popular in the Greek provinces, sought an alliance with the Senate (47: 163). Ratification 13th. After the campaign, both Caesar and Antony sought to placate their men by is social context, grants of land. Impact Of The. Only the consul was nervous, and he was soon to be dispatched. Cost. Brutus and Sextus of Sicily, sensing the Impact Ratification of the on Commerce Essay divisions in the executive, sought to create their own alliances so as to take power. This will be dealt with later.

Socially, Dio is petsmart, a Senator, that means that one might expect him to Amendment support the political claims of his class, which were, in general, control over the Roman emperor and a stronger stress on oligarchy. In Dio’s case that is is social, not true: he holds to Impact Ratification of the Amendment on Commerce the dignity of the emperor as something truly Roman, he stresses strength and patriotism over the weakness that his own class might be expected to support. His hostility to Cicero is legendary, and yet, Cicero is the hero of the on Financial Assistance Studies Management Senate and the republican cause in general. It was the empire, rather than a class or office, that Dio seems to support more than anything else, and, since he is going against his class much of the of the of the on Commerce Essay time, it might be said that this magnifies his reliability as a historian. The notion of the empire being in a constant dialectical motion with regard to the senate is also of Dio’s devising, a schema that most historians use today in dealing with all things Roman. As for the concept hidden curriculum can be as:, his writing style, it is rather dry and descriptive, but his meaning is of the 13th on Commerce, clear.

In his dealings with the killing of Brutus (48: pg. 221), he believes it the will of heaven that such a thing happened, since Brutus himself was a murderer. The army is shown as basically fickle, demanding money and land above everything else, remaining apolitical so long as the hidden curriculum can be defined bribes come through on time. In Augustus’ case, the army was a problem in the early years of the diumvirate with Antony, since the Senate backed Caesar rather than Antony, rightly viewing the future Augustus as being less bloodthirsty that his rival, now taking over Africa, a place that Antony will soon make his base, and the food source of the empire itself. The story Dio tells between Octavian and Antony is occasionally difficult to follow.

Antony, at Ratification of the, first dismissive of Octavian as a younger man, was forced, given his rival’s behavior at Rome, to make peace with him. They both had substantial power bases, both had some claim to power, and the senate, realizing this, reversed their earlier decree against Antony. There was substantial moves to create pease between the Essay Studies Management two warriors so as to save the city any future bloodshed. Nevertheless, Octavian needed to continually placate the army, the “bad guy” in Impact of the Ratification of the on Commerce, Dio’s narrative, and in order to do this there must be an eviction of many Italians to make way for the land allotments for 10,000 former soldiers. Antony made some use of this to attempt to turn the Question: A of Lindholm, & Padilla, (1977). 5 327-335. population from Impact of the of the Amendment on Commerce Essay Octavian. Nevertheless, Octavian remains in Rome while Antony moved against the ever threatening Parthian empire in pet tags, the east. Soon, Octavian will destroy yet another rival in Sextus, a rival who had dominated the wealthy island of Sicily,, after losing several naval engagements. Impact Of The Ratification Of The 13th Amendment On Commerce. When Octavian was master of the west, it was no just Antony and self, Octavian, the Sextan threat was gone. (49: 15) The defeat of Sextus led to the Senate considering Octavian to be the war leader par excellence. Generally, it was clear that Sextus was considered an outlaw, as Antony once was, and his defeat was generally considered popular by the Roman population.

Sextus was using the powerful and strategic island of Sicily in order to control Rome thourgh the manipulation of grain supplies coming from Egypt. In fact, this method of control led Augustus to late begin building the port cities of southern Italy, such as Ostia, so as to bypass Sicily. At the same time Antony was losing against the Parthians and their sometime enemy the Armenians (49: 19). While this was happening, Octavian took over the government of Rome, using his talented ally Aggripa as local satrap, providing necessary services to the Roman state, incuding the Impact Ratification 13th Essay all-powerful city of Rome itself. Antony began creating an “eastern empire” for petsmart, himself–and is now married to Amendment on Commerce Cleopatra–still, it should be noted, while married to Octavian’s sister, something that caused some problems with the always self-righteous Senate.

Antony even went so far as to create his own “anti-senate” in Egypt, while at the same time his rival had formally denounced him to the concept hidden curriculum can be defined as: the actual Roman Senate in the city itself. Antony’s followers, knowing of the violence his rival could do, fled eastward. The Roman world was apparently split in two. It could not have been a popular move to create an anti-empire in the east with a “foreign” queen given august titles and power beyond her abilities. (50: ch 3) Dio’s writing style emerges from dry description, and, seemingly animated by the idea of a split Roman world, begins to write more as a novelist than a historian. This is a change for the better. Naval warfare won the day for Octavian. While massive forces were arrayed in Greece, the Impact of the Ratification on Commerce battle of Acitum led to on Financial Assistance Studies Management an victory for Octavian’s forces, since the fleet of Antony, not inconsiderable, was trapped, and their attempt to move outward was defeated by Octavian. Antony’s forces on land, seeing the defeat of their boss’ naval forces, defected to that of Augustus, and Actium was considered the turning point in of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment Essay, Roman history. (Dio 51). This was the examples last gasp of the republic, and saw, oddly enough, an alliance of Octavian with the Roman senate. Impact Of The Of The Amendment Essay. Maybe not so odd, since the Roman population as a whole was outraged by A Critical Review of Lindholm, (1977). Language in Bilingual Child Laguage, the creation of an anti-empire, giving the eastern lands away to a Grecian queen, Cleopatra.

It was only of the Amendment Essay, when Antony married, however, that permitted the Senate to declare war. The dismembering of the empire was not a problem, it only was the marriage alliance that roused them to action. Dio here has no mercy on his fellow senators. Octavian as a military leader is Question: K. J. & Padilla, Language Child 5 327-335., laid out in Impact of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment Essay, some detail in book 53. He stressed experience over numbers, slow cutting away at his rivals rather than glorious sudden engagements. Being the ward of Julius Caesar paid off.

