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buddhist essay Buddhism arose in northern India in the 6th century BCE. The historical founder of Buddhism, Siddharta Gautama (c.560-480 BCE) was born in a village called Lumbini into a warrior tribe called the Sakyas (from where he derived the title Sakyamuni, meaning 'Sage of the Sakyas'). According to tradition Gautama's father, Suddhodana was the king of a small principality based on Integration in Canada the town of Kapilavastu. His mother, Queen Maya, died seven days after Gautama's birth. Following the death of Maya, Suddhodana married Maya's sister, Prajapati, by Dr. Hildegard and Her, whom Gautama was brought up in great luxury and sheltered from the harshness of the outside world. At sixteen the prince married Yasodhara. Of Immigrants. Yasodhara bore him a son whom he called Rahula (meaning chain or fetter), a name that indicated Gautama's sense of dissatisfaction with his life of luxury. His apparent sense of dissatisfaction turned to disillusion when he saw three things from the window of his palace, each of which represented different forms human suffering: a decrepit old man, a diseased man, and a corpse.

So traumatised was Siddharta by his new found awareness of the Dr. Hildegard Theory transience of pleasure and the universality of suffering, that he decided to embark on a life dedicated to true knowledge. Inspired by the example of a mendicant monk, Siddharta abandoned his family and life as a prince, cut off his hair and adopted the lifestyle of a wanderer. In Canada Essay. Siddharta began his spiritual quest under the guidance of was louis a hero two teachers who showed him how to reach very deep states of meditation (samadhi). This did not, however, lead to a sense of true knowledge or peace, and the practice of deep meditation was abandoned in favour of a life of extreme asceticism which he shared with five companions. But again, after five or six years, of self-mortification, Siddharta felt he had failed to achieve true insight and rejected such practices as dangerous and useless. Resolved to continue his quest, Siddharta made his way to a deer park at Isipatana, near present day Benares. Here he sat beneath a tree meditating on death and of Immigrants, rebirth.

It was here that Siddharta attained a knowledge of the way things really are; it was through this knowledge that he acquired the title 'Buddha' (meaning 'awakened one'). This awakening was achieved during a night of meditation, which passed through various stages. In the first stage he saw each of his previous existences. In the second he surveyed the death and rebirth of all living beings and grendel character, understood the law that governs the cycle of birth and death. In the Integration of Immigrants third he identified the four noble truths: the universality of well-being to suffering, the cause of suffering through selfish desire, the solution to suffering and the way to overcome suffering.

This final point is called the Noble Eightfold Path, this being eight steps consisting of wisdom (right views, right intention) ethics (right speech, right action, right livelihood), mental discipline (right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration), which ultimately lead to liberation from the source of suffering. Although initially hesitant to share his insight on the grounds that humanity might not be ready for Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay such a teaching, the character Buddha decided to communicate his discovery to those willing to listen. His first converts were the five ascetics with whom he had lived when he himself followed the lifestyle of the ascetic. To these he preached his first sermon in the Deer Park at Benares, outlining to them the Four Noble Truths. Out of this small group the community of monks (or sangha) grew to about sixty in size and Integration in Canada Essay, included Buddha's cousin, Ananda, and subjective to, his son, Rahula. Later the Buddha was persuaded by his step-mother and cousin to accept women into the sangha. The remaining forty-five years of the Buddha's life were spent journeying around the plain of the Ganges, teaching and receiving visitors. At the Integration age of 79 the Buddha fell seriously ill and died. During his life the Buddha had taught that no one was to succeed him as leader of the Sangha.

Instead, his followers were to take his teaching and rule as their sole guides. Councils and Early Schisms in the Community. Following the Buddha's death, his teachings were gathered together at the first Buddhist council, which is said to have taken place at Rajagrha shortly after the Buddha's Final Nirvana. A second council, which is said to refers, have taken place a century after the Buddha's death, took place at Vaisali. The purpose of this council was to Integration Essay, consider allegations that certain monks at Vaisali permitted ten practices that contravened the rules of conduct of the grendel Vinaya.

The Vaisali Council condemned these practices, after which the Council was closed. At some point following the Second Council the Sangha divided into two traditions: the Sthaviravadins ('Elders') and Integration Essay, the Mahasanghikas ('the great Sangha'). The difference between the two traditions seems to relate to their perception of the status of the lay person and the status of the arhant. Whereas the by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay Mahasanghikas were more open to Integration Essay, the laity practising Buddhism and tended to girls body image, believe that the lay person was capable of becoming an arhant, the Sthaviravadins believed that monastic life alone could lead to in Canada, arahantship and, therefore, nirvana. Sometime in the 3rd century B.C.E. a new group called the Eyre Essay Sarvastivadins emerged out of the Sthaviravadins. The name Sarvastivadin is believed to derive from the phrase sarva asti (everything exists). The Sarvastivadins taught that the dharmas, the most basic elements of of Immigrants Essay existence, exist in the past, present and future which are simply modes of being. Grendel. The growth of this movement led King Asoka, of the Maurya dynasty, to of Immigrants Essay, call the third Buddhist Council at Pataliputra (c. Body. 250 BCE) which decided against the teachings of the Sarvastivadins. Integration. This decision prompted some of them to emigrate to and Her Essay, north India and establish a center in Kashmir where they survived for about a thousand years.

Another group that emerged in in Canada, the 3rd century B.C.E. were the Pudgalavadins, who derive their name from the word pudgala, meaning 'person'. The Pudgalavadins claimed that for reincarnation to take place, there had to be a person who was reincarnated. This view was criticised by other Buddhist sects who said that Pudgalavadin teaching implied the reality of was louis riel a hero a self and, therefore, contradicted the basic Buddhist teaching of anatman (no self). Those Sthaviravadins who did not accept the doctrines of either the in Canada Sarvastivadins or the Pudgalavadins came to be called Vibhajyadins ('Distinctionists'). This group formed a number of branches, of which the largest and most important were the Theravadins of Ceylon.

The sacred text for the Theravadins of Ceylon and for those throughout south-east Asia is the Tripitaka ('Three Baskets'). These three baskets consist of the Vinaya Pitaka (rules for Dr. Hildegard Theory monks and nuns), the Sutta Pitaka (the discourses given by the Buddha) and the Abhidhamma Pitaka (the systematic ordering and analysis of Buddhist doctrine). Accompanying the of Immigrants in Canada Tripitaka was a large body of commentarial literature explaining in detail the meaning of particular sutras. Early Mahayana Buddhism. At about the beginning of the common era there appeared texts which did not belong to the Tripitaka of the early schools (in so far as the Tripitaka existed at this time). The movement associated with these texts came over time to call itself the Mahayana ('Great Vehicle') in contrast to non-Mahayana schools which were pejoratively named Hinayana ('Lesser Vehicle'). In India Mahayana Buddhism developed through a number of stages.

Initially it produced a number of texts that engaged with issues such as the nature of Buddhahood or the philosophy of emptiness. Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau And Her. Later identifiable schools such as Madhyamaka and Yogacara emerged. Then, between the fifth and seventh centuries Classical Mahayana Buddhism developed as an attempt to systematise the various schools and Integration of Immigrants, teachings within the Mahayana. Finally, a trend which came to be known as the Vajrayana emerged based on new texts known as Tantras, which were more magical and ritualistic than other strands of Buddhism. Buddhism was not to survive in North India much beyond the 13th and 14th centuries. In the south it remained for a few more centuries but had largely disappeared by the end of the 18th century. It was in Southeast and Northern Asia that Buddhism was to establish itself as the Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau Theory dominant tradition.

The Buddhism of south-east Asia is largely Theraravadin. When Buddhism came to Southeast Asia is unknown. Certainly, there was an established presence by the early centuries of the Integration in Canada Essay common era. Archaeological and inscriptional evidence indicates the presence of southern Buddhism in Central Burma by girls body, the fifth century C.E. At about the same time (and quite possibly earlier) the Mon people of Integration in Canada Essay Southern Burma and Northern and Central Thailand had adopted Pali Buddhism. The Buddhism of the Mon was in turn transplanted into the Khmer empire, and supplanted the already present Mahayana Buddhism and Brahmanism. From both the great expectations Mon and the Khmer Southern Buddhism was adopted by the Tai peoples, whose principalities emerged in regions now occupied by parts of modern day Thailand, Burma and Laos. Northern Buddhism came to be dominant in Central Asia (Tibet) and Essay, East Asia (China, Korea and Japan). It was through China that Buddhism was transmitted into Northern and Central Asia. Following its entry into China in the 1st century of the Common Era, it went on to develop in four stages. Up to the 4th century Buddhism gradually spread into China from Dr. Hildegard and Her Essay Central Asia as Mahayana sutras were translated into Chinese and Indian schools established themselves.

During this period Buddhism remained largely a fringe religion. The second stage came about as a result of the fall of the Han dynasty in Integration of Immigrants Essay, 220 CE, the invasion of was louis riel northern China in c. 320 CE and the flight of the royal court to the south. Of Immigrants In Canada. In the image northern foreign occupied part of the country Buddhism's status as a foreign religion ceased to be problematic; in the south Buddhism received support from the educated classes with the consequence that distinctively Chinese forms of Buddhism began to emerge. The third period is represented by the reunion of the country under the Sui and T'ang dynasties. Unification allowed for new transmissions of Buddhism into the country while also fostering the cultivation of indigenous forms of Chinese Buddhism such as T'ien T'ai, Hua-Yen, Ch'an and Ching-Tu.

The fourth stage began with the persecution of Buddhism in the 9th century. This persecution was so severe that it destroyed the T'ien T'ai and the Hua-yen schools. Later dynasties gave periodic support to various strands of Buddhism. Disaster struck, however, in the 19th century with the T'ai-p'ing rebellion of 1850-1864 which viciously persecuted all forms of Buddhism it encountered. Buddhism enjoyed a brief reprieve under the Nationalist regime, but with the ascendancy of communism in 1949 many monasteries were closed down and Buddhist clergy were forced to Integration of Immigrants in Canada, return to lay status.

Buddhism arrived in Korea from China towards the image end of the in Canada 4th century. It was not until the 6th century that Buddhism was recognised as an official religion in Korea. This official religion paved the way for grendel character Korean monks to visit China in the 6th and 7th centuries and to of Immigrants Essay, introduce into Korea various major schools of Chinese Buddhism. It was during the 35 Koryo period (935-1392) that Buddhism enjoyed its greatest period of expansion. However, with the ascendancy of the of Immigrants in Canada Essay Yi dynasty (1392-1910) Confucianism received official favour and Buddhism came over time to grendel character, be severely suppressed. Such was the of Immigrants degree of suppression that by the 19th century Son (Ch'an) Buddhism remained the only dominant school in the Sangha. Following Japanese control in the 20th century Korean Buddhism underwent a renewal, but this was at the expense of accepting the importation of Japanese styles of Buddhism. The division of the country into North and South had a major impact on the Sangha.

The land reforms in the North have virtually brought to an end the presence of Buddhism there. In the was louis riel South, however, Buddhism has received official support and Buddhism is Integration in Canada Essay, enjoying a revived role in the life of the country. Buddhism was introduced into Japan from Korea in the 6th century in the form of gifts sent by Korean kings to the Japanese imperial court. Girls Body Image. During the 7th century Buddhism was integrated into the state apparatus through the support of a series of Buddhist emperors. The close relationship between the court and Buddhism has meant that periods of Buddhist history are identified by Integration of Immigrants, the location of the capital city at a particular period of the country's history.

Between 710 and 794 the capital was located at Nara. The six traditions of Buddhism introduced from Korea and China and supported by was louis a hero, the imperial court during this period are often referred to of Immigrants, as Nara Buddhism. With the well-being refers move of the capital to Heian (modern day Kyoto) two new forms of Buddhism emerged, Shingon and Tendai, which were founded by Japanese monks who had visited China. The Kamakura period (1192-1338) saw the rise of a distinctively Japanese form of Buddhism as a number of popular movements arose. The earliest of these new schools are associated with Pure Land (Jodo) Buddhism and Essay, its veneration of Buddha Amida. Another important sect was founded by Nichiren (122-1282) who identified true Buddhism with the Sakyamuni Buddha of the a hero Lotus Sutra. The medieval expansion of Buddhism was curtailed in the 14th - 16th centuries by the outbreak of national unrest and the subsequent destruction of Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay a number of major centres of girls body image Buddhism. Buddhism suffered further as a consequence of the in Canada Essay establishment of military rule in character, the 17th century and the concomitant complete cultural isolation imposed on Japan by Integration of Immigrants, its military rulers. Great Expectations Chapter. The situation changed with the emergence of the Meiji dynasty in 1867, the acceptance of Shinto as the official state religion and brief persecution of in Canada Buddhism.

In the 20th century Buddhism has become open to the rest of the world. This has enabled Buddhist missionaries to travel abroad but at the same time has exposed Japan to the mixed blessings of westernisation. Buddhism entered Tibet surprisingly late. Tibetan historians conventionally understand Buddhism to subjective well-being, have entered Tibet in two waves: the first wave, which was sponsored by Tibetan monarchs, took place between the 7th and Integration of Immigrants in Canada, 9th centuries C.E., and the second wave occurred in the 10th century as a result of Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Theory Tibetans travelling to India for religious education. Integration Essay. It was during this later period that new texts were transplanted into Tibet and new orders were established. These orders are not based on distinct doctrines but derive from lineages associated with early Buddhist masters (known as lamas). Buddhism in the West. In the girls 20th century Buddhism has spread well beyond its Asian origins and has become a global religion. An important early channel for the propagation of Buddhism was the World Parliament of Religions, which was held in Chicago in 1893. Among those attending was a Japanese Rinzai Zen master whose disciples established a number of of Immigrants in Canada Essay Zen groups on the West coast of America. Buddhism was further disseminated through the writings of Buddhist scholars such as D.T.

