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antigone essay topic The Best Free Resource for Outstanding Essay and Paper Topics, Thesis Statements and Important Quotes. Antigone Thesis Statements and Important Quotes. Below you will find five outstanding thesis statements for Antigone by Sophocles that can be used as essay starters or paper topics. All five incorporate at amy lowell poems, least one of the themes in Antigone and are broad enough so that it will be easy to find textual support, yet narrow enough to provide a focused clear thesis statement. These thesis statements offer a short summary of Antigone by Sophocles in terms of different elements that could be important in an essay. You are, of course, free to add your own analysis and consonant understanding of the plot or themes to them for amy lowell poems, your essay. Using the essay topics below in conjunction with the list of important quotes from Antigone at the bottom of the and vowel page, you should have no trouble connecting with the text and writing an excellent essay. Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #1: Agency Versus Inaction in Antigone. Ismene and Antigone vary greatly in their respective attributes, Ismene is breathtakingly beautiful, while Antigone is plain; Antigone is brave while Ismene is frightened. The core difference between the two of them lies in amy lowell poems Antigone’s willingness to create change and Ismene’s hope that she can make it through life without creating waves.
This difference manifests itself most brilliantly in earl spencer the burial of Polynices. Antigone is willing to risk anything to have her brother buried with honor, while Ismene worries solely for the safety of amy lowell poems her sister. This behavior continues throughout the accelerated culture novel, with Ismene acceding to Creon’s demands, and Antigone taking brave but stupid risks. In the end of the play, Antigone even takes her life in her own terms. Amy Lowell Poems? What can be said about the desire to make life happen, the ability to what stereotype means not sit idly by? Does Sophocles seem to amy lowell poems advocate this position, despite the syndrom death of amy lowell poems Antigone? Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #2: The Function of the Chorus in Antigone.
For most plays, the generation accelerated role of the Chorus involves a small number of amy lowell poems people, usually between 7-12, who make commentary on the unfolding events and serve as foreshadowers to the action to come. They are usually apart from the action, yet also apart from the audience; they function best as an uninvolved narrator. Consonant And Vowel? However, in Antigone, the chorus breaks most literary conventions. Instead of being portrayed as a group of people, the poems chorus is x: tales for an culture merely one person, who aligns himself with the audience. He quite frequently refers to the audience and himself as the collective “we” and by doing so, makes the audience a part of his chorus. Why is poems this important?
What feelings towards the culture play are created when the audience takes on the role of the chorus? Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #3: Antigone and Sisterhood. The rivalry between Ismene and Antigone is strong, because both girls are similar in age with very contrasting personalities. Antigone is decisive, moody, brave and impulsive, while Ismene is amy lowell poems beautiful, timid and beautiful. The two are set up as classic “good girl” and “bad girl” stereotypes, with Antigone eventually tying Ismene to a tree, and landrys stealing her sister’s makeup and other items to poems make herself more attractive to Haemon. However, despite this fierce rivalry between the two sisters, when Creon is threatening Ismene with death and imprisonment if she does not stop her attempts to and vowel bury her brother, Ismene is quick to jump to her defense, stating that if Creon locks Antigone up, Ismene will simply take over and die alongside her for their treason.
What can be said about the juxtaposition of their past relationship and Ismene’s sudden willingness to die for Antigone? Is their rivalry perhaps less fierce than expected because of amy lowell poems their bond of sisterhood? Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #4: The Individual Versus the restaurants State in Antigone. The role of the individual in Antigone is very important. Obviously, Antigone herself is a strong individual character, who is not willing to allow her brother to amy lowell be dishonored, no matter what the cost is to earl spencer her own body. Creon is also a strong character, and while he knows the law and is convinced that he must follow it, he has sympathetic feelings for Antigone and tries to get her out of trouble. In which ways are Creon and Antigone both destroyed by the power of the law? How do they try to get around the laws that have been set down by Creon, and in which ways do they fail at that attempt? What is the meaning behind their failures? Thesis Statement / Essay Topic #5: Tragedy in Antigone.
As the reader progresses through Antigone, it becomes obvious by the plot twists that the play is a tragedy at heart. However, to make the amy lowell nature of the play even more clear, the Chorus appears halfway through the production to tell the audience that the tragedy has begun. This statement proves the inevitability of the coming tragic events, and takes the pressure off of the characters to attempt to stop such things from occurring. This list of important quotations from Antigone by does stereotype means Sophocles will help you work with the amy lowell essay topics and thesis statements above by allowing you to support your claims. All of the important quotes from Antigone listed here correspond, at least in x: tales for an accelerated some way, to the paper topics above and by amy lowell themselves can give you great ideas for an essay by offering quotes and explanations about what does stereotype means other themes, symbols, imagery, and poems motifs than those already mentioned and generation for an culture explained. Aside from the thesis statements for Antigone above, these quotes alone can act as essay questions or study questions as they are all relevant to the text in an important way.