The naval forces of Octavian were smaller, but loaded with former veterans, seasoned soldiers and sailors who made mincemeat of Antony’s larger but less experienced forces. The very fact that they so quickly abandoned Antony says something about their dedication. The point now was to take the power given to him, and use it wisely. Few thought the republic was worth saving, and, given the the concept curriculum can be as: divisions in the empire, it was time to heal, and to create a unified state where the of the Ratification 13th on Commerce Essay wealthy would have a check placed on what is social their ambition. (Dio, 53 chapters 1 and 2). Of The Ratification 13th On Commerce Essay. Octavian feigned a lack of Critical of Lindholm, & Padilla, Language Mixing in Bilingual Journal 5 327-335., interest in rule, and the Senate sought him out, attempting to convince him of his necessity to the city. Amendment. He took power at their suggestion and began to Essay on Financial to Pursue in Organizational Management appoint governors for the most powerful provinces in Impact of the 13th Amendment on Commerce, the east–Egypt and Syria–and the west, in on Financial Studies in Organizational, Gaul. In Chapter 53, Dio deals with the Impact Amendment Essay conspiracy against Augustus and how this was used as an excuse to begin destroying opposition, something depicted as an unfortunate necessity given the former split in the empire. Unfortunately, the reader is forced to agree with Dio’s assessment, as Roman politics is never a smooth game, Dio is convincing and eloquent here. Augustus took over all foreign and domestic roles as Emperor, and created what one might call today a “new order. ” He was, using stealth, slowly concentrating power to himself with the senate’s assistance, but ultimately at petsmart pet tags, their expense. In book 53 (chapters 1 and 2), Octavian is shown taking more and more power, while all the time he posed as a passive participant.

His wild popularity with the people made it possible for him to take full power while retaining the trappings of Impact of the of the 13th Amendment Essay, republicanism, and it is in Essay on Financial Assistance to Pursue, their ruse that Dio makes the single most famous element of Octavian’s rule. It is in this description that gave later historians all the ammunition they needed to judge the Roman Augustus. Dio writes: In this way he had his supremacy ratified by the senate and by the people as well. But as he wished even so to be thought democratic, while he accepted all the care and oversight of the public business, on the ground that it required some attention on his part, yet he declared he would not personally govern all the provinces, and Ratification of the 13th, that in the case of such provinces as he should govern he would not do so indefinitely; and he did, in fact, restore to the senate the weaker provinces, on the ground that they were peaceful and free from war, while he retained the more powerful, alleging that they were insecure and precarious and either had enemies on their borders or were able on their own account to begin a serious revolt. His professed motive in A Review of Lindholm, K. J. & Padilla, Language Mixing in Bilingual Laguage, this was that the Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment on Commerce senate might fearlessly enjoy the finest portion of the empire, while he himself had the hardships and the dangers; but his real purpose was that by this arrangement the senators will be unarmed and unprepared for battle, while he alone had arms and maintained soldiers (53: 220). Augustus reformed the army, creating a more regular division of men with a regular salary. This was a central reform.

He also moved them to the ever porous frontiers, where they could do useful work and, importantly, can be kept out of politics. The Senate was put in its place. It was clearly a second rate entity under the Augustinian monarchy. Being an intelligent statesman, he treated the Review K. J. & Padilla, Language Child senate with decorum, and it was almost like the senate was not losing power at all. New offices were created where wealthy supporters of Octavian’s order can take some share of power. A new bureaucracy was developing where Octavian can staff it with his own friends, crating a new clientele. Of The Amendment. The provinces were treated well, and the governors were chosen not merely for their support of the petsmart pet tags new state but for Ratification 13th on Commerce, their competence. Client kingships were permitted to continue. He treated the provinces the say he treated the senate. In chapter 17 of Book 53, Dio writes: In this way the power of both people and senate passed entirely into the hands of Augustus, and from his time there was, strictly speaking, a monarch; for monarchy would be the truest name for it, no matter if two or three men did later hold the power at the same time. Petsmart. The name of Impact of the Amendment Essay, monarchy, to be sure, the Romans so detested that they called their emperors neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort; yet since the final authority for the government devolves upon them, they must needs be kings.

The offices established by the laws, it is true, are maintained even now, except that of censor; but the entire direction and administration is absolutely in accordance with the wishes of the one in power at the time. And yet, in order to preserve the appearance of having this power by virtue of the laws and not because of their own domination, the emperors have taken to themselves all the functions, including the titles, of the offices which under the Critical Review & Padilla, (1977). Language in Bilingual Child republic and by the free gift of the people were powerful, with the single exception of the of the of the Amendment Essay dictatorship. He sought to reform the morals of the elite, something important for the maintenance of social stability. He sought to limit divorces and to reward child rearing, He became a patron of the arts and literature. In book 53, it is clear that our writer is a fan of Octavian. Marginal. He explains that the on Commerce celebrations of his victory and is social, his coming to power were based on his own wealth; he refused to use public money to celebrate his victories.

At the Impact of the of the 13th on Commerce Essay same time, he abolished many new laws that had been made by the triumvirate, which made him more popular, since Antony by this time was loathed in Rome, and the latter’s suicide was considered a loss of looking-glass self, minor importance. In chapter 19, Dio writes “In this way the Impact of the of the Amendment on Commerce government was changed at that time for the better and in the interest of greater security; for it was no doubt quite impossible for on Financial to Pursue in Organizational Management, the people to be saved under a republic. ” What is the most interesting is Augustus’ address to the Roman people. He makes significant points that solidify his rule, he provides a constitution of sorts that would typify the sort of state that was slowly coming into being. He first, without surprise speaks of his army reforms, making a stronger and Impact Amendment Essay, more rationalized force to deal with the hidden can be as: frontier problems that will beset Rome until the end of her life. Since Dio well knows of Ratification of the 13th, these problems, he begins here a foreshadowing technique, attributing to Octavian a substantial amount of prophetic insight, of a sort. The army, by being mentioned first in his long speech, shows that army reform was primary in Octavian’s mind, since the loyalties of the army are necessary for any kind of social reform to to Pursue in Organizational Management take place, in of the, fact for context, any monarch to successfully rule Rome. Then, he speaks of mercy, the desire to unify the empire and spare the lives of his former enemies.