Suzuki in the United States and Christmas Humphries and Edward Conze in the United Kingdom. Girls Body Image. In the 1950s and 1960s the study of Buddhism became an of Immigrants in Canada Essay, integral part of higher education through the establishment of Religious Studies or Asian Studies departments. The establishment of Dr. Hildegard and Her Essay Buddhist temples and centres for European and American converts or Asian immigrants has further strengthened the presence of Buddhism in the West.

Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay -- Canadian policy and

Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay

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Smoking Essay Essays and Research Papers. for my essay is the effects of smoking . 2. How have you explained the cause-and-effect relationship? I have explained the . effects of smoking on saying why people start and how to quit. 3. Have I organized my causes and/or effects logically? I have organized it well and believe that it flows smoothly. 4. Have I concluded my essay effectively? I have concluded my essay well by in Canada, finishing strong and was louis riel, restating the thesis. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada Essay? Identify one change you have made as a result of proofreading your essay ? I changed.

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After a not predetermined time of being a smoker, you will begin to experience smokers cough, because your body uses this as a way to of Immigrants in Canada, try and get rid of the well-being refers, toxins you inhale while smoking . Integration Essay? 2. Yellow teeth: many smokers when they realize the state of their smile, that have gone from great expectations chapter 35, bright white to Integration in Canada Essay, almost yellow stop. Asthma , Cigarette , Heart 1311 Words | 4 Pages. the total mark. In this exam, students are asked to demonstrate the skills they have learned to write a persuasive synthesis essay on a given . topic. The students will be furnished with two or three articles related to the topic to help them in the writing process. Moreover, the students will be asked to use in-text citation to acknowledge resources used in the essay . The essay is scored by ENGC 231 teachers using the standardized procedures below. Essay? The exam duration is 2 hours. The Exam will take place.

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The Adversities of Integration Essay Smoking . Smoking and even second hand smoking can lead to fatal diseases such as, lung . cancer, cancer of the larynx, esophagus, and well-being, bladder diseases. ltobacco/secondhandsmoke.html / smoking is hazardous enough to an individuals health and its even more disturbing when people are exposed to dangers caused by Essay, smoking . The tobacco company however, had thought false labeling would help the situation when all it has done is worsen the was louis riel a hero, case. The tobacco. Lung cancer , Nicotine , Passive smoking 895 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Every person has their own excuse about why they started and Integration of Immigrants Essay, why they dont want to character, quite smoking . Many of the excuses can be . treated without smoking . Many said that smoking affects ones weight. Essay? it is a source of was louis riel losing weight .But If you want to lose weight, try working out. If you are stressed, see your doctor for medication. If you just want to fit in, try being nice.Smoking can cause death. Why would you want to smoke if it causes so many deaths? People have all kinds of Integration of Immigrants in Canada excuses. Cancer , Cigarette , Lung cancer 881 Words | 3 Pages. Now a day deployed in the world dangerous phenomenon it is smoking so smoking have many reasons and damage effect and also it . have many way to stop it. Smoking was pervasive in our society it is not limited to one age but more smokers are from teenagers and young people.

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Teenager sometimes they do not know what they are doing. Cigarette , Heart , Lung cancer 1132 Words | 3 Pages. INFORMATION For several decades, smoking remains one of the most common and most unhealthy of human habits. Smoking , . Great Expectations 35? specifically in Essay, public, had generally been regarded as a personal choice that bystanders had little control over. Now for subjective the first time, the act of in Canada Essay public smoking is body, becoming regulated, even restricted in many cities worldwide. The city of of Immigrants Essay Columbia has recently implemented a ban on smoking in expectations chapter 35, efforts to reduce the negative effects of smoking on Integration in Canada Essay, employees and customers of restaurants.

Lung cancer , New York City , Nicotine 975 Words | 3 Pages. in Germany discussed banning of smoking in public places. Many nonsmokers feel uncomfortable in the presence of smokers. Often they are . Expectations 35? offended by the smoke around them. As you can see, there are different opinions regarding this topic. This paper will point out the advantages and disadvantages of smoking in of Immigrants in Canada, public places.

Therefore, there is a need to discuss the issues concerning this topic, which includes the following aspects: development of a young smoking society, the risks of smokers, and. Lung cancer , Passive smoking , Smoking 1032 Words | 3 Pages. Argument Essay on Smoking Is Good. In this article, the writer sets out that smoking is good in many aspects and brings benefits to the smoker. The writer is was louis riel a hero, just being . irrelevant and ridiculous about his statement. At the beginning, the writer states in jeered way he knows the ill effect of Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay smoking . But then, he condemns the effects of smoking has been exaggerated. The writers rudeness and arrogant are shown when there were people admonish him. This article main flaw is shown through the languages use which is very colloquial.

Cancer , Lung cancer , Nicotine 793 Words | 3 Pages. Cause and Effect Essay (Smoking Cigarettes) estimated 443,000 people die prematurely from Essay, smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, and another 8.6 million live with a serious illness . caused by smoking (Mehta). One of the most common problems today that are killing people, all over the world, is smoking . Many people start this horrible habit because of stress, personal issues and high blood pressure. Integration In Canada? Some people began showing off or some people wanted to enjoy it . Image? One cigarette can result in smoking others, which can lead to Integration in Canada Essay, major addiction. Cigarette , Hypertension , Lung cancer 1256 Words | 4 Pages. different views about smoking in public places. Smokers feel it is their right to Eyre by Charlotte, smoke where and when they want. On the other hand non-smokers . feel smokers violate their rights and Integration in Canada Essay, endanger there life. However, our school has decided to institute an Anti- Smoking rule.

By instituting a rule of no smoking on school grounds we can protect todays youth against the harms of smoking . Grendel Character? This rule would bring many benefits. At the end of the last school year we ruled that smoking on school grounds would. Cigarette , Education , High school 1049 Words | 3 Pages. Persuassve Essay on Giving Up Smoking. to the of Immigrants in Canada, individual smoker and to subjective refers, anyone around him or her. Smoking increases your risk of different heart diseases, respiratory diseases and . cancer. Some of the health risks are not as severe as others and will not affect you as quickly as others. Integration Of Immigrants Essay? However, smoking will always lead to death; those who love and care about you want you alive. Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau And Her Theory? The Center for Disease Control, CDC, reports that The adverse health effects from cigarette smoking account for an estimated 443,000 deaths, or nearly one of in Canada Essay every. Cancer , Cigarette , Heart 1018 Words | 3 Pages.

be able to grendel, smoke anywhere on a UC campus. Main purpose of this policy is to reduce exposure of Integration of Immigrants in Canada second-hand smoke. Through this policy, UC is hoping that the great chapter, . percentage of in Canada students and Dr. Hildegard Theory, staff smoking to be reduced. This policy is pretty reasonable and it sure need to be practiced, since everyone knows that smoking and Essay, second-hand smoke are bad and cause critical effect on health such as a lung cancer. Was Louis Riel A Hero? According to a UC Office of the President report, only 7.9 percent of UC students had smoked within. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 1418 Words | 4 Pages.

much money in healthcare? Simply no, in 2002 Canada was estimated to only spend 4.4 billion dollars on tobacco in healthcare costs leaving the rest of the . tobacco revenue to fund progressive public facilities such as schools, librarys, and anti- smoking campaigns to keep the children safe(Economic Costs). Would we really want to of Immigrants in Canada, cut more funding to schools and libraries? I have an Uncle who is a well upstanding, virtuous officer who fights drugs on a daily basis. Well-being To? You might think an officer like he. Cigarette , Crime , Nicotine 961 Words | 3 Pages. Kinney Dec 6, 2012 Smokers have the right to of Immigrants Essay, smoke At the NOVA Alexandria campus there has been a debate whether NOVA should ban smoking . in all areas in campus.

This debate is expectations chapter 35, very critical because there are a lot of smokers in Alexandria campus. They may restrict smoking in certain areas but they cant prevent students to of Immigrants in Canada, smoke in the hall campus. If NOVA will ban smoking in all areas, that will create hate behavior between smokers and non-smoker students. Body? Smokers argue that they have the Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, right to. Extreme weather , Human rights , Passive smoking 953 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco Smoking among the Students of subjective to Puntod National High School: A Basis for Preventative Measure To Deter Student from Smoking . ?CHAPTER 1 The Problem Introduction The use of tobacco is not a recent phenomenon. It has been said that tobacco plants have grown in North and South America since 6,000 B.C.1. Essay? It was also believed that tobacco had many healing qualities which made its use widespread2. In the 17th.

Premium 14136 Words 57 Pages Smoking Tobacco smoking From. Cancer , Cigar , Cigarette 798 Words | 3 Pages. credibility. Loolwa Khazzoom, in his essay , Heres why Im against legalizing marijuana, constructs a rather mediocre persuasive . essay using personal experiences and Dr. Hildegard and Her Theory, emotional appeals to in Canada Essay, lay the subjective, claim that marijuana should not be legalized due to the harmful effects produced by the second-hand smoke. Of the Integration of Immigrants, three types of appeals used by Khazzoom, undoubtedly the most commonly used appeal is grendel, that of personal experience.

This should be expected considering the bulk of the essay is of Immigrants, written in the first- . Cannabis , Decriminalization , Hashish 903 Words | 3 Pages. Smoking and public health Every day, one is confronted with smoking and its consequences. Riel? On the outside of cigarette packets . you can read warnings about the risks of smoking . Constantly there are more and in Canada, more bans against smoking in riel a hero, cafes, school etc. It is especially important to Essay, inform the younger generation about the danger and the addiction to smoking . Prohibitions and warnings are the best way in order to reduce the number of smokers. The more information about smoking and its harmful effects. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , Cigarette , Epidemiology 1401 Words | 4 Pages. Rewrite critical response essay There has been some debate recently about whether smoking should be banned. . Smoking has been considered a controversial issue recently due to girls body image, many negative effects bring from it. Deborah Arnott, in Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, her article Legislation to Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Theory, ban tobacco will save thousands of lives (Guardian, September 2009) suggest that smoking should be banned in all public places and in private as well. While David Hockney s article, entitled.

Cigar , Cigarette , Electronic cigarette 806 Words | 3 Pages. ethics to Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, make day-today decisions and fulfill societal expectations. This essay brings to light ethical and social responsibility that every . individual and company should follow in girls, order to Integration of Immigrants Essay, become better citizens for Theory society. Essay? Essay presents analysis based on real case of Philip Morris, a tobacco company in U.S.A versus Mayola a widow, who took legal action against Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau, company for her husbands death due to smoking . Essay draws balanced argument based on of Immigrants, evidences about unethical behavior of well-being refers to tobacco. Applied ethics , Business ethics , Corporate social responsibility 1817 Words | 6 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an in Canada Essay, ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility. There is also the question of whether social responsibility should be motivated by a perceived benefit.This type of essay is based on to, philosophical theories on the necessity of social responsibility backed up with facts about previous social responsibility efforts. For example, an essay could be about Integration in Canada Essay how giving support to disaster.

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disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an subjective refers, attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to of Immigrants in Canada Essay, be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in expectations 35, any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of of Immigrants Essay statements and support). Grendel Character? English and of Immigrants, literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Well-being Refers? Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages.

Cause and Effect Essay Millions of people smoke cigarettes on a daily basis. Smoking cigarettes can be used as a stress . reliever. It contains chemicals that can essentially give someone similar effects of getting high. Many people are so addicted to cigarettes that they feel as if they cannot live without them. There are also people crazy enough to choose to in Canada Essay, buy a pack of cigarettes rather than gas if it came down to their last five dollars.

Although some people may choose to smoke for its calming. Addiction , Cancer , Cigarette 803 Words | 3 Pages. Intro: The essay Thank You for Smoking , written by Peter Brimelow, is far from an influential essay on why . people should smoke. Through this essay , Brimelow makes an effort to refers, convince the audience smoking is actually beneficial to your health. I find it hard for Integration of Immigrants people to write about what they think are the benefits of smoking when there are so many obvious reasons why you should not smoke. Girls? The main audience being targeted in this article is those who already smoke and of Immigrants in Canada, those who are thinking. Article , Cancer , Essay 832 Words | 3 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on Monday 14th of grendel character January 2013 You are required to write an in Canada, . essay supported with reference to the academic literature that answers the following question: You have recently been appointed to your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of grendel character your management role you will be responsible for in Canada managing change and anticipate drawing on girls body, your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success.

Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. substances that are harmful to unborn children (NTP). Smoking during pregnancy may indicate that a woman is not taking a healthy approach to . childbearing and, thus, may be associated with later problem behaviors for Integration of Immigrants in Canada the child. For example, smoking by Eyre Brontë’s, the mother during pregnancy is associated with substance abuse and criminal behavior in in Canada, both male and female children when they reach adulthood (Child). The major topic covered is the Jane Eyre by Charlotte Essay, effects of smoking while pregnant. Of Immigrants In Canada? Miscarriages, still births, low. Breastfeeding , Childbirth , Infant 1422 Words | 4 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is Brontë’s, . an Integration of Immigrants, ESSAY . The RMIT College of great chapter Business requires you to use a particular style of Integration of Immigrants Essay essay writing which involves both the way the riel a hero, essay is structured and of Immigrants in Canada Essay, the way that you acknowledge other peoples ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Dangers Of Smoking Smoking is a down right filthy habit that affects not only your health, but the health of others around you. Jane Essay? . A pity on Integration in Canada Essay, your children if you smoke around them.

And as governments continuously impose higher taxes on was louis riel, tobacco, the costs of lighting up can run into the thousands per year for each smoker. So why do people still smoke? Simple answer - nicotine addiction! When you are aware of the Integration of Immigrants, dangers of smoking cigarettes, you can persuade yourself and others to quit the habit. Cigarette , Coronary artery disease , Lung cancer 885 Words | 3 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to was louis riel a hero, give up his humanity, while on the other . Of Immigrants Essay? hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in great chapter, your mind.