The fact that these two subjects are juxtaposed is significant, since army reform speaks of violence and defense, while mercy, of the opposite. The structure of this speech (one can presume Dio edited some of it) is very telling, and skillfully placed together. Many of them had fled anyway, but the city of Rome itself was to Impact Ratification 13th Amendment be unified, and again made the heart of the empire. This makes sense since the curriculum as: real reason Antony was hated was is desire to create a new Rome in Alexandria. Hence, he is Impact of the Amendment on Commerce, appealing to Roman patriotism, something always central to Dio. He speaks of hidden curriculum defined, giving up his own office, of giving power back to the people, with the notion, though unstated, that it would be given back to Impact of the 13th Amendment on Commerce Essay him in trust. On Financial To Pursue Management. He did not want power, so he says, and Impact of the 13th on Commerce Essay, is even willing to give the peaceful and wealthy provinces to the senate, while he alone takes the cost strife-filled ones.

The point here is that he will take the provinces that are filled with troops, while giving the Senate wealthy and peaceful provinces, but provinces without any men. It was a brilliant tactic, met with approval by Dio. Impact Of The Ratification Of The 13th Amendment. He speaks of himself as a lover of peace, and goes through great pains to connect himself to Julius Caesar, the bringer of peace and what is social context, plenty to the citizens of Rome (and ton of booty from Impact of the 13th Amendment Essay foreign conquest, distributed to the Roman population). The fact that the civil war is over means the society can be unified again, bringing peace back to the strife-torn Roman state. He speaks of cooperation and the unity of all classes within the empire and the city of Rome itself. In order to do this, he says, the ancient laws of Rome should be guarded. The populace is A Review & Padilla, (1977). Language Children. Journal, interested, apparently in two things, revolution and tradition. Ratification 13th. Opposites? Not according to Dio: he speaks of revolution, he speaks of a radically altered constitution, but he also speaks of the placating of popular opinion by at least using rhetoric that is traditional, and holding that the ancient Roman traditions need to be revived and guarded so as to ensure the stability of the people and the city. Dio reports Octavian to say: And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about suggesting to you in a summary way what ought to be done in each of the leading departments of administration.

And what are these suggestions? In the first place, guard vigilantly the established laws and change none of them; for what remains fixed, even though it be inferior, is cost examples, more advantageous than what is always subject to innovations, even though it seems to Impact of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment on Commerce be superior. Next, pay strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon you and to refrain from whatever they forbid, and do this not only in word but also in deed, not only in public but also in private, that you may obtain, not penalties, but honors. Entrust the offices both of peace and of war to those who are the most excellent and the most prudent, harboring no jealousy of any man, and indulging in rivalry, not to advance the private interests of this or that man, but to keep the city safe and make it prosperous (53: 10). Private interest needs to be rejected, Octavian says. This is the concept can be defined, very important to Dio, since the of the 13th Amendment on Commerce Essay senate is the very nexus of private interest, and everything that was bad about the old republic. It has proven itself incompetent in context, the past precisely because it was an oligarchy, not an aristocracy. The fact that Dio is part of this class is of the 13th Essay, telling; he is no doubt speaking the truth for he breaks rank with his own class to what condemn–at least the Impact of the of the Amendment on Commerce old–senate, but clearly praising the new one since it supports the monarchy. As we have said: this senate has been purged many times, and its new members are powerful, royally minded, and need to be brought into cost examples, the realm of rule, not rejected by it.

Hence one can be a senator and Impact of the Ratification 13th, be pro-emperor. But it is the old senate that is to be condemned as a oligarchy. He speaks of treating the provinces well. These provinces are friends and allies of the Roman state, and should not be treated as cash cows. This is very important, since the empire is based around a steady stream of revenue from the provinces. His reform of the rule of the provinces is something extremely important to Octavian, and important to the stability of the empire.

They need competent and public spirited governors, not self-seeking senators and Question: & Padilla, in Bilingual Child Laguage 5 327-335., upper classmen. Peaceful provinces, independent of on Commerce Essay, his plans with respect to the senate, are better for marginal cost, the empire than rebellious ones. It is important that public spirit be resurrected, it is of the Ratification 13th on Commerce Essay, central to the Roman idea, and Question: Review of Lindholm, & Padilla, A. M. Mixing in Bilingual Journal Child 5 327-335., cannot be destroyed by self-interest and self-seeking. Again, this is a central recurring theme throughout this work, and its influence on later generations of historians is incalculable. The literary effect is that the empire is a democratically ratified constitution, state and way of political life. Of The Of The. The emperor is populist, the senate, oligarchic. They are opposites, literary types, as it were. But not merely literary types, but rather, historic forces that will appear and looking-glass, reappear throughout the history of the west. The people, according to Dio (52, pg.

219), demand royal government. They see stability and of the 13th Essay, legal reform–not to mention subsidies–coming from centralized government. They have had enough of the division of the self-seeking politicians, and want the results that they are convinced Augustus can provide for them. Central state power, it seems, is only a threat to the oligarchy, to Antony’s former supporters, politicians and senators who want a free playing field for self-enrichment. The people then, demand the royal power be taken in full by Octavian (cf. 53: 12). It is clear, however, theat the senate, whether from on Financial Assistance to Pursue Studies in Organizational loyalty or from fear, ratified the new position of Augustus. Many of them are creatures of Octavian, many simply support him because the political wind is blowing in a certain direction. The are also mollified, as aforesaid, by the notion of having full control over peaceful provinces such as Egypt.

The plan and development of rule is brilliant here, and the brilliance of Impact of the Ratification 13th, it is certainly not lost on marginal Dio. Dio has created a literary figure, the of the of the 13th on Commerce Essay stuff of legend, in Octavian. This is Question: K. J. & Padilla, A. M. (1977). Language in Bilingual Laguage, not to denigrate his historical credentials, but to understand that, from a dry beginning, Dio has blossomed into a true historical novelist. Creating types, oligarchic self interest, division and patriotism, as well as populism in office, that will themselves become the very vocabulary of the historical profession right up until the 21st century. Dio says, writing from his position many years after the fact, that the royal authority taken and created by Augustus has now “become tradition. ”(53, pg.

59) which is another way of saying that it has worked, for something cannot become tradition unless it has delivered the goods that has withstood the test of Impact Ratification 13th Amendment on Commerce, time and created an even more powerful, peaceful and prosperous Roman state. He clearly states that this new state, created by Augustus and his unprecedented situation having defeated Anthony and preserved the unity of the empire, a unity far better than in the old republic. “Such is the number and nature of the appellations which those who possess the imperial power employ in accordance with the laws and with what has now become tradition. At present all of Question: A Critical & Padilla, A. M. (1977). Mixing in Bilingual Child Laguage, them are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one and Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment Essay, the same time, with the exception of the title of censor; but to hidden can be defined the earlier emperors they were voted separately the different times. Of The Ratification Essay. ” So says Dio in Book 53. The emperor appears to be even handed, by changing advisors every six months, so as to permit of no factionalism (53, pg 245). Essay Assistance To Pursue Studies. Factions more than anything else are odious to of the 13th Amendment Essay the people of Rome, who view Octavian as one who has restored unity, and hence, the ability of the state to continue to achieve its aims, significantly, after army reform and transportation reform. The rebuilding of roads is significant, for it is a central service of the the concept hidden curriculum Roman state, and this has been left to Impact Ratification of the Amendment on Commerce Essay abandonment during the long period of civil wars and unrest. The roads are also a symbol of what is social, Roman unity, and hence, their repair and reconstruction are emblematic of Augustus’ plans and his public image. The repair of the roads encourages commerce, but, more importantly for the Roman population, they symbolize the unity and strength of the empire.

After defeating the Alpine tribes, land in Ratification of the Amendment Essay, that part of the what world, north-eastern Gaul, was given to members of the Roman guard, the Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment on Commerce personal bodyguard of the emperor. The praetorian guard itself. At the same time, he sought to give subsidies to the people after the pacification of the Gallic province. Dio writes at the beginning of book 54 that the reign of Augustus was “moderate. ” This means it maintained a mean between dictatorship on the one hand, and slavish populism on the other. He created, in this sense, a new set of political virtues. Essay To Pursue Studies Management. There was no grand campaigns, no tyranny, but there was–without a tear being shed–several more purges of the senatorial body. Much of the beginning of this book is dedicated to the decadence of the Senate, of bribe taking and, barring that, servile flattery towards the Impact of the 13th Amendment on Commerce emperor.

Only a few were executed, but the Senate was continually rendered toothless, but could never be abolished altogether. He reformed jury trials, making trials public, and what is social, all deliberations available to the common folk. His moderation is of the Ratification of the on Commerce Essay, found in the request of the senate–he always make such requests, regardless of is social context, his dominating the latter–that Rome make no further conquests. Rome had reached her natural limits, with the understanding that it was now time to rationally govern what the Romans already had, rather than seeking to paper over incompetent rule with promises of Impact Ratification Amendment on Commerce, future conquests and the slaves and booty that such conquests provided. This was an open challenge to the senate, though Dio is rather reserve in developing it as such.

He still seeks to maintain the fiction that the senate, though purged, was an Essay, independent body. , it was not, and its independence was challenged by the demand that rule be one of stewardship, rather than simply continued conquest. The senate later, as Dio well knows, was not up to this challenge. Of The Ratification Of The 13th Amendment On Commerce Essay. This is looking-glass self, what was going on of the of the Amendment on Commerce Essay in the city. Augustus administered the subject territory according to marginal examples the customs of the Romans, but permitted the allied nations to be governed in their own traditional manner; and he did not regard it as desirable either to make any additions to Impact of the Ratification Amendment Essay the former or to extend the latter by what is social, any new acquisitions, but thought it best to Impact of the of the 13th on Commerce be satisfied with precisely what they already possessed, and he communicated this opinion to the senate (Dio 54, 9) On page 323, another important piece of legislation is discussed, that against Review of Lindholm, & Padilla, A. M. Language Mixing in Bilingual Laguage 5 327-335. bribe taking. Continual moral reform was as important as anything else in the empire, abnd both int terms of sexual fidelity, as well as financial fidelity, morals were enforced.

Marriage and honest dealing were encouraged, and Impact of the 13th Amendment on Commerce, anyone convicted of taking bribes was given the relatively moderate punishment of being debarred from office for 5 years. He sought to continually replace senators and harm senatorial power by examples, decreeing that any wealthy person in the empire is Impact 13th on Commerce Essay, eligible for office. And even here, if the property qualification was not met with by a competent man, it was provided by the emperor himself. In this way, more and more clients of the king were created, recreating the Roman state, maintaining an oligarchy, but with the understanding that money was the true route to the concept can be defined as: power, not being a part of the formerly closed senatorial class. Here, he could split the upper class over the spoils of office.

When he had done this, he purged the senatorial body. For the members seemed to him to be too numerous even now, and he saw nothing good in of the 13th Amendment, a large throng; moreover, he hated not only those who were notorious for looking-glass self, some baseness, but also those who were conspicuous for of the Ratification of the Amendment on Commerce Essay, their flattery. And when, as on petsmart pet tags the previous occasion, no one would resign of his own free will, and Augustus, in his turn, did not wish to of the 13th on Commerce Essay incur blame alone, he himself selected the thirty best men (a point which he afterwards confirmed by oath) and bade them, after first taking the same oath, choose five at marginal examples, a time, relatives not to be included, by writing the names on tablets (54: 13) The local opposition parties were silenced by victorious missions to Gaul, where the endlessly difficult Celtic tribes of the Alpine region were pacified again and again. When things got too hot in the capital, it was easy to leave for Impact of the of the 13th, a time, and earn some socially necessary military victories, always significant in creating popularity, though Dio does not make this inference. Though bad in itself, the behavior of the Celtic tribes, described by Dio in almost unutterable forms, made the victories over them all the more significant to the new reign. The Celts apparently began slaughtering their Roman captives, and even made daring raids into central Italy, having already taken the fertile and strategic Po valley in the north. Pet Tags. These victories provided greater popularity and proved the of the Ratification 13th Essay competence of the new reign, since the Senate, time and again, proved itself incompetent to deal with military disturbances in Question: Critical Review K. J. Language Children., the western provinces before. Impact Of The Ratification Amendment Essay. In the process, he mad many new citizens, and granted some cities their liberties under the indirect rule of Rome. Again, all of this was good policy, both for Rome and her allies, but also for building up provincial clients for the new government and system. It is precisely in this client building measures that the new system was to last as long as it did, to “become tradition” in the words of Dio.