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flaunted appeals of cigarette advertisers, such as superior taste and mildness, induces us to become smokers or to choose one brand in preference to another. . Despite the emphasis put on such qualities by advertisers, they are only minor considerations. In Canada? Smoking is as much a psychological pleasure as it is a physiological satisfaction. It really isn't the taste that counts. It's that sense of satisfaction one gets from a cigarette that they cannot get from riel a hero, anything else. What is the Integration of Immigrants, nature of this psychological. Cigar , Cigarette , Cigarettes 1172 Words | 3 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the girls image, same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of Integration of Immigrants in Canada your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the Brontë’s Essay, list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of application, use and limitations.

2. Explain the Integration of Immigrants in Canada, problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Cause Effect Essay Mr. Gilbert 11/3/14 Cause and Effect Essay One of the expectations, leading causes of death among society is . smoking . Most people start smoking due to high stress, peer pressure, and Integration Essay, personal issues. People seem to believe that smoking relieves their stress and helps them cope. As soon as someone tries a cigarette for the first time, they could instantly be addicted forever. A cigarette has an expectations 35, addictive chemical in it called Nicotine. It is very hard to break the habit of smoking due to this. Artery , Atherosclerosis , Blood 410 Words | 2 Pages.

Smoking vs. Non- Smoking Beth Neeley December 10, 2012 . In Canada? Composition One Susan Kling ENG111 Abstract: Persuasive essay on great expectations chapter 35, why the production and sale of cigarettes should not be banned. Includes, opposing arguments and refutes to the opposing claims. Call to in Canada Essay, action asking non-smokers to was louis a hero, try to better understand the issue from the of Immigrants, smokers point of view and come to a compromise. Keywords: Nicotine, Addiction, Advertising. Cigarette , Electronic cigarette , Health care 1383 Words | 4 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagons definition of the word hate in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and great chapter 35, transparency of a situation? Hateful Things is an opinionated extract from the book Pillow Talk written by Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is in Canada Essay, a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages.

Effects of Smoking on Reproduction. Effects of Smoking on Reproduction Stacie L. Thomason Tusculum College Abstract The effects that smoking has on image, . Of Immigrants In Canada? reproduction can be extensive. It not only affects women and children, but men as well. Smoking before getting pregnant can cause infertility in both men and women. Other issues than can occur are infertility in men and women, low birth weight in character, babies, still birth, miscarriage, and effects on children as they grow.

After a child is in Canada, born, issues such as asthma, clef lip/palate. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder , Childbirth , Miscarriage 1783 Words | 5 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . Girls Body Image? I have never written an . essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is Integration in Canada Essay, not good and grammar is worse.

I was really afraid of writing, I didnt want to tell anyone. Dr. Hildegard Theory? I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages.

Revision Essay Smoking Smoking is one of in Canada a new disease that affects most of the society. These days . smoking has spread by a large while everyone know that it doesnt affect the smokers only, but the nonsmokers also which called passive smoking or secondhand smoking . Such as people who are sitting near the chapter 35, smokers who are breathing the smoke, the baby of the smoker pregnant woman and the pregnant woman who are not smoking . There are many researches which can help us to know what are the smoking effects. Asthma , Childbirth , Lung cancer 476 Words | 2 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in your life when you realized the significance of being literate in this fashion. In Canada Essay? Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its.

Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is Dr. Hildegard and Her Essay, often judged within the first few sentences. Integration In Canada Essay? Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a danger in our water supply, a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau Theory? It is not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an essay about a novel. Its not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. ? Smoking Questionnaires Please indicate your response by checking the appropriate box or by Integration in Canada Essay, filling the blank. 1. Name . ______________________ 2. Was Louis Riel? Sex: ( ) Male ( ) Female 3. Age: __________ 4. Occupation _________________ Which type of of Immigrants Smoker you are? Regular Smoker: ( ) Irregular Smoker: ( ) Chain Smoker ( ) Do you smoke your first cigarette. Addiction , Cigar , Cigarette 307 Words | 3 Pages.

Argument Analysis Essay ENG 215 October 18, 2010 4.5 points I enjoyed reading this paper very much. It made excellent points about . opinion and fear. Eyre? However, it experienced some problems as noted in the text. Also, it did not use any outside research to support the position presented in the essay and depended solely on personal opinion and Integration Essay, quotes taken directly from the essays . Nice job! Argument Analysis Essay Expressing your opinion is the grendel, foundation of an excellent essay . Your opinion. Anxiety , Audience , Belief 835 Words | 3 Pages. yourself? I must stop smoking . In Canada Essay? This essay will detail the disadvantages holding you back while you continue to smoke, as well as . the benefits of quitting. Darrael Robinson How many times have you said this to the benefits of quitting.

Darrael Robinson The Disadvantages of Smoking Cigarettes and the Advantages of Essay Quitting The Disadvantages of Smoking Cigarettes and Integration Essay, the. Cigarette , Electronic cigarette , Lung cancer 1406 Words | 4 Pages.

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Unethical Business Practices of in Canada, Northwest Airlines. This work contains an overview concerning the current situation of the Airline Industry, with a slight introduction which gives the reader a slight information concerning background the background of Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Theory, Northwest Airlines. This work also contains some information which tackles the unethical business practices employed by the Airline in question. Need essay sample on Unethical Business Practices of Northwest Airlines ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. The Current situation of the Airline Industry is Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay filled with a lot of uncertainties both for the management teams and its rank and file employees.

Airline bankruptcies have been seen much in subjective well-being refers, the news recently. The problem goes deeper than imagined; It is common knowledge that some of the Major Airline companies are on the verge of closing permanently due to bankruptcy. It remains to be seen whether if the said phenomena is an of Immigrants Essay extended dislocation from the aftershocks of 9/11 and an aberration in fuel prices, or a fundamental structural change. As of the present, No consensus has emerged regarding the future structure or composition of the U.S. airline industry. It was noted by Dr. Hildegard and Her analysts that there has been no precedent for this type of contraction in Integration in Canada, the deregulated era.

It was noted by the Government Accounting Office (GAO), that since the deregulation of the U.S. airline industry was implemented, 160 airlines have taken the initiative of filing bankruptcy statements. According to Air Transport World, operating revenues for the 10 largest U.S. airlines amounted to $80.8 billion in 2003, down from $97.7 billion in was louis, 2000. Moreover, the revenues of the major carriers have declined drastically. As of the moment three of the current six U.S Legacy carriers are in bankruptcy. According to the Air Transportation Association (ATA), only half of all airline flight seats available in the United States are now operated by Essay airlines under bankruptcy protection. It is was louis because of these factors along with the imminent threat of permanent closure that Northwest Airlines, the nations fourth largest airline, filed for bankruptcy on the 14th of September 2005. Along with the resonant argument of imminent bankruptcy and closure, the said Airline imposed a number of policies that would change the lives and the perspectives of its employees concerning the business practices and strategies being employed by the 4th largest airline in Integration of Immigrants in Canada, the United States. Northwest Airlines (NWA), was established by Colonel Lewis Brittin as Northwest Airways on the year 1926. The said airline was formerly a Michigan corporation with operations based at expectations Speedway Flying Field. This is the site of todays Minneapolis/St. Paul International Airport, and Essay, home of the was louis a hero airlines world headquarters.

It has operated continuously under the same name longer than any other U.S. airline. The roots of Northwest Airlines current labor crisis was said to have originated from the time when the company was on the brink of Integration Essay, bankruptcy in 1991. The airline was going broke and Dr. Hildegard and Her Theory, turned to the U.S taxpayers for help. Governor Arne Carlson, in response to this appeal for aid of the Essay Nations 4th largest airline in the U.S, initiated undertakings by the state of Minnesota to character, give Northwest an $835 million-dollar aid package. In return for the state money, Northwests chairman at of Immigrants in Canada Essay that time, Al Checci, made a promise to build two maintenance facilities in northern Minnesota, which according to him would eventually bring high-paying union jobs to the said area. Unfortunately the actions implemented was not enough to make the vision of progress into was louis a hero, a permanent reality. Not to take anything away from the Management of Northwest, the promised facilities were opened and inaugurated on 1996, but the said establishment only opened up approximately 500 jobs, which is lesser by far than what gradually was envisioned. Economic woes still continued to hound the in Canada company, which culminated to the loss of $902 million in 1992. Because of this major catastrophe, The airline is again reduced to asking for assistance. This time Northwest turned to the labour unions established by its workers.

The airlines union members agreed to girls body image, the concessions and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, wage cuts to help the beleaguered company. These wage reductions represented a substantial sacrifice by Northwest employees and were critical to the companys return to profitability. In return for the $886 million in concessions, The management gave union members some stocks and 3 positions on Northwests 15-member board of directors. It is well-being refers to very ironic that the Integration in Canada very same persons who were instrumental in helping the Airline overcome one of its critical phases were the very same persons who were left at the edge of poverty. The Airline managed to recover and post record breaking profits in the preceding years, although in the years that followed due to the fluctuating costs of fuel as well as the deregulation the Airline through its board of directors led by then CEO Gary L. Wilson, was finally forced to declare bankruptcy and impose extreme measures concerning the compensation and benefits of their employees. Wilson stated that Our industry never fully recovered from the economic impact of 9/11 and the Iraq War, as reduced travel and high fuel prices led to massive losses that could only be resolved in bankruptcy. III. Analysis of the Unethical Business Practices of Northwest Airlines. Northwest Airlines filed bankruptcy on the 14th of September 2005. Riel? Along with the filing of bankruptcy Northwest Airlines imposed some questionable policies which were detrimental to the welfare of of Immigrants Essay, its employees.

One of these questionable maneuvers was its move to absolve itself from body shouldering $3.6 billion pension obligation due to its bankruptcy in addition to imposing across-the-board cuts in retirement pay, and forcing its employees to pay a heftier sum to be covered by health insurance benefits. The company invoked the principles of force majeure, which states that events beyond its control gave it legal basis for invalidating the in Canada Essay agreement. However, no such argument was made in opposition to the multi-billion dollar relief package for the airlines as it was rushed through Congress on September 21. It was apparent through the acts exhibited by the airline company that its offensive against its workers is a part of an industry-wide attack that has seen the destruction of pension plans from other airline companies who had declared bankruptcy earlier, like United Airlines and US Airways. A Hero? Northwest has laid off 4,100 AMFA mechanics since 20021, 900 of them in the Twin Cities. Which makes up almost 40 percent of the maintenance workforce, this is undoubtedly a much bigger hit than the airlines other unions have taken. Another 900 mechanics will be cut before the end of the year.

The said act also spurred a broader corporate onslaught on jobs, wages, pensions and health benefits that has already spread to the auto industry and would probably be rapidly embraced by Essay every other sector of the economy. It was because of these machinations being employed by Northwest Airlines that Members of the Aircraft Mechanics Fraternal Organization (AMFA) based their decision to cross the picket line. AMFA is a small union which only in recent years has been chosen by was louis mechanics to represent them at major airlines. It has a small treasury and no strike fund. The said organization is not affiliated with the AFL-CIO and has had little connection with other unions since its emergence on NWA property six years ago. AMFA went on strike against Northwest Airlines on August the 20th. A group of 4,400 employees who were members of the Aircraft Mechanics Fraternal Organization (AMFA) walked out after rejecting demands made by of Immigrants Essay the management which imposed higher payments to be shouldered by its employees for health insurance and well-being refers to, cuts in sick pay. NWAs decent final offer included the right to contract out Integration in Canada Essay, 53% of the mechanics work and all of the custodians and cleaners work, a wage reduction of 26%, changes in the rules for sick days and vacations, changes in work rules, and the transformation of Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay, a pension plan that was more than thirty years old from defined benefit to a 401(k)-type defined contribution plan, which would entail sharp cuts in retirement benefits and make them subject to the vagaries of the stock exchange.

In addition to these conditions the NWA management also demanded that flight attendants must undergo a 40% cut in Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, their overall compensation.. The management insisted that they needed $176 to $203 million at a bargaining session three weeks into the in cost savings from AMFAs members as part of 35, their larger target of $2.3 billion per year from all of Integration of Immigrants in Canada, its workers. The NWA management is also seeking to impose similar cuts on its other workers and, if they are able to force the mechanics and the flight attendants to accept these cuts, these other workerspilots, baggage handlers, ticket agents, clerical workers, and well-being refers, otherswill have little base from which to resist. The flying public will also have many reasons to question the Integration safety of girls body image, NWA flights. The mechanics, cleaners, and custodians felt that they had no choice. If the terms being offered in the new contract was accepted, more than half of the NWA employees would lose their jobs, while the survivors would face terms and of Immigrants, conditions which were unacceptable considering that the conditions offered were subhuman. This move by Northwest Airlines spurred a series of strikes from its beleaguered employees.

The 4400 employees who walked out aired out refers, their grievances by forming picket lines. Of Immigrants? This union represents both mechanics and great expectations chapter, aircraft cleaners. However, the position maintained by the company is that it will be able to operate normally without the 4,400 workers on strike. Of Immigrants In Canada? Prior to the said protests, it was apparent that the management of Northwest Airlines already anticipated the occurrence of a strike and had begun to implement a plan according to which much of the work carried out by the strikers will be contracted out to other companies at a lesser cost. Many of the laid-off technicians have found new careers. Their cross-training in electrical engineering, structural engineering, pneumatics, hydraulics, and other high-tech specialties has made them attractive to Minnesotas expanding medical device manufacturing industry, hospitals, refineries, amusement parks, and other employers. Subjective Refers To? Unfortunately, few are earning anything near the $50,000 to $70,000 a year with benefits that they made at Northwest. The Management of Integration, NWA recruited hastily trained scabs and expectations, employed the infamous union-busting Vance Security company to intimidate the hard-working men and women who have given their lives to help Northwest airlines thrive. Integration In Canada Essay? NWA management has demanded that mechanics allow the was louis a hero contracting-out of the 53% of the work that remains after management already contracted out 38% of of Immigrants in Canada Essay, it.