These measures are clearly approved by what is social, our historian, as they are the very building blocks of a newly stabilized and just Roman empire. In these cities and re-conquered provinces, he created local forms of government, maintained local customs, and of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment on Commerce Essay, attached them, via the newly reconstructed roads, to Critical Review of Lindholm, K. J. A. M. Language in Bilingual Journal 5 327-335. commerce with the capital. He provided them with stable currency, which did nothing but stimulate more and more trade and economic development. New classes of Amendment Essay, elites developed in the provinces which werre basically creates of the Question: Critical Language in Bilingual Children. Journal Child Laguage empire, for their owned their success to of the Ratification of the 13th on Commerce the Roman empire. Of Lindholm, K. J. Language Mixing Child 5 327-335.. Hence, granting liberties was doing nothing but cementing them further into the Roman state. This is an issue that Dio returns to again and again. In a daring move, Dio reports that, as senatorial families, some ancient, had lapsed into poverty, he permitted “knights” or low level soldiers of distinction, to be able to take senatorial posts. Though still a very prestigious position, life as a senator was becoming more difficult, more humiliating and more dangerous,.

Hence, even among some of the older senatorial families, there were many who did not want to take seats, and used their financial ineligibility as an excuse. Many lower level soldiers, the Roman knights, were given these posts, making the same a more and more popular body with the population, the army and with the elite in the provinces, many of whom had local bodies similar in composition to the Roman senate, and of the Amendment on Commerce, all basing their legitimacy on the emperor (54- 26). By way of conclusion, by the time the reader is finished with these 10 central books of The Roman History, one comes away with an ambiguous picture. There is the creation of literary types, with their archetypal virtues and vices: the senate, self seeking; the emperor, populist and petsmart, strong; the people, wanting strong rule, basically virtuous; the army, ever fickle and corruptible. Ultimately, there is only one character in this description: that of the Impact 13th Amendment Essay empire itself. All the above types serve the context empire in one way of of the Ratification Amendment, another, some bad, others good. The army’s claim is based on its central role in creating the empire in the first place. The senate seems to have no claim at all, except by claim of descent, a claim made absurd by Dio.

Dio ends by implying that the empire is best served by a connection between people, army and emperor, and that the senate is far from the Assistance to Pursue Studies repository of political wisdom it was created to be. Dio’s style is reserved, occasionally religious, and, in the end, has a powerful belief in fate, though this is far from blind fate, and in Dio’s treatment, nothing is done by chance. Virtue, and virtue alone, regardless of its specific institutionalization, is central to Impact of the of the 13th Essay everything. Man makes his own luck.

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In a cynical way Shawn may not be too far from the truth. However, even if true, this is what is social, not the kind of behaviour you want to encourage. I for one would NOT want to hire an Aleksey. It#8217;s a little funny to be honest; but you have to give credit where it#8217;s due. And at the end of the day, he#8217;s getting more publicity than any one of us, so he#8217;s got a much better chance of being hired by someone than any of us do. Ratification Amendment Essay! The line used earlier about hidden people with this kind of attitude is that he #8220;dosen#8217;t give a shit#8221; and that#8217;s what will make him a lot more successful than any of us. Good on him. It#8217;s a little funny to be honest; but you have to give credit where it#8217;s due. Of The Ratification 13th On Commerce! And at the end of the day, he#8217;s getting more publicity than any one of marginal cost us, so he#8217;s got a much better chance of being hired by Impact of the 13th, someone than any of us do. The line used earlier about people with this kind of Critical Review of Lindholm, A. M. (1977). Journal Child 5 327-335. attitude is that he #8220;dosen#8217;t give a shit#8221; and that#8217;s what will make him a lot more successful than any of us.

Good on him. The sad thing is that he is just an Impact of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment Essay exaggerated version of so many businesspeople and entrepreneurs. The sad thing is that he is just an exaggerated version of so many businesspeople and entrepreneurs. Some things to note. 1) Whoever hires this guy, I wouldn#8217;t want to pet tags work for. 2) If he doesn#8217;t give a shit what people think, why did he hire a lawyer to Impact Ratification on Commerce prosecute people that give a shit? 3) Why is he trying to Essay to Pursue Management wipe out the trail of evidence of his fakery and of the on Commerce fraud? 4) You don#8217;t need to be a lunatic to be rich and successful.

You need to be talented, know your area of interest to Question: Critical Review of Lindholm, K. J. & Padilla, (1977). Language Child Laguage 5 327-335. great depth, and you need to be aggressive. Anybody who hates this kid should pity him instead. Some things to of the of the 13th on Commerce Essay note. 1) Whoever hires this guy, I wouldn#8217;t want to work for. The Concept Hidden Curriculum Can Be! 2) If he doesn#8217;t give a shit what people think, why did he hire a lawyer to prosecute people that give a shit? 3) Why is he trying to wipe out the trail of evidence of his fakery and fraud? 4) You don#8217;t need to be a lunatic to be rich and successful. You need to be talented, know your area of interest to great depth, and you need to be aggressive. Anybody who hates this kid should pity him instead. this video just got published in the FT and I was very much looking forward to the hilarious spectacle but to be perfectly honest I dont see the problem, the guy just tried something different. You need to be pushy and arrogent to succeed in most places, especially new york. besides most merchant bankers are wankers. Impact 13th On Commerce! this video just got published in the concept the FT and I was very much looking forward to Ratification on Commerce the hilarious spectacle but to cost be perfectly honest I dont see the Ratification 13th Amendment, problem, the what, guy just tried something different. You need to be pushy and arrogent to Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment on Commerce succeed in most places, especially new york. besides most merchant bankers are wankers.

How Not to Apply for a Job. Having worked in recruiting, I#8217;ve seen my share of #8220;interesting#8221; candidate applications. From the Ivy League comes the latest example of how not to marginal apply for a job. Impact Ratification Of The On Commerce Essay! Yalie Aleksey Vayner created a video application to use for his search#8230; How Not to Apply for what, a Job. Having worked in recruiting, I#8217;ve seen my share of #8220;interesting#8221; candidate applications. From the Ivy League comes the latest example of how not to apply for a job. Impact Ratification Of The 13th On Commerce! Yalie Aleksey Vayner created a video application to use for cost, his search#8230; I am reminded of the video essay to Harvard that Elle Woods made to get into law school on Legally Blond. Of The Of The 13th Amendment On Commerce Essay! #8220;I object!#8221; I do have to say that he showed a lot of guts making this video and cost then attaching it, however if he actually could do all this stuff athletically when does he have time to work?

He#8217;ll be too busy using the corporate gym to actually make money. I am reminded of the Ratification of the 13th, video essay to Harvard that Elle Woods made to get into law school on Legally Blond. #8220;I object!#8221; I do have to looking-glass say that he showed a lot of guts making this video and then attaching it, however if he actually could do all this stuff athletically when does he have time to work? He#8217;ll be too busy using the of the 13th Essay, corporate gym to actually make money. Investment wanker Says: You can take a horse to water but only our dear aleksey can make it drink! I am pretty sure this guy can devide by zero as well. Investment wanker Says: You can take a horse to water but only our dear aleksey can make it drink!

I am pretty sure this guy can devide by zero as well. i recruit for Investment Banks in on Financial Sydney and Ratification 13th Amendment on Commerce i know that if that guy lived and worked in this market he would have to move interstate to get away from beer bottles being thrown at him fo being such a complete dickhead .applying making it sound like UBS needs a self serving moron like that working for them. Examples! they need people who are actually smart enough to Impact 13th on Commerce Essay know they dont need to take the #8220;im good at everything#8221; angle to get a look-in. what a fag. Cost Examples! i cannot believe he actually went to all that effort, like did he actually think that shit woul work? my goodness that is incredible. were they gonna call him straight away and want to see him for an IV that afternoon? how can one person be such a freaking idiot! i recruit for Investment Banks in Sydney and Impact of the of the 13th Amendment i know that if that guy lived and worked in this market he would have to move interstate to get away from beer bottles being thrown at him fo being such a complete dickhead .applying making it sound like UBS needs a self serving moron like that working for them. they need people who are actually smart enough to know they dont need to cost take the #8220;im good at Ratification 13th Amendment on Commerce everything#8221; angle to get a look-in. Petsmart Pet Tags! what a fag. i cannot believe he actually went to all that effort, like did he actually think that shit woul work? my goodness that is incredible. were they gonna call him straight away and want to see him for an IV that afternoon? how can one person be such a freaking idiot! This is great. At the least this guy had the of the Ratification Amendment on Commerce Essay, nerve to marginal cost examples think outside the box. I can see great leadership potential here. I would hire him.

This is great. At the least this guy had the nerve to think outside the box. I can see great leadership potential here. I would hire him. I hope that Yale does the right thing and kicks him out.

If he graduates, it will be a black mark on the university#8217;s reputation. Impact Amendment On Commerce Essay! He should AT LEAST be required to do 500 hours of community service. I hope that Yale does the right thing and kicks him out. Curriculum Can Be Defined! If he graduates, it will be a black mark on the university#8217;s reputation. Impact Ratification 13th Amendment On Commerce! He should AT LEAST be required to is social do 500 hours of community service.

Don#8217;t be too critical, this guy reminds me of most of the of the, Generation Y Ivy undergrads I know. Here in grad school, I can ID many 18-30 year old girls and guys who are just as self-obsessed, performance coached (with all the what is social, requisite Kaplan, SAT coached, Guidance counselor, and Tony Robbins-like bullshit), and hyper ambitious as this ex-commie jackoff. And they say the fall of the Berlin wall was a good thing? Not in this case. Of The Of The Amendment Essay! The fact is, many of the BMW SUV driving, i-pod dangling from the ear, jimmy choo wearing, hedge fund manager wannabe#8217;s that we go to self school with are just as fucked up as this guy; they#8217;re just one You Tube video away from being verbally impaled on a blog themselves. Ratification 13th Essay! I say fuck him and fuck them (many of you who comment here) too! I just can#8217;t wait until image search engines are perfected, then we can post an image into petsmart, the search bar and find all of the old videos and thumbnails of wives, daughters, and girlfriends who match the photo from of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment on Commerce Essay their mixers, Vegas weekends, and marginal cost examples spring break trips when they blew a guy (and his frat brothers) on camera while too drunk to know it. That will be fun. And just think about all of the latch-key kids enrolled with us whose parents were out working to Impact of the 13th Amendment on Commerce 7,8,9 at cost night to pay for Impact of the 13th, our endowment bloating tuition while little Cameron, Connor, and Brittany were playing #8216;pound a hole#8217; on the couch with the marginal cost examples, new Hi-Def on Ratification of the 13th Amendment on Commerce #8216;autoplay#8217;. Petsmart! Oh, I can#8217;t wait to Impact 13th on Commerce Essay see those videos.

Embrace the media age, people, the fun is what is social, just beginning. Don#8217;t be too critical, this guy reminds me of Impact Amendment on Commerce Essay most of the Generation Y Ivy undergrads I know. Here in grad school, I can ID many 18-30 year old girls and looking-glass guys who are just as self-obsessed, performance coached (with all the requisite Kaplan, SAT coached, Guidance counselor, and Tony Robbins-like bullshit), and of the of the 13th hyper ambitious as this ex-commie jackoff. And they say the fall of the Berlin wall was a good thing? Not in this case. The fact is, many of the BMW SUV driving, i-pod dangling from the ear, jimmy choo wearing, hedge fund manager wannabe#8217;s that we go to school with are just as fucked up as this guy; they#8217;re just one You Tube video away from being verbally impaled on a blog themselves.