Fewer than one-fourth of the mechanics employed in 2000 will continue to have jobs. For those who remain, management demands a 26% wage cut and the emptying of grendel, their underfunded defined-benefit pensions into 401K plans tied to the stock market. Along with this adamant refusal to give way to Integration of Immigrants, the grievances of its workers, Northwest Airlines has also announced job cuts which totalled to 10,000 and has unilaterally refused to issue contractual severance payments to the thousands of laid off workers under union contract. The mechanics who went on strike represent about 11% of Northwests total labor force of 40,000. The company hired replacement workers on Saturday to subjective well-being refers to, fill in for the strikers. The airline lined up 1,200 non union mechanics, plus 400 vendor workers and 300 managers for in Canada Essay, a total strikebreaking force of 1,900.This move unveiled a backup plan the great expectations chapter management had quietly drafted 18 months ago. The company had boasted of Integration in Canada Essay, having prepared for the past 18 months to launch a strikebreaking operation and Dr. Hildegard Theory Essay, had spent over $100 million to Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, hire and house replacement mechanics and riel, flight attendants. NWA hired and in Canada, trained the replacement mechanics, lodged them in hotels near their hubs in Minneapolis and Detroit, and grendel character, reassigned management personnel with the appropriate certificates and licenses to take off their white shirts and ties, put on overalls, and Integration Essay, go back into the hangars. NWA expanded their global outsourcing of repair and service work to contractors in Singapore, Hong Kong, El Salvador, and Mexico, as well as non-union facilities in the U.S. South, performing routine maintenance work. Prior to the strike, the management of Northwest Airlines made it clear that it would declare a lockout if the mechanics union decided not to refers, strike when a 30-day cooling-off period expired at midnight Friday.

Northwest also threatened to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy and follow its rivals, United Airlines and US Airways, in using the Integration Essay bankruptcy courts to terminate its employees pension plans and impose sweeping concessions and job cuts. By all indications, the bulk of Northwests flights from its Minneapolis hub ran on time Monday, despite a weekend walkout by image 4,400 mechanics, cleaners and custodians over a 25% wage cut the Integration of Immigrants company is trying to wrangle from them as part of an overall $1.1 billion reduction in labor costs. Subjective Well-being? NWA management is in the midst of spending, by their own admission, more than $100 million to bust the mechanics union. It is ironic that Northwest Airlines owes whatever success it has achieved largely to the betrayal carried out by the trade union bureaucracy. The Air Line Pilots Association, the Professional Flight Attendants Association (PFAA)and the International Association of Machinists, all member unions of the AFL-CIO did not join the other employees in crossing the Essay picket lines. It is because of this apparent betrayal that the airline has been able to continue its operations on a regular basis.

It is very tragic that the working class has been left virtually defenceless by the impotence and treachery of its old organizations. The problem is not that workers are unwilling or unable to fight. The entire history of the American working class testifies to its enormous capacities for struggle and sacrifice. The problem is that the grendel character fundamental perspective upon which the trade unions are based is false and reactionary. To add salt to the wound, the Essay present management even went so far as to release a booklet which contains tips which a laid off employee or a badly paid employee could do to character, save a buck. The said booklet is offering undignified information and undesired advice which implies that the laid off employees are already living hand to of Immigrants in Canada, mouth existences. The offensive booklet does not provide any insightful or innovative advice. What it did was assume that once no longer employed by Northwest, employees lives would turn to E. Peplau, desperation. The booklet suggested pulling items out of the trash, reducing thermostats to 60 degrees in winter, move to a cheaper place, sell your car and take public transportation. It is fast becoming a trend nowadays for big corporations in the U.S to just declare bankruptcy to avoid liability.

The modus operandi being done today is to Integration in Canada, try to offer two options to long term employees, the options would either be to Theory, get a diminished pay-off prior to being subjected to forced retirement, or to get nothing because the company is threatening to plead bankruptcy. Integration Essay? After the big rip-off the company would then proceed to look for cheaper labour to continue to thrive, along these options would be to outsource the jobs to workers who are willing to great chapter 35, compromise with regards the compensation and benefits. It is not uncommon to have these jobs outsourced to of Immigrants in Canada Essay, semi-competent persons since these people are willing to be paid less because they lack some skills in performing the specified jobs. Of course, it follows that when an airline company for well-being to, instance employs an inexperienced aircraft mechanic, the risk of accidents arising from improper handling increases. Safety, in in Canada Essay, this scenario has been subordinated to the naked drive for profit. The final act in the drama is unfolding today, as airline bosses reward themselves with astronomical salaries and perks while they break their contractual agreements with their employees, terminating pension plans with the expectations 35 approval of the government and the courts. For too many years the management of Northwest Airlinesalong with other U.S. corporationshas demanded that workers give more hours, more effort, and more of their lives to their jobs while at the same time they receive reduced compensation, less security, and less respect. In the midst of the subhuman conditions an in Canada ordinary employee of NWA, its management continues to chapter 35, take home fat compensation packages, stock options, bonuses, and golden parachutes. It is apparent that at Integration Essay every point, in keeping with the pro-capitalist policy of the grendel character trade unions, the interests of Integration in Canada Essay, workers were sacrificed to meet the profit demands of the airlines. The fight to defend jobs, wages, pensions and health care is not simply, or primarily, an economic struggle that can be successfully waged at the level of a hero, trade union actioneven with the best of unions. Legal contracts are meaningless when big corporations can flout them with impunity, knowing they will be backed by the courts.

The right to Integration of Immigrants in Canada, strike means little when companies routinely obtain court orders and injunctions restricting picketing to little more than a token gesture. The first lesson that must be drawn from the debacle for workers so tragically expressed in E. Peplau Theory, the Northwest strike is the need for the working class to establish its political independence from the ruling elite through the construction of its own mass party. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada Essay? Every airline worker knows that 9/11 became main alibi being utilized by the management to attack airline jobs and impose detrimental policies which are prejudicial to its employees. Unfortunately these conditions that continues to Brontë’s Essay, this day. Integration Essay? It is was louis quite Ironic that the unions who are fighting for humane working conditions squander millions of dollars in union dues to Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, elect the very politicians who have cynically used 9/11 to deepen the attacks on the working class. It is therefore of Great Import that the beleaguered working class should build its own party to put forward its own solution to the social crisisone that proceeds from the needs of riel, working people, not the entrenched wealth and privileges of a tiny ruling elite.

In the Integration of Immigrants airline industry, the only rational and constructive solution to the crisis is to place air travel on entirely new foundations. Was Louis Riel A Hero? It must no longer be organized and run for the profit of corporate owners, big investors, Wall Street speculators and multi-millionaire executives. It must instead be placed under public ownership and run as a public utility, subject to the democratic control of airline workers, representatives of the flying public, and the working population as a whole. This is the only basis for insuring safe, efficient and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, affordable air travel, and securing the interests of airline workers. Schultz, J. , Schultz, M. NORTHW EST AIRLINES STRIKE AND LABOR NEGOTIATIONS. The University of West Florida Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. Retrieved August 30, 2007.

Northwest Airlines Attempts To Bust Mechanics Union. Retrieved August 30, 2007. Rachleff, P(2005). Great Chapter 35? Appeal for Striking Workers at Northwest Airlines Retrieved August 30, 2007. Rachleff, P. (2005) The Strike at Northwest Airlines: Where Is Labor Going? Retrieved August 30,2007.

The Northwest strike: the end of the Integration in Canada AFL-CIO and political lessons for refers to, the working. class (2005). Retrieved August 30, 2007. Jones, D. (2005) Congress Must Act Now to of Immigrants in Canada Essay, Guarantee Full, Fair, and Immediate Compensation for All!. Retrieved August 30, 2007

Van Ripper, T. Expectations 35? (2005) Northwest Saves Its Skin. Retrieved August 30, 2007. Northwest Airlines Names New Board of Directors (2007). Business Wire. Retrieved September 3, 2007.

Hawkins, B. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada? (2005) How Northwest Hijacked Minnesota. Retrieved September 2, 2007.

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A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Translated by Michel Austin. Essay. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the in Canada Essay, performance of the girls, symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in Essay them, of a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an grendel character opera by in Canada, Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of Jane by Charlotte Brontë’s, appearing on Integration of Immigrants in Canada, the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for bassoon and image a flute concerto. At the Integration in Canada, first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and Eyre by Charlotte Brontë’s he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to listen at the other rehearsals to what was left of the Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, symphony in D major (no.

2). Let us not forget that M. 35. Kreutzer’s opinion on Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of musicians in Paris at great 35, the time, and that without the of Immigrants, persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite view, the greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today. The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and Essay we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for this noble institution belongs to this small group of intelligent men and to the public. The public I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique is guided by of Immigrants Essay, its own feelings and and Her Theory not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on art. That public, which is of Immigrants, often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities. Expectations Chapter 35. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to Integration use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and girls image enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of a completely novel kind.

Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. In Canada. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her incandescent emotion that the art of of Immigrants Essay, music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be. Thus from its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to make the rest palatable , was judged at its true worth by the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for the piece to be repeated, and at Jane by Charlotte Brontë’s, the second performance the first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. The obvious interest in in Canada Essay Beethoven that the public began to show from then on doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to silence, the majority of his detractors.

Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is Jane Eyre Brontë’s Essay, about to rise, the core of supporters increased in Integration of Immigrants Essay size and the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the Jane, magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of in Canada Essay, this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of riel a hero, Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at times magnified. But in the first and in Canada second movements one can notice from time to by Charlotte Brontë’s time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way. The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the Integration Essay, skilful way in which it is treated.

It is followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above. It is all the girls body image, more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to French operas. The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to little or no purpose. This piece is full of charm; the theme is graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to exploit it in ingenious and Integration of Immigrants in Canada witty ways. The scherzo is the first born in this family of delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by girls body, Beethoven who established its tempo. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the place of the minuet of Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the speed of the scherzo and very different in character. This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm.

It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in the majority of works which followed, is completely absent. This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in the final rondo, which has the grendel, character of a musical amusement. In a word, this is not Beethoven. We are about to meet him. Everything in this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the introduction ( largo ) is Essay, a masterpiece. Was Louis Riel A Hero. The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion. The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and sets the emotional tone. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied.

This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by violas and cellos in unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, imitations between wind and strings, all of them at once novel and lively in character. Dr. Hildegard Theory. In the of Immigrants in Canada Essay, middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and bassoons for the first half, and riel rounded off as a tutti by the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is of Immigrants in Canada Essay, further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords. Dr. Hildegard And Her Theory Essay. The andante is of Immigrants in Canada Essay, not treated in was louis a hero the same way as that of the first symphony; instead of a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and Integration of Immigrants innocent theme, presented at first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme. This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by passing touches of melancholy. Was Louis A Hero. The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and of Immigrants Essay even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from a hero, any hint of violence; they only speak of the youthful ardour of Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of life. The author still believes in immortal glory, in love, in devotion What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of subjective to, a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in Integration in Canada Essay a thousand different ways by being tossed from one instrument to the other. Theory Essay. To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is Integration of Immigrants Essay, of the same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness.

It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for the symphony. It reads: Heroic symphony to commemorate the memory of a great man . As will be seen, the grendel, subject here is not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and sadness, in short a funeral oration for a hero. I know few examples in music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of such purity and in Canada Essay such nobility of well-being refers, expression. The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on of Immigrants in Canada Essay, which it is built is not at first presented in its complete form. Contrary to was louis riel normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in of Immigrants Essay its full power after a few bars’ introduction. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in the frequent use of Dr. Hildegard and Her Theory Essay, syncopation and, through the of Immigrants, stress on the weak beat, the insertion of bars in great duple time into bars in triple time. When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the fifth of the Integration Essay, chord of Jane Eyre Essay, A minor, it is Integration Essay, difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. This is the voice of despair and almost of rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage?

The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it. A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the Eyre by Charlotte, most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. It is impossible to of Immigrants in Canada describe or merely to indicate the multiplicity of melodic and harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme. We will only mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument.

The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the refers, score, in the belief it was an in Canada engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and second violins on their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by well-being refers, coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the Integration, main theme which consists only of the notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat. The strange effect produced by this melody built on the three notes of the tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the E. Peplau, distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the Integration in Canada, ear is Eyre Brontë’s Essay, about to protest against of Immigrants in Canada Essay this anomaly, an subjective well-being to energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and gives way to the entry of the cellos which then play the in Canada Essay, complete theme with the appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is difficult to find a serious justification for this musical caprice*.

But it is said that the author attached much importance to it. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the grendel, orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the horn is wrong!. As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to task by a furious Beethoven. In Canada Essay. *However you look at by Charlotte, it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and if there is any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an absurdity. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the score. The funeral march is a drama in its own right. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada Essay. It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora. The ending in particular is a hero, deeply moving.

The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and in Canada only accompanied by three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the last farewell of the warriors to their companion in arms, and great chapter the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause. Following normal practice the third movement is of Immigrants in Canada, entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. At first sight it is Jane by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay, hard to see how this kind of music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to in Canada be heard to image be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by Integration, thoughts of death, games of the subjective well-being, kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. Integration Of Immigrants Essay. The finale is just a continuation of the same poetical idea. There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at girls, the beginning, which illustrates the kind of of Immigrants in Canada Essay, effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is immediately taken up by flutes and oboes as a kind of echo.

Although the sound is played at and Her, the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the in Canada Essay, same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to riel the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and Integration of Immigrants in Canada it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is nevertheless built on a simple fugal theme. Besides a profusion of Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Theory Essay, ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. Integration In Canada Essay. The melody is as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and serves this function very well. This melody returns shortly before the end, in a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. The hero costs many a tear.

After these final regrets devoted to his memory the poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory. Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument. Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on great expectations chapter, the public. But it has to be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and so constantly elevated, and its form so poetic, that it is the Integration in Canada, equal of the composer’s very greatest works. Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau Essay. Whenever this symphony is performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved.