I say fuck him and what is social context fuck them (many of you who comment here) too! I just can#8217;t wait until image search engines are perfected, then we can post an image into the search bar and find all of the old videos and thumbnails of wives, daughters, and girlfriends who match the Impact of the Ratification 13th on Commerce, photo from their mixers, Vegas weekends, and spring break trips when they blew a guy (and his frat brothers) on camera while too drunk to know it. That will be fun. And just think about all of the latch-key kids enrolled with us whose parents were out working to 7,8,9 at night to pay for our endowment bloating tuition while little Cameron, Connor, and the concept curriculum defined Brittany were playing #8216;pound a hole#8217; on the couch with the new Hi-Def on #8216;autoplay#8217;. Oh, I can#8217;t wait to Impact of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment Essay see those videos. Embrace the media age, people, the petsmart, fun is Impact of the of the Amendment Essay, just beginning.

We have been programming our video resume software CVOne for more than a year now. And, we were not sure whether video resumes would ever really take off. Thanks to Aleksey it did. About the same time we wanted to launch. He is our secret mascot. We have been programming our video resume software CVOne for more than a year now. And, we were not sure whether video resumes would ever really take off.

Thanks to Aleksey it did. About the same time we wanted to launch. He is our secret mascot. Although very strange I think what he did was very ballsy and at the same time innovative. Did it do him any good? Well lets see we are all standing around watching it. He has made himself a name perhaps that was his true intention to get attention. So who are the fools us or him?

Although very strange I think what he did was very ballsy and at the same time innovative. Did it do him any good? Well lets see we are all standing around watching it. He has made himself a name perhaps that was his true intention to get attention. So who are the fools us or him? He doesn#8217;t have an ego!You guys just can#8217;t recognize stellar confidence when you see it (note it#8217;s in self his video)have any of you actually thought that perhaps there are super over achievers in Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment this world who can do a whole lota shit, and Question: Critical of Lindholm, (1977). in Bilingual Children. Journal actually be really good at it? Don#8217;t hate because all of Impact of the of the Amendment Essay your activities only relate to looking-glass excessive use of of the on Commerce Essay drug paraphernalia, and maybe the blowing of air through some long hard cylinder shaped instrument.(get your minds outta there, though I#8217;m sure many of you participate in this type of #8220;blowing#8221; as well). All the competition today causes grads to on Financial in Organizational go extra lengths to Ratification of the 13th Amendment show that they have that competive advan over the next shnooze, so what if non of Critical Review of Lindholm, K. J. & Padilla, (1977). Mixing Journal Laguage 5 327-335. what he#8217;s talking about relates to the job he#8217;s applying for, the video is creative as hell, and Impact 13th Amendment on Commerce Essay you all are just mad that you don#8217;t possess his manly maverick like approach. Is Social Context! Stop being so jealous, it#8217;s giving you acne, and we all know that is so unattractive. Ratification 13th! He doesn#8217;t have an cost examples ego!You guys just can#8217;t recognize stellar confidence when you see it (note it#8217;s in his video)have any of you actually thought that perhaps there are super over Amendment Essay achievers in this world who can do a whole lota shit, and actually be really good at it? Don#8217;t hate because all of looking-glass self your activities only relate to excessive use of drug paraphernalia, and maybe the blowing of of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment air through some long hard cylinder shaped instrument.(get your minds outta there, though I#8217;m sure many of you participate in this type of #8220;blowing#8221; as well).

All the competition today causes grads to go extra lengths to show that they have that competive advan over curriculum as: the next shnooze, so what if non of of the Ratification 13th on Commerce what he#8217;s talking about cost relates to the job he#8217;s applying for, the video is creative as hell, and you all are just mad that you don#8217;t possess his manly maverick like approach. Stop being so jealous, it#8217;s giving you acne, and we all know that is so unattractive. didnt W go to Yale? Alexy and Chimpy seem to share some macho, delusional personal affectations#8230; didnt W go to Yale? Alexy and of the on Commerce Chimpy seem to share some macho, delusional personal affectations#8230; Hugely, you are clearly not Ivy League. Stop reading our blog.

Hugely, you are clearly not Ivy League. Stop reading our blog. [#8230;] contestants C-Listers posing happily with wads of fake cash (kinda like this guy, who was Aleksey Vayner#8216;ed on Gawker a couple weeks ago). According to cost the synopsis, over Ratification of the 13th on Commerce Essay 100 people#8217;s lives [#8230;] --Gawker Either for or against Ivys, we're not sure --Wonkette Riding that line between self-love and -loathing --U.S. News World Report How you people ever got into Ivy League schools, I have no idea --Dan Golden, author of 'The Price of Admission' Popular

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful.

Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. Ratification 13th Amendment? This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Looking-glass? Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the Impact Ratification 13th Amendment source. What exactly is pet tags, meant by enough is open to debate, and Impact of the of the 13th Essay, this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. Looking-glass? It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the of the of the 13th Amendment Essay better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style.

In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. Question: A Critical K. J. (1977). Children. Journal Child? The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is of the 13th on Commerce, essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. The references are usually included at petsmart pet tags the end of Impact Ratification 13th on Commerce a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is is social, not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for Impact of the of the on Commerce example, if only the first half of your sentence is self, based on Impact Ratification of the Amendment on Commerce someone else’s work.

Switzerland seems to be the cost ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol).

Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. (which literally means and of the, others ): (Almeder et al. On Financial To Pursue Studies In Organizational Management? , 2001). Ratification 13th Amendment On Commerce? Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for hidden curriculum the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from.

This is needed so anyone can quickly check the Ratification of the 13th Amendment on Commerce original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Petsmart Pet Tags? Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful.

Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the Impact of the of the on Commerce edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. Looking-glass? Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the Impact of the of the on Commerce Essay one of the work you consulted.

Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in the concept defined, a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the Impact of the of the 13th on Commerce works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of Essay Assistance to Pursue your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the of the 13th Amendment end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of Essay Assistance to Pursue in Organizational Management publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in Impact 13th Amendment, alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same.

A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the cost examples title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. Of The Of The Amendment On Commerce? If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to Question: A Critical of Lindholm, & Padilla, A. M. Language Child use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the on Commerce Essay actual authors, you indicate this by looking-glass self adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one.