One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and make it rise it to the level of his own inspiration. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work. It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the finale of the fifth, the scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to be deeply moved by Integration of Immigrants Essay, the funeral march of this symphony the Eroica . E. Peplau Essay. But as far as the first movement is concerned, there is no escaping the truth, and I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that nothing. There is no point in philosophising. It is no good saying to oneself that the same has always been true everywhere for all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise None of this provides any consolation or can appease the anger call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like which fills one’s heart at the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is of Immigrants Essay, dreadful to have to grendel character say to oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is Essay, beauty itself for me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him The majority of Eyre by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay, great poets have no feeling for music and Integration of Immigrants in Canada only enjoy melodies of Jane by Charlotte, a trivial or childish character.

Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir. These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and Integration only a peculiar kind of obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on well-being refers to, hearing a major third played in double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in the same way as that bitch and Integration of Immigrants her pups. There are nerves that react to certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to innumerable variations. It follows that it is virtual lunacy to rely on some artistic means rather than others to affect it and that the was louis, best a composer can do is to remain blindly true to his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the whims of fortune. One day I was walking out of the Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Integration of Immigrants Essay, Choral symphony. How do you find this work? one of them asked me. Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! That is strange, I was bored stiff. And what about you? he added, turning to an Italian

Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody But here are some papers talking about and Her Essay, it, and let us see what they say: Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for the nobility of its style, the of Immigrants in Canada Essay, grandeur of the design and the finish of the details. (Another paper) Beethoven’s Choral symphony is subjective refers to, a monstrosity. (Another paper) This work is not completely barren of ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is incoherent and devoid of charm. (Another paper) Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to devote his energies, sometimes to good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay set out in a perfectly clear and logical sequence. In short, it is a very interesting work by a tired genius . Where is the truth, and where is the error? Everywhere and nowhere. Everybody is right. What to someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom.

What can be done about this? nothing but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. Girls Image. The tone of this score is generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to joy. The theme in Integration of Immigrants in Canada detached notes with which the allegro begins is great, no more than a canvas on which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the movement like the principal theme is made to appear of secondary importance.

Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. Essay. This is great expectations chapter, what happens. After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into of Immigrants, a dialogue pianissimo with the expectations, second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of which is separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on Integration, the timpani on the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the fundamental F sharp. The passage is repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. The timpani re-enter on the same note, now the expectations chapter, genuine tonic and not as before the Integration in Canada Essay, leading note, and continue with the tremolo for some twenty bars. The tonal force of this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged.

Then the Dr. Hildegard and Her Theory, other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the Essay, timpani, and this leads to was louis a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in Integration of Immigrants in Canada all its majesty in the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the happiest inspirations we know in music. The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of character, constantly vague and indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in a more defined tonality, and only bursts out Integration Essay when the cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is body, like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to come crashing down in Integration in Canada a foaming waterfall. As for the adagio , it defies analysis So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is completely hidden from view.

From the very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by the end has reached an grendel unbearable pitch of intensity. It is only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to compare to this sublime movement from the in Canada Essay, giant of Jane Eyre Essay, music. Nothing resembles more the impression made by Integration of Immigrants in Canada, this adagio than the feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of E. Peplau Theory Essay, Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the narrative of of Immigrants in Canada Essay, which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into tears, and which at the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . This movement seems to have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on subjective refers to, the threshold of the empyrean. The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in Integration of Immigrants in Canada two beats that are forced to subjective well-being to fit into the framework of bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in of Immigrants in Canada Essay themselves real charm, though it is difficult to explain why. There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in this way yet coming together again at the end of each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution. The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness. The tempo is slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over grendel character the harmonic texture.

The finale is Integration of Immigrants Essay, joyful and alert and restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of riel, a jingle of Integration in Canada, scintillating notes in a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by a few raucous and wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the most famous of the character, symphonies, is in Canada, also in our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to expectations his vast imagination without being guided by Integration Essay, or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the first, second and fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of brilliant and passionate inspiration. In the third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is body, no mistaking the influence of one of those divine poets whom the great artist had long worshipped in his heart. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna, regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is Integration in Canada Essay, said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the C minor symphony seems to Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë’s arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm. The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and noble. The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair not the calm and Integration in Canada concentrated despair which has an air of resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the great chapter 35, death of Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the mouth of of Immigrants in Canada, Iago the poisonous calumnies which convince him of great expectations chapter 35, Desdemona’s crime. At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity.

Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the chords exchanged between wind and of Immigrants in Canada Essay strings which grow fainter as they come and go, like the expectations chapter, painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the orchestra seems to rise again revived by a flash of Essay, anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is a striking example in girls image this movement of the effect produced by Integration, the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the subjective well-being refers, raw character of the Integration of Immigrants Essay, chord of a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and once even without the leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is a bare and dissonant G on top in some wind parts. The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the fourth. It has the solemn melancholy of the former, and the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by the cellos and violas in unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in identical form and in grendel the same key from beginning to end of the movement, whatever the of Immigrants, successive changes undergone by the first theme. This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of was louis a hero, its kind that we have experienced. Among the most daring harmonic effects in this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the Integration Essay, strings are active lower down and progress through the chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by great 35, a flute, an oboe and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. Eyre By Charlotte. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, theorists, as is the high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful.

There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at riel, an interval of one bar , between the violins and Essay flutes, the clarinets and bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is a strange composition. The first bars, which in Jane Eyre by Charlotte themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of Integration of Immigrants in Canada, some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the E. Peplau Theory Essay, orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to belong to the world of thought of the Integration of Immigrants in Canada, famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the ponderous roughness of which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an exhilarated elephant But the monster moves away, and the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is grendel, established, and only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the Integration Essay, violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the image, bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth.

The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on a bowed chord of A flat on which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on Integration, their own with light strokes which stand out faintly against the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for its part the chapter 35, solitary pulsing of the timpani on C tends to preserve the feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates where will this harmonic mystery end? and then the soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in volume, joined by the violins which have started to in Canada move again, changing the harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of great expectations 35, G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in the major in of Immigrants Essay a triumphal march and the finale begins. The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and grendel there is of Immigrants in Canada Essay, no need to elaborate for the reader. Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the brilliance of the major mode follow the body, darkness of a pianissimo in of Immigrants in Canada Essay a minor key, that the Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay, triumphal theme was lacking in originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. Essay. We would answer: is it because the transition from piano to Essay forte , and from minor to major , are known devices that there is less genius in Integration in Canada creating such a work? How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in which the Jane Eyre by Charlotte Essay, soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to heaven? It is true that the first four bars of the march are not of striking originality; but there is a limit to what can be done with the genre of the fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character.

Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in fact even in Integration Essay the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and original style that is his hallmark. As for Essay the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the Integration Essay, movement, one might answer that in the present state of the art of music it is impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the scherzo to the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further. To remain at such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is enough to girls give the impression of a fall-off; so great has been the of Immigrants in Canada Essay, initial impact on the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to grendel character a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to cool down, and the symphony would be over of Immigrants in Canada before fatigue prevented the character, audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. But this remark only applies so to speak to in Canada Essay the way the work is presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and well-being drawn by Michelangelo.

The author of Fidelio and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of life. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the riel a hero, picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Of Immigrants. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the subjective refers, composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. In Canada Essay. We are dealing here with real nature. The title given by the composer to Eyre his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the of Immigrants in Canada, scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists. Heavy clouds come to hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods. These are the grendel character, images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way.

Further on Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, there is a Scene by the brook . Contemplation The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in the grass, his eyes turned to heaven, his ear listening to the wind, fascinated by subjective well-being to, countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at once to the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, bank. This is delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to reproduce at the end of the adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. Grendel Character. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is concerned: the imitation of its song is Integration in Canada Essay, no more successful here than in M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for the very simple reason that since the nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. But it seems to me that the refers, case is different with the quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way. Integration In Canada Essay. Now if the composer is criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in expectations chapter 35 reply that the same objection could be made when in the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of wind, the flashes of lightning and in Canada the bellowing of animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the pastoral symphony! But let us proceed. The poet now brings us in the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants.

The dancing and laughter are restrained at first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes. Beethoven’s intention was probably to Eyre by Charlotte Essay suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the key of F, the dominant and Integration in Canada the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. When the melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and becomes wild and noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of Jane, mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in triple time is repeated, but even more animated. The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the mountaineers add their noise and intoxication, there is of Immigrants, clapping, shouting and running, and the scene goes wild and furious Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in the midst of this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. E. Peplau Theory Essay. Storm, lightning . I despair of being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece.

It has to be heard to understand how realistic and sublime imitative music can become in the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of wind gorged with rain, the Integration in Canada Essay, dull growl of the basses, the shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the fearful storm that is about the break out. The hurricane approaches and increases in intensity. Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the Integration Essay, orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is no longer rain and wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and the end of the world. In truth the piece induces dizziness, and there are many who on hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain.

The symphony concludes with the E. Peplau and Her Essay, Thanksgiving of the peasants after the in Canada Essay, return of fine weather . Grendel Character. Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is in Canada, clear, the grendel character, torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the Integration of Immigrants, preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work the groups of great 35, five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay blend into a genuine unison? Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on the chord of C while the strings hold that of F? In truth I cannot. To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in the grip of riel a hero, such a subject! Far from it if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on end, and Integration of Immigrants inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse.

After such a concert should one have the misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Should someone ask you: How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in all seriousness. And these variations for clarinet? And the finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at girls body image, you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for all their beauty and the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus. Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei. especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect But Beethoven’s poem! these long periods so full of colour! these speaking images! these scents! this light! this eloquent silence! these vast horizons! these magic hideouts in the woods! these golden harvests! these pink clouds like wandering specks in the sky! this vast plain dozing under the midday sun! Man is absent! nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of everything that rests! The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river! the river, the source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in majestic silence! Then man appears, the man from the countryside, robust and Integration of Immigrants full of religious feeling his joyful play interrupted by the storm his fears his hymn of subjective to, thanksgiving Hide your faces, poor great poets of antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the art of sound.

You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the soul. Integration Of Immigrants. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of this. By Charlotte Brontë’s. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from what we give them now. The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and is barely twenty years old.

It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of emotion and feeling which was closed to you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the three other movements are less worthy of admiration far from it. But the of Immigrants in Canada, public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is not liable to excite noisy approval). And then, to enhance even further the object of such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. Jane By Charlotte Brontë’s. In France at least that is invariably the custom.

That is why when talking of Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the of Immigrants, symphony in C minor, the andante of the symphony in great chapter 35 A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the Integration in Canada, adagio or andante . It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and a number of E. Peplau and Her Essay, people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time. If this opinion is well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only be that of its sequence in the order of publication. The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention. It begins with one of those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an Essay exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own. There could hardly be a more original way of starting.

At the end of the introduction the note E, the dominant of A, returns after a series of excursions into neighbouring keys and forms the subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . The E comes and goes for six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from strings to wind. Finally it is subjective well-being refers, taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches. I have heard this theme ridiculed for Integration of Immigrants in Canada its rustic simplicity. Had the composer written in large letters at the head of this allegro the words Dance of subjective well-being to, peasants , as he has done for the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the subject treated by the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the explanation for the anomaly is not provided in advance. In Canada. Given the impossibility of character, deciding between such conflicting views the best course for a composer in such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the Integration, vain delusion of universal approval.

This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the and Her, harmony and shows up in Integration of Immigrants Essay a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the music up to the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the girls body image, skill with which it is written, so frequent and ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and their grouping, that the movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in the listener can lose any of their keenness. The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the Integration in Canada Essay, resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the key of E natural. This dissonance of Jane Eyre Brontë’s Essay, a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the E and in Canada Essay raised the Jane, F sharp to Integration of Immigrants G, or sustained the subjective well-being to, F and in Canada Essay brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on well-being refers, F natural, by moving the F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and grendel enhances its charm. Before passing on to the following movement let us not omit to mention the of Immigrants, striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside.

This is done by means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in the key of A major, which is repeated eleven times in the lower register by the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and was louis riel middle of the range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in increasingly fast figuration and combined in such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. This is completely novel, and fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to in Canada squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the principal cause of the grendel character, extraordinary effect produced by Integration Essay, the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in only one, then in all parts together. Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the character, starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings violas, cellos, double-basses played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery. From there it passes to the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the in Canada, orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force. Essay. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an anguished lament.

Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and Integration of Immigrants in Canada all-consuming suffering But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by a hero, a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from Integration of Immigrants, English poetry, One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and character our woes. After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and collapses in exhaustion. Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the flame of a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on of Immigrants Essay, an unresolved harmony and the and Her Theory, rest is Integration in Canada Essay, silence . This mournful cry, which begins and ends the andante , is produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto Jane by Charlotte Essay another one. Ending on an unresolved harmony is the only way to Integration Essay conclude, by leaving the listener in suspense and subjective well-being refers to thereby increasing the impression of dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. The theme of the scherzo modulates in a very novel way. It is in F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the Essay, first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the majority of pieces of this kind, the modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the tonic. The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below. There is some similarity of colour in these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the Eyre Essay, violins hold the dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in Integration of Immigrants Essay the spirit of Essay, landscape painting and the idyll. Of Immigrants Essay. Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the notes A and G sharp in duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note.

The public always seems taken by surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the preceding movements in new combinations, incisive modulations and delightful flights of fantasy. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the opening notes, and these are more obvious to grendel the eye than to the ear: in performance the two themes could hardly be more different. Of Immigrants Essay. The freshness and elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of great, Gluck, would make a greater impression if the Integration of Immigrants, chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the and Her, melody with a tremolo in double-stopping. Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the sudden transition from the key of C sharp minor to Integration of Immigrants Essay that of Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Theory, D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on Integration Essay, the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the girls body, result that the D natural of the upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the basses. One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at of Immigrants Essay, least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the grendel character, case, and the tonal thrust of this dominant is such that the D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and of Immigrants that only the buzzing E registers.

Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to its conclusion a masterpiece of technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration. Was Louis. This symphony is also in F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on in Canada Essay, a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies. Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau And Her Theory. Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in the breadth of Integration in Canada, its forms, it is at least far superior to it in three respects instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in character. The second and in our view the more striking of the E. Peplau, two always seems to avoid the perfect cadence, by modulating first in a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and ends in C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in the melody gives the listener the Integration in Canada, feeling that the composer, inclined at grendel character, first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into the composer’s imagination; he writes it at a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it. In Canada Essay. The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in its nonchalant manner, like the song of two children picking flowers in was louis riel a field on a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of of Immigrants in Canada, two sections of three bars each, the symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and the second on the strong.

The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the lack of symmetry in the strings’ melody which results from the great, additional silent bar. The function of this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over Integration Essay which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect. But it is was louis a hero, hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Essay, Italian cadence. At the girls body image, moment when the instrumental dialogue of the two small orchestras of of Immigrants Essay, wind and strings is at its most enchanting, the was louis riel a hero, composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to an abrupt halt. I have never been able to make sense of this musical joke. At this point a minuet, similar in design and tempo to those of Haydn, takes the place of the scherzo in triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and in Canada Essay the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay, contrast sparkles with wit; the Integration in Canada, musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed. It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay, work to a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and which sometimes even pause on a silence.

At the cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the of Immigrants Essay, high pedal held by the flutes and character oboes on F, while the of Immigrants in Canada Essay, timpani underneath repeat the same note in octaves at the return of the grendel, theme, and the violins play the notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the tonic chord. This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into in Canada Essay, the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. On the Jane Eyre by Charlotte Essay, contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the Integration, instruments and the character of the musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is performed: the note C sharp played very loud by the mass of the orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in Brontë’s the key of of Immigrants in Canada Essay, C major. The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the C sharp was simply an enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. Subjective Refers To. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the theme in D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . The note which initially played the in Canada, role of a minor sixth becomes on was louis, its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . Integration Essay. This is very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to undertake. The excuse for was louis a hero such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to Integration of Immigrants Essay see the work through the composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement.

Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at least an approximate understanding of it later; the expectations chapter 35, majority of artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, realm of art, and who have thought deeply about the general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the E. Peplau Theory Essay, score and listening to it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to of Immigrants Essay them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem a subject wide open to Eyre Brontë’s individual conjecture let us see whether the novelty of the form is not justified in this case by an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one. To progress beyond the point he had already reached solely with the resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available? The answer is the addition of Integration Essay, voices to and Her instruments. But in order to observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to figure on their own in the first section of the musical canvas he intended to display Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the Integration in Canada, chorus and the orchestra, over which the instruments crossed to go and join the voices. The transition once established the composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place.

That is the point where speaking through the chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends! No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy! That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the chapter, oath formula. Thereafter it was up to the composer to select the text for his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and took over the Ode to Joy . He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on of Immigrants, its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance. Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in detail.

The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at grendel character, times excessively daring: the most original patterns, the most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. On the contrary the result has perfect clarity, and Integration in Canada Essay the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and Jane by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay its own special style, seem to Integration of Immigrants form a single voice, such is the Eyre by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay, emotional charge that drives them. Integration Of Immigrants. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in great expectations chapter other words on the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and played as an Integration in Canada Essay arpeggio above and below by grendel, the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of Essay, A minor, or of A major, or that of the dominant of D. Girls Body Image. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and character to the entry of the full orchestra on Essay, the chord of E. Peplau Theory Essay, D minor. At the end of the movement there are moments that move the soul to its depths. It would be hard to hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an approaching storm. This is a passage of in Canada, magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau we will be forced to in Canada admit that the reason for these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in Eyre Brontë’s the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and of Immigrants Essay augmented sixth, and finally G over well-being refers which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an Integration of Immigrants excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is was louis riel a hero, of short duration.

This passage is lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is of Immigrants in Canada, really what the composer intended. Grendel Character. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on the tonic in the upper and middle voices which are sustained through the dominant chord. But I have already stated my position on of Immigrants in Canada, these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and this new example is not needed to demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the use of great expectations, rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting. The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm. The central part of the scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is of Immigrants Essay, deployed over character an intermediary pedal note which is either the tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the of Immigrants in Canada, held notes, the dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of delightful freshness in the oboe; after staying poised for a moment over the dominant major chord of D it finally blossoms in the key of F natural in image a way that is as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the Integration of Immigrants Essay, gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and image peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in of Immigrants Essay spring.

In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in great chapter B flat in quadruple time is followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in the original key and leads to the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and without embellishments but in the key of G major. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and no longer allows the of Immigrants in Canada Essay, rival theme to great compete for the listener’s attention. Repeated hearings of Integration, this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design. As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the girls body, feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only my words could give even an approximate idea of Integration in Canada Essay, them, then music would have found in the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and once the listener has succumbed to refers its powerful charm, the only answer to the criticism that the composer has violated here the Integration of Immigrants in Canada, law of unity has to be: so much the subjective well-being refers to, worse for in Canada the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the grendel character, orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of in Canada Essay, anger. The chord of the major sixth, F, A and D, with which this presto begins, is altered by character, an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the of Immigrants in Canada, sixth of the key of 35, D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and produces an Integration Essay excessively harsh effect.

This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the E. Peplau Theory, chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements. What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to be sung by all the voices on Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to the violins and Integration in Canada the wind instruments. After a sudden interruption, the whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative.

The first chord is again built on an F which is supposed to carry the third and was louis riel a hero the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to of Immigrants in Canada Essay produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and subjective well-being to did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic intervals of the scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into the sea but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the of Immigrants Essay, dignity of body, art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions. But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in vain. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the appearance of the recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for the reason for this idea, and I have to admit that it is of Immigrants in Canada, unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on his own the theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of subjective well-being refers to, these diverse transformations is all the more absorbing as each of them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in the expression of a single feeling, that of joy.

At first this joy is full of gentleness and peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of women is heard. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in Integration of Immigrants in Canada quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in E. Peplau and Her Essay syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and agile character that has a martial quality. This is the song of Integration in Canada Essay, a departing hero who is confident of victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of his step. A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the chapter, bustling activity of Integration, a crowd full of ardour But the 35, chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the wind instruments which shadow the in Canada, melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by the whole mass of strings in unison and Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Theory Essay octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the chorus, in Essay unison with a trombone, the cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and becomes solemn and immense.

The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality. The imitation of the majestic instrument of Christian churches is produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the lower notes of the riel a hero, bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and of Immigrants the cellos playing on their open strings G and D, or the low C (open string) and girls body the C in the middle range, always in double-stopping. This piece starts in Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay G, moves to C, then to F, and ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the preceding andante . The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by great expectations chapter, the first violins but also by the double-basses. Now it is impossible for double-basses to in Canada perform a succession of notes at that speed, and once again it is hard to understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the addition of the chorus.

Moments of tenderness and religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the tempo becomes increasingly precipitate. The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum strike emphatically the strong beats of the bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an expectations chapter orgy if at the end the voices did not pause once more on Integration of Immigrants in Canada, a solemn rhythm to send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for religious joy. The orchestra ends on was louis, its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. A translation as accurate as possible of the in Canada Essay, German poem set by Beethoven will convey to the reader the by Charlotte Essay, stimulus for this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of of Immigrants, unceasing inspiration and obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. Who has had the good fortune to be the a hero, friend of a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, earth his own. But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. All beings drink joy on the breast of Jane Brontë’s Essay, nature; all good and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay all evil men follow a path strewn with roses. She gave us kisses and E. Peplau Theory vintage, a friend who is true unto death.

The worm receives the joy of life and of Immigrants Essay the cherub stands before God! Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of subjective refers, heaven, hurry, brothers, on your way, joyful like a hero hastening to victory. Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. You fall prostrate, o you millions? World, do you sense the creator? Seek him above the starry heaven!

He must dwell over the stars! Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the gods!! Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the most difficult to Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in Eyre Brontë’s Essay particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the in Canada Essay, chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and character the excessive height of some of the in Canada, choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the volume and power of the sound. Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the great chapter 35, monument he had just built, he must have said to himself: Death may come now, but my task is accomplished. * Note: the following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. Of Immigrants. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;

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essay on man by pope Pope wrote his Essay on Man in rhyming verse. Certainly today, we think anybody that writes poetry is one who is Integration of Immigrants Essay, a bit odd, to say the grendel least. Back in the eighteenth century, it was not so strange. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada Essay. Pope stated that he had two reasons for writing his essay in such a manner. First, he thought that principles, maxims, or precepts so written, both strike the reader more strongly at by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay first, and are more easily retained by him afterwards. Of Immigrants In Canada Essay. The second reason that Pope gave is that he thought that he could express himself more shortly this way than in great expectations chapter 35, prose itself. I here make comments about the expressions and thoughts of Pope in Integration of Immigrants, his essay. I have quoted at length from his essay.

Certainly there is much I have left out, because, likely, certain verses referred to events, persons and things of the early eighteenth century which, quite frankly, I am unfamiliar with. Spattered throughout Pope's work are references to God and His great domain. Such references in image, the writings out of the Integration eighteenth century are not strange. The livelihood of writers, by and large -- as was with the E. Peplau and Her case of all artists back then -- depended almost entirely on the generosity of of Immigrants in Canada church and state, so it was necessary in those days that writers give due regard to religious authority. Great Expectations 35. Believing that if Pope were looking over my shoulder he would have no objection, I have left out religious epaulets. Within the first few lines, we see Pope wondering about the fruitlessness of life. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada Essay. We have no choice: we come to it, look out and character, then die. What we see as we look out on the scene of of Immigrants man is a mighty maze! But Pope does not think this complex of and Her Theory Essay existence is without a plan. Man might sort through the maze because he has a marvelous mental faculty, that of reason; man can determine the nature of the world in Integration, which he lives; he can see that all things have bearings, ties and girls image, strong connections and nice dependencies. He, who thro' vast immensity can pierce,

See worlds on worlds compose one universe, Observe how system into system runs, What other planets circle other suns, Look'd thro'? or can a part contain the whole? Is the Integration in Canada great chain that draws all to agree, - And, drawn, supports - upheld by God or thee? In his next stanza, Pope makes reference to presumptuous man! Why should one be disturbed because he cannot immediately figure out all of the mysteries with which he is presented? It cannot be expected that one part of existence (man) should understand all the other parts, he then continues: As of thy mother Earth, why oaks are made.

Taller or stronger than the weeds they shade. And all that rises, rise in due degree; Then, in the sale of riel a hero reas'ning life, 'tis plain. There must be, somewhere, such a rank as Man. When the dull ox, why now he breaks the clod, Is now a victim, and now Egypt's god, - Then say not Man's imperfect, Heav'n in in Canada, fault, - Say rather Man's as perfect as he ought: His knowledge measur'd to character, his state and place, His time a moment, and a point his space. Pope continues with this theme into his third stanza, in saying Heav'n from all creatures hides the book of fate, and continues: The lamb thy riot dooms to bleed to-day,

Had he thy reason, would he skip and play? Pleas'd to the last he crops the flow'ry food, And licks the Integration Essay hand just rais'd to and Her Theory Essay, shed his blood. Who sees with equal eye, as God of Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay all, A hero perish, or a sparrow fall, Atoms or systems into ruin hurl'd, And now a bubble burst, and now a world. Then giving way to his religious bent, makes reference to the great teacher Death and continues with his most famous lines: Hope springs eternal in the human breast; Man never is, but always to be blest:

The soul uneasy and confin'd from 35 home, Rest and expatiates in Integration of Immigrants in Canada, a life to Theory Essay, come. Next, Pope deals with native people of the Integration in Canada Essay uncivilized territories of the world, and how they do not get hung up on such large questions as are expressed in Pope's essay: Lo, the poor Indian! whose untutor'd mind. Sees God in clouds, or hears him in the wind; His soul proud Science never taught to stray. Far as the Eyre solar walk or milky way; Yet simple Nature to his hope has giv'n, Behind the Essay cloud-topp'd hill, a humbler heav'n; Some safer world in depth of woods embrac'd,

Some happier island in the wat'ry waste, Where slaves once more their native land behold, No fiends torment, no Christians thirst for gold! To be, contents his natural desire; He asks no angel's wing, no seraph's fire: But things, admitted to that equal sky, His faithful dog shall bear him company. Next, we see Pope start to develop the Jane Eyre Brontë’s theme that runs throughout his essay; man is part of a larger setting, a part of nature.

Man depends on nature for his very substance, and yet, treats her roughly. Destroy all creatures for thy sport or gust, Yet cry, if Man's unhappy, God's unjust; Ask for what end the heav'nly bodies shine, Earth for whose use, Pride answers, 'Tis for mine! For me kind Nature wakes her genial pow'r, Suckles each herb and Integration of Immigrants in Canada, spreads out ev'ry flow'r; Pope asserts that man is riel, ruled from within, by his reason and by his passion. Better for of Immigrants in Canada Essay us, perhaps, it might appear, Were there are harmony, all virtue here;

That never air or ocean felt the wind; That never passion discompos'd the mind. But all subsists by grendel elemental strife; And passions are the elements of life. The gen'ral Order since the of Immigrants in Canada Essay whole began. Is kept in Nature, and is kept in well-being refers, Man. Passion may be equated to instinct; and instinct is the sole guide of Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay animals.

Instinct is all that animals need as evolution has fitted each animal to his home environment, unlike man who is in want of the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. Here with degrees of swiftness, there of force: All in subjective well-being, exact proportion to the state; Nothing to add, and nothing to of Immigrants in Canada Essay, abate. Each beast, each insect, happy in its own: Is Heav'n unkind to Man, and Man alone?

Shall he alone, whom rational we call, Be pleas'd with nothing, if not bless'd with all? Again, Pope emphasizes how nature all good and wise. and what it gives, and what denies has perfected itself and great, many of its creations: The spider's tough how exquisitely fine! Feels at each thread, and lives along the Integration of Immigrants Essay line: In the nice bee, what sense so subtly true. From pois'nous herbs extracts the healing dew? In nature, we find life in a complete variety, - vast chain of being everything beast, bird, fish, insect. Dr. Hildegard. Or in the full creation leave a void,

Where, one step broken, the great scale's destroy'd: From Nature's chain whatever link you strike, Tenth or ten thousandth, breaks the chain alike. The point, I think, is that there is Integration Essay, a fearful balance of nature in all its variety, and we dare not destroy one aspect of nature for fear of destroying the grendel character whole. All this dread order break - for whom? for thee?

Vile worm! - oh madness! pride! impiety! In the last line of Pope's first epistle, he bangs home the in Canada importance of the ruling mind of nature, that while some parts might seem to us to be absurd, it is part of the general frame that all of nature, including ourselves, are but parts of subjective refers one stupendous whole. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada. This whole body of character nature is through all life and extends throughout all of the Essay universe and operates unspent. Pope concludes his first epistle: Safe in the hand of one disposing Pow'r, Or in great expectations 35, the natal, or the mortal hour. All Nature is but Art, unknown to thee; All chance, direction, which thou canst not see. All discord, harmony not understood,

All partial evil, universal good: And, spite of Integration of Immigrants Essay pride, in erring reason's spite, One truth is clear, whatever is, is right. Pope opens his second Epistle much the same as he opened his first. What is the 35 function of man, positioned as he is somewhere between a god and a beast. Man, during that brief interlude between birth and death, experiences a chaos of thought and passion, all confus'd. He finds on Integration in Canada Essay earth the Jane Eyre by Charlotte Great lord of in Canada Essay all things, yet a prey to all.

Man's function, Pope concludes, is to make a proper study of mankind ; man is to know himself. What man will come to know is that he is ruled by passion; passion is the Dr. Hildegard and Her Essay ruler and reason it's counsellor. In Canada. Alas what wonder! Man's superior part. Uncheck'd may rise and climb from art to art; But when his own great work is but begun,

What Reason weaves, by Passion is undone. It is in the nature of man to first serve himself; but, on body account of reason, to Integration of Immigrants, do so with the long range in view. Two Principles in human nature reign; Self-love, to urge, and Reason, to restrain; Self-love still stronger, as its objects nigh; Reason's at Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Theory Essay distance, and in in Canada, prospect lie: A person is driven by passion, driven by his desire for character pleasure; temptation is strong and passion is thicker than arguments. Of Immigrants Essay. However, a person soon learns through bitter experience that one cannot let his or her passions run wild.

Attention, habit and experience gains; Each strengthens Reason, and Self-love restrains. Self-love and Reason to one end aspire, Pain their aversion, Pleasure their desire, Pleasure, or wrong or rightly understood, Our greatest evil, or our greatest good.

Passions, tho' selfish, if their means be fair, List under reason, and deserve her care. On life's vast ocean diversely we sail, Reason the card, but passion is the gale;2. Love, Hope, and Joy, fair Pleasure's smiling train, Hate, Fear, and Grief, the family of Pain, These mix'd with art, and to due bounds confin'd, Make and expectations 35, maintain the balance of the mind: Pope's theme is again repeated: the two driving forces of man are his reason and his passion.

However, passion is the king and reason but a weak queen. What can she more than tell us we are fools? Teach us to mourn our nature, not to mend. A sharp accuser but a helpless friend! Reason (th' Eternal Art, educing good from ill) is not a guide but a guard. Passion is the mightier pow'r. Envy, Pope points out as an aside, is something that can be possessed only by Integration of Immigrants in Canada those who are learn'd or brave.

Ambition: can destroy or save, and makes a patriot as it makes a knave. With Pope's thoughts, it soon becomes clear one should not necessarily consider that envy and ambition are in themselves wrong. Jane Eyre By Charlotte Essay. They are moving forces in a person and if properly guided, can serve a person well. As, in some well-wrought picture, light and shade. And oft so mix, the diff'rence is of Immigrants, too nice, Where ends the virtue, or begins the a hero vice. And virtuous and Integration Essay, vicious ev'ry man must be, Few in a hero, the extreme, but all in the degree; Each person is driven by self-love, but on Integration Essay the same occasion each on the other to depend, a master, or a servant, or a friend, bids each on other for assistance call. Each person seeks his own happiness, seeks his own contentment; each is proud in what he or she has achieved, no matter what another person might think of those achievements. Whate'er the subjective well-being to passions, knowledge, fame, or pelf,

Not one will change is neighbour with himself. The learn'd is happy nature to explore, The fool is happy that he knows no more; The rich is happy in the plenty given, The poor contents him with the care of Heaven, See the blind beggar dance, the cripple sing.

The sot a hero, lunatic a king; The starving chemist in his golden views. Supremely bless'd, the poet in his Muse. None of us should be critical of another person's choice in life, who is to know it is right. Behold the child, by nature's kindly law, Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw:

Some livelier plaything give his youth delight, A little louder, but as empty quite: Scarfs, garters, gold, amuse his riper stage, And beads and Integration of Immigrants in Canada, prayer-books are the Brontë’s Essay toys of age: Pleased with this bauble still, as that before, Till tired he sleeps, and life's poor play is o'er. Pope returns, in his third Epistle, to Integration, his ever present theme, all is natural in nature and man is a part of nature. He first observes how plastic nature is, how everything is dependant on one and the other, is attracted to one and a hero, the other, down even to single atoms.

Everything it's neighbour to in Canada Essay, embrace. (While Pope did not do so, he might just as easily have observed that things in expectations chapter 35, nature repel one another, equally so. All things, in Essay, the final analysis, are held in the balance, suspended, so it seems, between the two great forces of attraction and was louis riel a hero, repulsion.) All forms that perish other forms supply, (By turns we catch the vital breath, and die) Like bubbles on the sea a matter borne, They rise, they break, and to that sea return. Nothing is foreign; parts relate to of Immigrants Essay, whole: Then, Pope picks up once again his theme of the ruling principles, reason and passion. Here in his third Epistle, he refers to instinct as the unerring guide that reason often fails us, though sometimes serves when press'd. But honest instinct comes a volunteer, Sure never to o'ershoot, but just to hit, While still to wide or short is human wit; Sure by quick nature happiness to Brontë’s Essay, gain,

Which heavier reason labour at in vain. Instinct can be seen at work throughout nature, for example, Who make the Integration of Immigrants Essay spider parallels design . without rule or line? Not just the spider does things by instinct, man does. The obvious example is his artistic work, but our instincts serve us on Jane Eyre by Charlotte Essay a much broader range. Think! And you will wonder about many of the daily things that are done, automatically it seems. What, exactly, is it that prompts us to do things. Who calls the council, states the certain day, Who forms the phalanx, and who points the way? Pope then comes to a rather critical passage in his essay, when he deals with family units in the animal kingdom versus human beings.

The fact of the matter is, family units do not count for much in the animal kingdom, at any rate, not for long. However, family connections for human beings extend over of Immigrants a long period, indeed, over girls image a lifetime. I would observe that it is an evolutionary development, needed because of the long time required before a child passes into adulthood. These family feelings are important for the development and Essay, cohesion of the family, but not necessarily good when extended to the larger group, society as a whole (this is refers, a theme that I have developed elsewhere (EconEcon.doc) and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay, which someday I hope to put up on the 'net.). Thus beast and E. Peplau Essay, bird their common charge attend, The mothers nurse it, and the sires defend: The young dismiss'd to wander earth or air,

There stops the instinct, and in Canada, there ends the care; The link dissolves, each seeks a fresh embrace, Another love succeeds, another race. A longer care man's helpless kind demands; That longer care contracts more lasting bands:

Reflection, reason, still the image ties improve, At one extend the interest, and the love; With choice we fix, with sympathy we burn; Each virtue in each passion takes its turn; And still new needs, new helps, new habits rise. That graft benevolence on charities. Still as one brood, and as another rose, These natural love maintain'd, habitual those:

The last, scarce ripen'd into perfect man, Saw helpless from him whom their life began: Memory and forecast just returns engage; That pointed back to youth, this on to age; While pleasure, gratitude, and hope, combined,

Still spread the Essay interest, and preserved the riel a hero kind. Pope then, continuing with his third Epistle, returns to of Immigrants Essay, his principle and the power of nature. Nature is a driving gale, a fact which can be observed in the voice of nature and which we can learn from the Eyre by Charlotte Essay birds and of Immigrants, the beasts. It was the power of nature that built the ant's republic and the realm of girls body image bees. Pope observes anarchy without confusion. Their separate cells and Integration in Canada Essay, properties maintain. Mark what unvaried laws preserve each state;-

Laws wise as nature, and as fix'd as fate. In vain thy reason finer webs shall draw; Entangle justice in her net of law; And right, too rigid, harden into wrong, Still for Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau the strong too weak, the weak too strong.

Yet go! and thus o'er all the creatures sway; Thus let the wiser make the rest obey; And for those arts mere instinct could afford, Be crown'd as monarchs, or as gods adored. It is the same voice of nature by which men evolved and cities were built, societies were made. That while men in the gradual and Integration in Canada, slow build-up ravished one another with war, it was commerce that brought about civilization. Great Chapter. Men came to new countries with war-like intentions, but soon became friends when they realized there was much more profit in trade. When love was liberty, and nature law: Thus states were form'd; the Integration Essay name of king unknown, Till common interest placed the sway in character, one. 'Twas Virtue only, or in of Immigrants Essay, arts or arms,

So, it was trade that built civilizations, and Pope observes, that it was tradition that preserves them. Convey'd unbroken faith from sire to son; The worker from the work distinct was known, Then, continuing in this historical vein, Pope deals with the development of government and of laws. So drives self-love, through just and girls body image, through unjust. To one man's power, ambition, lucre, lust: The same self-love, in Integration of Immigrants, all, becomes the a hero cause.

Of what restrains him, government and laws: For, what one likes if others like as well, What serves one will, when many wills rebel? How shall we keep, what, sleeping or awake, A weaker may surprise, a stronger take? His safety must his liberty restrain: All join to guard what each desires to Integration Essay, gain.

Forced into virtue thus by self-defence, Ev'n kings learn'd justice and Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau Theory Essay, benevolence: Self-love forsook the of Immigrants in Canada Essay path it first pursued, And found the private in the public good. 'Twas then, the studious head or generous mind,

Follower of God or friend of Jane by Charlotte Essay human-kind, Poet or patriot, rose but to restore. The faith and moral Nature gave before; Relumed her ancient light, not kindled new; If not God's image, yet his shadow drew; Taught power's due use to people and to kings;

Taught not to slack nor strain its tender strings; The less or greater set so justly true, That touching one must strike the other too; Till jarring int'rests of themselves create. Th' according music of a well-mix'd state. Such is the world's great harmony, that springs. From order, union, full consent of of Immigrants things:

Where small and E. Peplau and Her, great, where weak and mighty made. To serve, not suffer, strengthen, not invade; More pow'rful each as needful to the rest, And in proportion as it blesses, blest; Draw to Integration of Immigrants in Canada, one point, and to one centre bring. Beast, man, or angel, servant, lord, or king. Pope makes a side observation that while government is necessary, its form is Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Essay, of less importance, what is important, is a good administration: For forms of government let fools contest; Whate'er is in Canada Essay, best administer'd is best: Pope then concludes in his third Epistle, emphasizing that regard for oneself and his family has to be different than regard for the whole of society, that nature link'd the Jane Brontë’s gen'ral frame and bade self-love and social be the same. In his last Epistle on the Essay of Man, Pope deals with the subject of happiness. It may be any one of of Immigrants a number of things, it depends on the person: good, pleasure, ease, content! whatever thy name.

That happiness as a plant of celestial seed will grow, and if it doesn't, one should not blame the soil, but rather the way one tends the soil. Though man may well seek happiness in many quarters, it will only be found in nature. Man should avoid extremes. He should not go about in life trusting everything, but on the same occasion neither should he be a total skeptic. Take Nature's path, and made Opinion's leave; All states can reach it and all heads conceive; Obvious her goods, in no extreme they dwell; There needs but thinking right, and was louis riel a hero, meaning well; And mourn our various portions as we please,

Equal is common sense, and common ease. To Pope, pleasure does not last, it sicken, and all glories sink. To each person comes his or her share and of Immigrants in Canada, who would more obtain, Shall find the pleasure pays not half the pain. Refers To. To be rich, to be wise: these are both laudable goals and a person looking about will always be able to find others who have riches and wisdom in of Immigrants Essay, varying degrees, but it cannot be concluded to any degree that they are happy. And Her. Happiness comes when one has health, peace, and competence. It is not clear to me from of Immigrants Pope's lines how one might secure peace and competence; health, he says, consists with temperance alone. It is in the nature of man to Eyre Essay, attempt to in Canada Essay, change things; he is a hero, never happy with things as he finds them; never happy with his fellow man; never happy with the in Canada Essay world about him.

We forever strive to make things perfect, a state that can hardly be define in human terms. Riel. Those that reflect on man's condition will soon have Utopian dreams. But still this world, so fitted for the knave, Contents us not. A better shall we have? A kingdom of the just then let it be: But first consider how those just agree.

The good must merit God's peculiar care; But who but God can tell us who they are? It all too often appears to of Immigrants in Canada Essay, us that virtue starves, while vice is fed. One might wish for man to be a God and for earth to be a heaven, both God and heaven coming from the imaginations of Dr. Hildegard Theory man. In Canada. But, Pope concludes: 'Whatever is, is Jane Essay, right.' -- This world, 'tis true. Of fame, Pope says, it is but a fancied life in others' breath . All that we feel of it begins and ends in the small circle of Integration of Immigrants Essay our foes and friends . It will get you nothing but a crowd of stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Of wisdom, Pope attempts a definition and points out how often the Dr. Hildegard and Her Essay wise are bound to trudge alone with neither help nor understanding from his fellow man. In parts superior what advantage lies!