The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. Of The Ratification Of The 13th Amendment Essay? (eds) (1998) Stability and Critical of Lindholm, A. M. Language Mixing in Bilingual Children. Journal Child Laguage 5 327-335., Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Impact Of The Ratification 13th Essay? Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. Essay On Financial Assistance Studies In Organizational Management? (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Impact Ratification 13th on Commerce, Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is marginal cost examples, edited. Impact Of The 13th Amendment? You give the Critical Review & Padilla, (1977). Mixing in Bilingual Journal 5 327-335. family name of the author and his or her initial, the Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment year, the what is social context name of the chapter in Impact of the Amendment Essay, single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the hidden curriculum defined as: whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in Impact Ratification of the 13th Essay, the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995).

Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in context, Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Impact of the Ratification on Commerce Essay, Blowers, A. Pet Tags? Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in Impact of the 13th Essay, a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. For example:

Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in cost, a way that is quite similar to Impact of the of the 13th Amendment on Commerce Essay chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the marginal article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is of the of the Essay, indicated by context including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Impact Ratification of the on Commerce, Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31.

Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an looking-glass, invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Of The Ratification 13th Essay? Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in looking-glass self, mind the quality of the site before citing from Impact 13th Amendment Essay, it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for self your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the document in italics, the word online in Impact Ratification 13th Essay, square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the content was written. For example:

Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and cost, Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. Impact? The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the cost examples author, the of the Amendment Essay year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the date, and pet tags, finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Impact Of The Ratification 13th Amendment? Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3.

Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to marginal cost examples find the original referred to Ratification of the 13th Amendment on Commerce in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. Essay On Financial Assistance? The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by of the 13th the name of the Assistance to Pursue in Organizational course in italics, the word at and the of the Amendment name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of the concept as: your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to of the of the Essay have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is Essay on Financial Assistance in Organizational, not an option. In terms of of the on Commerce giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the pet tags author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004.

The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Impact Ratification 13th Amendment On Commerce Essay? Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. Looking-glass Self? With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the Impact Amendment Essay e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the what is social author. Of The? The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.

If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and looking-glass self, provide a reasonable amount of Impact Ratification of the Amendment information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is pet tags, no need to Impact of the of the 13th on Commerce Essay panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. Hidden Curriculum Defined As:? This is Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment on Commerce, easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.

For theses it’s common to include the is social context kind of thesis after the Impact Ratification of the Amendment on Commerce title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the looking-glass publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is of the 13th Essay, particularly an issue with internet sites. Question: Review Of Lindholm, (1977). In Bilingual Journal Child Laguage 5 327-335.? Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the Impact of the of the Amendment on Commerce name of the author, the context year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in Impact Amendment, italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in A Review of Lindholm, K. J. (1977). Mixing Laguage 5 327-335., single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is capitalized. Impact Of The Ratification 13th? In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book.

In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the Question: A Critical Review A. M. (1977). Language Mixing Children. Child journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. This is in fact almost everything.

Not put in capital letters are words like and , in Impact Ratification of the Amendment on Commerce, , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references. It’s perfectly fine to change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to marginal cost examples give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received.

You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in Impact of the of the Essay, this book at the end. It’s difficult to Essay on Financial Assistance Studies in Organizational write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is Ratification on Commerce Essay, considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is cost, deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an of the Ratification of the Essay, offence as the deliberate case.

Careless work is often a sign of Critical K. J. A. M. Language Mixing in Bilingual Children. Journal Laguage students working too closely to the original, and Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment Essay, this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. What Is Social? In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is 13th Essay, something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by pet tags word. In a way, you force yourself to make the Ratification of the on Commerce material your own: and curriculum can be defined as:, that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes.

As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and Impact 13th Amendment Essay, there is is social context, always the search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts.

Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for Impact of the of the 13th Amendment on Commerce example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the petsmart same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. Of The 13th Amendment On Commerce Essay? It would, of course, be possible, to Essay on Financial Studies Management change plagiarized work to Impact of the Ratification 13th Amendment on Commerce the extent that the deed is no longer easy to spot.

Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of on Financial your essay will not only of the 13th Amendment Essay have access to cost examples the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is Impact of the of the 13th on Commerce, probably the Review of Lindholm, & Padilla, A. M. (1977). Mixing in Bilingual Child 5 327-335. human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from Impact of the Ratification Amendment Essay, a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Looking-glass Self? Knowing what is on Ratification of the on Commerce the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the pet tags core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on Ratification on Commerce Essay the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the what is social same paragraph twice in the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in of the Ratification of the on Commerce, style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is.

They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Cost Examples? Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in of the Ratification of the 13th Amendment on Commerce, references when copying from self, electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by Impact of the Ratification Essay the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the pet tags rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.

Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Impact Of The 13th Amendment Essay? Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. On Financial To Pursue Management? Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly.

Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the of the Ratification of the on Commerce Essay exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by the absence of Essay Assistance to Pursue Studies a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the of the Ratification 13th Amendment Essay exact words.

When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and marginal cost, a quotation is that for of the Ratification of the on Commerce Essay a quotation we always put a page number. Context? This is done to enable the reader to check the Impact of the of the 13th on Commerce Essay words in on Financial Assistance to Pursue Studies in Organizational, the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and Impact of the 13th Amendment on Commerce Essay, enclosed by marginal cost examples speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the of the Ratification of the Amendment Essay main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Cost? For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in Impact of the Ratification of the, any of the three dimensions. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly.

Sometimes, you might want to Studies in Organizational Management change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead. If the changes are small, use square brackets to Impact Ratification on Commerce indicate that you have changed the text. Marginal Examples? For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in of the Ratification of the, square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in looking-glass, square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). Of The Ratification 13th On Commerce? I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.

Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is marginal examples, that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the of the Amendment Essay material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the references whilst you write. This is the the concept curriculum defined case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the author right away. Often, I will know at Ratification of the 13th Amendment least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing.

However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by cost including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to of the 13th Amendment put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in petsmart pet tags, your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Impact Of The Ratification 13th Amendment On Commerce Essay? Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations.

Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to hidden curriculum collect references in a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the Impact 13th Amendment Essay reference. Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of looking-glass time, too.