Tell, for you can, what is it to of Immigrants Essay, be wise? 'Tis but to know how little can be known ; To see all others' faults, and Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau and Her Theory Essay, feel our own: Condem'd in business or in arts to drudge, Without a second, or without a judge: Truths would you teach, or save a sinking land?

All fear, none aid you, and Integration of Immigrants, few understand. And so we arrive at the last of Pope's lines. Show'd erring Pride, WHATEVER IS, IS RIGHT; That Reason, Passion, answer one great aim; That true Self-love and Social are the same . 1 The Poetical Works of grendel Alexander Pope which includes Dr. Johnson's 65 page biography on Integration in Canada Pope, Essay on Man (31 pp.); Essay on Criticism (17 pp.), Rape of the Lock (19 pp.), The Dunciad (31 pp.).

My vintage copy has within it two frontispiece Steel Engravings (Philadelphia: Hazard, 1857). 2 Here, again, we see Pope refer to the analogy of the sailing ship on the sea finding its way only with compass (card) for direction and the wind in the sails to drive the vessel along.

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curatorial essays Christiane Paul, curator. Over the Integration of Immigrants in Canada last decade Eduardo Kac has emerged as the figurehead of the girls artistic practice commonly referred to as bio art. Bio art draws on various fields of contemporary biology, among them plant and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay animal breeding, cell and tissue culture, the character synthesis of artificial DNA sequences, and transgenic artin Kac words, a new art form based on the expression of Integration in Canada Essay synthetic genes in grendel a host organism, or the expression of an Integration Essay existing gene in subjective well-being a different organism. While there is no doubt about Kac's leading role in this field, his body of work circumscribes a domain that is not easily reduced to the bio art sphere: from holographic and digital poetry that found its continuation in biopoetry; to fax and in Canada Essay slow scan TV telecommunications projects (late '80s and early '90s) that evolved into to, Internet-based telepresence art (from the '90s onwards). Biotopes, Lagoglyphs and Transgenic Works takes a wide look at Eduardo Kac's artistic practice and brings together key works and newly produced projects that exemplify the breadth of his approach. The common thread of Kac's artistic creations could be captured by the concept of the encoded nature of life. His work addresses the notion of code in poetry (language as sign system), genetics (DNA as a form of sign system) and algorithmic instructions.

At the core of Kac's projects lie questions about the encoding or transcoding of communication: communication that takes place on the cell level in all living organisms or between species; communication between sign systems that takes the form of transcoding and in Canada Essay remix; encoded exchanges between remote locations via networks that establish telematic connections and Jane Eyre by Charlotte Essay telepresence. Together, the works exhibited in the Oi Futuro exhibition explore these facets of encoded life. One of Kac's signature works, Genesis (1999), metaphorically and literally took the connection between the word and creation as its starting point and expanded its boundaries. For the project, Kac created a synthetic artist's gene by translating a sentence from the biblical book of Genesis Let man have dominion over the fish of the sea and the fowl of the Integration of Immigrants air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth into Morse Code, and grendel then converting the of Immigrants in Canada Morse Code into DNA base pairs. The synthetic gene is refers to cloned into plasmids, which are transformed into Integration of Immigrants, bacteria exhibited in a gallery installation, which involves the mutation of the genes. To! Genesis examines and questions the relationships between multiple contexts, among them biology, belief systems, information technology and Integration of Immigrants Essay ethics. The interplay between these various contexts is produced by the 'writing' and a hero translation of different forms of information that result in the creation of a life form based on code.

At the same time, Kac undermines simplistic readings of genetics as a script of life: his projects problematize and explore the complexities of what constitutes life in the age of genetic engineering. The transcoding and transgenic manipulation that was essential to Integration of Immigrants, Genesis finds a more radical and personal expression in Jane by Charlotte Brontë’s Essay the Natural History of the Enigma (2003/08) series, of Integration of Immigrants in Canada Essay which several projects are included in the Oi Futuro exhibition. At the center of the series is Edunia , a genetically engineered flower that is a hybrid of Kac's DNA and a Petunia flower. The Edunia expresses Kac's DNA in its red veins, alluding to was louis riel a hero, the shared heritage of the redness of blood and the redness of the plant's veins. Kac isolated DNA derived from his blood and combined it with a promoter that makes the gene express itself in the veins of the plant. The work was developed between 2003 and 2008. The gene that Kac chose for the project is responsible for identifying foreign bodies, usually in order to reject them. The Edunia flower thereby becomes a form of existential play and enigma, integrating the very biological mechanism that normally would identify and reject the other and Essay erasing the great expectations chapter boundaries that prevent integration of the building blocks of species. The artist as creator integrates himself into a life form, combining species and questioning existing biological taxonomies. Of Immigrants! Edunia is an ontological challenge, at was louis riel a hero least when it comes to Integration of Immigrants, established categories of being.

The enigma of Edunia is an ontological one; it radically questions which entities exist or can be said to exist and challenges their traditional hierarchical groupings according to character, similarities and differences. The Natural History of the Integration of Immigrants in Canada Enigma series consists of a number of body projects, among them a large-scale public sculpture, as well as a suite of lithographs, prints, and Integration seed packs that are included in the exhibition. The Edunia Seed Pack Studies , a group of lithographs, alludes to the visual convergence of girls body roots and of Immigrants the flowerhead's veins. The lithographs served as studies for the Edunia Seed Packs, hand-made paper objects that contain the Edunia seeds, collectible objects that give their owners the power to subjective well-being refers to, grow the hybrid of Essay artist and flower. A group of subjective refers lambda prints titled Plantimal shows Edunia flowerheads whose faces all look distinctly different, portraying the flower both as a (non-human) individual and, art-historically, questioning the 'taxonomy' of an in Canada Essay artists (self) portrait. What is rushing through the veins of the Edunia flowerheads is the blood of the artist, transcoded and abstracted in phylogenetic expression. Edunia evokes a long history of art trying to transcend the boundaries between art and life, turning the riel artwork into a living being. As Jack Burnham stated in of Immigrants Essay Beyond Modern Sculpture [1],Behind much art extending through the Western tradition exists a yearning to break down the psychic and physical barriers between art and living reality.

In Cocteau's film The Blood of a Poet an artist sketches a face whose mouth starts to move. He tries to rub out the mouth only to discover that it has been transferred to his hand, which he places over the mouth of a female statue, who starts speaking to him and persuades him into and Her, passing through a mirror into a parallel world. While maintaining the metaphorical power of the blood of the poet/artist who becomes the life form, Kac's Edunia illustrates that, through contemporary science and its transcoding of Integration structures of Theory Essay life, we have entered a new era of meaning for both art and of Immigrants life. The writing of life forms and the do-it-yourself aspect of creating them are at the core of Cypher (2009), a new artwork by grendel character Kac that fuses a sculptural artist's book and a DIY transgenic kit. The stainless steel kit opens up like a book and has the title of the work displayed both on the cover of the Integration of Immigrants in Canada kit and the spine of the slipcase. Great Chapter! Inside the kit is a minilab with Petri dishes, nutrients, and synthetic DNA, with a poem written by Kac embedded in its genetic sequence. When the vieweror reader/writerfollows the transformation protocol outlined in the kit by integrating the synthetic DNA into bacteria, the poem comes to life, making the in Canada Essay normally pale bacteria glow red. Once the transformation has been implemented it will become part of the whole bacterial system since each newly reproduced bacterium will contain it.

In Kac's coding of the poem, he fused two systems of writing, pairing alphabetical letters with short DNA sequences by creating a composition with a high occurrence of the fourletters representing the genetic bases CGTA (Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, Adenine). Poetry and code become integral to each otherto meaning and body life, to the verbal and bacterial (sign) systems. Cypher is the artists book as laboratory, fusing sculpture and poetry, technology and biological life, and counteracting Frankensteinian notions of the destructive and of Immigrants in Canada Essay monstrous agencies of manipulated life forms. While being literalin its enactment of great expectations chapter words coming to life Cypher never privileges the primary meaning of words, but sustains the poetic and metaphorical. The art object as living organism takes yet another form in Specimen of Secrecy about Marvelous Discoveries , a series of works that Kac describes as biotopes. Integration Of Immigrants In Canada Essay! The biotopes are ecologies of thousands of microorganisms framed in a transparent casing with earth, water, and other materials.

In this case the artist's process is less an act of encoding than an orchestration of the organisms' metabolism through combining them with nutrient-rich media and controlling the energy they receive in order to keep them still or in motion and thus create a living animation. Among Kac's biological works, the biotopes are the ones that most explicitly explore abstract visual form and at the same time redefine and fuse different media. They are living painterly objects that appear to be still images, yet are constantly evolving slow-motion animations generating and never repeating themselves. Colors and geometric visual forms are responses to the external environment (e.g. temperature and light) and the internal metabolism. The biotopes are more than the Dr. Hildegard and Her Theory Essay sum of their microorganisms. Together, the individual life forms constitute an artwork as ecology and living system, with behaviors that express themselves in a visual slow-motion animation. As forms they interact with and enable each other's existence in relation to their internal system and the external world. As specimen they enable Marvelous Discoveries of the intrinsic connections between art and life, the natural evolution of of Immigrants in Canada Essay forms and abstraction, and subjective refers to the nature of living forms as a responsive medium in dialogue with the world. The biotopes and transgenic works featured in the exhibition find their counterpart in a series of in Canada Essay works that take the concepts of encoding and writing to a more abstract level, exploring relationships between sign and communication systems: the Lagoglyphs . Girls Body Image! These projects reference and expand what probably is Kac's most well-known work, GFP Bunny , whose first phase was completed in February 2000 with the birth of the fluorescent bunny Alba who glows green when exposed to blue light of a specific frequency. In collaboration with scientists in a lab in France, Kac inserted the fluorescence genes found in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria into a fertilized rabbit egg. Kacs project did not exclusively consist of the creation of a GFP bunnyGFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) research with life forms has been conducted in research labs for quite some timebut in the transposition of this type of experiment into a cultural realm, where it created heated public debates about the ethical implications of Integration of Immigrants in Canada genetic manipulation of life forms.

The ongoing controversies and discussions surrounding the project constitute the second phase of the work. As bio art scholar and curator Jens Hauser has put it, the bunny has attained the quasi-planetary iconographic value of a Che Guevara of biotech art.2 The bunny may not exactly function as a revolutionary countercultural symbol, but it certainly challenges common cultural definitions of natural life forms. Jane Eyre Brontë’s Essay! A major goal of Kac's work is to normalize the other, enable its social integration, and illustrate the consequences of transgenics without easily condemning it. Hauser raises the question whether Alba could or should be considered an alien. The Lagoglyphs series pick up on the iconographic value of the rabbit and the notion that certain life forms are alien to us. The Lagoglyphs are a series of artworks, ranging from silkscreen prints to animations, in which Kac creates a visual language and form of writing that he describes as leporimorph or rabbitographic . The Lagoglyphs are pictograms, visual symbols composed of two unitsone green, one blackthat each represent the bunny, yet do not capture or define its concept. The glyphs suggest calligraphy but, as pictographic writing, resist any assigned meaning. In Canada Essay! Their referent is the bunny but their visual signifier (a shape rather than word) is as unstable as their signified (the mental concept or ideational component). They are variable, textured gestures, open to interpretations and create a visual code for a mutable other.

Each medium in which the Lagoglyphs are presented highlights a different quality: while the well-being refers silkscreens underscore calligraphic aspects in sequential variations, the animations place an emphasis on of Immigrants, the generative mutability of writing. The metaphor of communicating and transmitting a sign system to the alien other is E. Peplau and Her Essay taken even further in the Lepus Constellation Suite , five disks that each have a lagoglyphic message on their surface. By means of satellite broadcasting equipment and Integration of Immigrants in Canada a parabolic dish antenna these messages were transmitted to the Lepus Constellation (the Gamma Leporis starbelow Orion) from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on was louis riel a hero, March 13, 2009. The constellation is 29 light years away from Integration in Canada Earth, which means that Kac's messages would arrive in the year 2038. In Lepus Constellation Suite , Kac quite literally connects sign systems across the universe: the lagoglyphic rabbit complex meets the lepus (Latin for Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau Theory Essay, hare) constellation. Of Immigrants In Canada Essay! As sign systems, both reference a rabbit / hare and great expectations chapter 35 involve an act of of Immigrants in Canada Essay naming that is grounded in physical form, yet remains ungraspable and literally or conceptually out of Dr. Hildegard E. Peplau Theory Essay reachsuspended in a 29-year-long act of communication. In this exhibition the transmission of the rabbitographic sign literally reverses the gaze from Integration of Immigrants space back to Earth in the form of a Lagoogleglyph ( Lagoglyph Google Earth ). Inscribed on the roof of Oi Futuro, in Rio de Janeiro, is a pixelated, plotted lagoglyph referencing a rabbit headspecifically made by Kac for Eyre by Charlotte Brontë’s, the eye of a satellite used by Integration of Immigrants Essay Google. The artist rented the same satellite to produce a photograph identical to the kind used in Google Earth.

Lagoogleglyph is potentially visible to anyone on the planet via Google's geographic search engine, one further step on the bunny's path to quasi-planetary iconographic value as an ambiguous other and girls image engineered, plotted, luminous life form. Together, the Biotopes, Lagoglyphs and Integration of Immigrants in Canada Transgenic Works reveal life as a complex sign system in E. Peplau all the (bio)ambiguities emerging from multiple acts of transcoding. 2 - Jens Hauser, Genes, genies, genes in: Jens Hauser (ed.), L'Art Biotech , catalog (Nantes, France, Le Lieu Unique, 2003).