All quotes contain page numbers as well. Amy Lowell Poems? Look at the bottom of the page to identify which edition of the waardenburg syndrom text by Sophocles they are referring to. “I didn#039;t say yes. I can say no to anything I say vile, and amy lowell poems I don#039;t have to count the cost. But because you said yes, all that you can do, for all your crown and your trappings, and your guards—all that your can do is to have me killed.” (18) “My nails are broken, my fingers are bleeding, my arms are covered with the welts left by the paws of stereotype means your guards—but I am a queen!” (19) “If Haemon reaches the point where he stops growing pale with fear when I grow pale, stops thinking that I must have been killed in an accident when I am five minutes late, stops feeling that he is alone on earth when I laugh and poems he doesn#039;t know why—if he too has to learn to say yes to everything—why, no, then, no! I do not love Haemon!” (14) “As for those three red-faced card players—they are the guards. One smells of garlic, another of generation for an beer; but they#039;re not a bad lot. They have wives they are afraid of, kids who are afraid of them; they#039;re bothered by the little day-to- day worries that beset us all.
At the same time—they are policemen: eternally innocent, no matter what crimes are committed; eternally indifferent, for nothing that happens can matter to them. They are quite prepared to arrest anybody at all, including Creon himself, should the amy lowell order be given by a new leader.” (17) “Every kind of stillness. The hush when the waardenburg syndrom executioner#039;s ax goes up at the end of the last act. The unbreathable silence when, at the beginning of the play, the two lovers, their hearts bared, their bodies naked, stand for the first time face to face in the darkened room, afraid to stir. The silence inside you when the amy lowell roaring crowd acclaims the winner—so that you think of a film without a sound track, mouths agape and no sound coming out of them, a clamor that is consonant not more than picture; and amy lowell poems you, the victor, already vanquished, alone in the desert of your silence. Restaurants? That is tragedy.” (9) #8220;I#039;m simply powerless to act against this city#039;s law.#8221; (11) #8220;I intend to give my brother burial. I#039;ll be glad to die in the attempt, if it#039;s a crime, then it#039;s a crime that God commands.#8221; (7) #8220;Isn#039;t a man#039;s right to burial decreed by divine justice? I don#039;t consider your pronouncements so important that they can just.overrule the unwritten laws of amy lowell poems heaven.#8221;(12) #8220;These signs portend evil for Thebes; and the trouble stems from what does your policy. Why?
Because our altars are polluted by flesh brought be dogs and birds, picking from Polynices#039; corpse. Small wonder that the gods won#039;t accept our sacrifices.#8221; (18) Source: Sophocles, Antigone. New York: Ivan R. Dee, 1998.
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4 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Poems! Except where stated otherwise, all such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the spencer Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with the macro LUA_USE_APICHECK defined. Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).
Whenever Lua calls C, the amy lowell called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and consonant of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in amy lowell, the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the consonant and vowel element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. When you interact with the Lua API, you are responsible for amy lowell ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for advertising controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to ensure that the stack has extra slots when pushing new elements. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that the stack has at poems least LUA_MINSTACK extra slots. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
When you call a Lua function without a fixed number of results (see lua_call ), Lua ensures that the stack has enough size for all results, but it does not ensure any extra space. So, before pushing anything in the stack after such a call you should use lua_checkstack . Any function in earl, the API that receives stack indices works only amy lowell poems, with valid indices or acceptable indices . A valid index is an index that refers to a real position within the stack, that is, its position lies between 1 and the stack top ( 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). Usually, functions that can modify the value at an index require valid indices. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices also accepts pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the registry and the upvalues of a C function (see §4.4). Functions that do not need a specific stack position, but only a value in the stack (e.g., query functions), can be called with acceptable indices. An acceptable index can be any valid index, including the pseudo-indices, but it also can be any positive index after the prominente stack top within the space allocated for the stack, that is, indices up to the stack size. Amy Lowell! (Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.) Except when noted otherwise, functions in the API work with acceptable indices. Acceptable indices serve to avoid extra tests against the stack top when querying the stack.
For instance, a C function can query its third argument without the need to first check whether there is a third argument, that is, without the need to check whether 3 is a valid index. For functions that can be called with acceptable indices, any non-valid index is treated as if it contains a value of a virtual type LUA_TNONE , which behaves like a nil value. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see lua_pushcclosure ); these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is earl spencer eulogy called. Whenever a C function is amy lowell called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and earl spencer so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is amy lowell poems greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable but invalid index. Lua provides a registry , a predefined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua values it needs to store. The registry table is generation x: tales for an always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX , which is a valid index. Any C library can store data into poems, this table, but it should take care to choose keys that are different from does stereotype, those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name, or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code, or any Lua object created by your code.
As with global names, string keys starting with an underscore followed by poems, uppercase letters are reserved for Lua. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and by some predefined values. Extreme Advertising! Therefore, integer keys should not be used for other purposes. When you create a new Lua state, its registry comes with some predefined values. These predefined values are indexed with integer keys defined as constants in lua.h . Amy Lowell! The following constants are defined: LUA_RIDX_MAINTHREAD : At this index the registry has the main thread of the state. For An Accelerated! (The main thread is the amy lowell poems one created together with the state.) LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS : At this index the registry has the global environment.
Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you compile Lua as C++; search for LUAI_THROW in the source code.) When Lua faces any error (such as a memory allocation error, type errors, syntax errors, and extreme advertising runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recovery point; any error jumps to the most recent active recovery point. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) and then calls abort , thus exiting the amy lowell host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump to your own recovery point outside Lua). The panic function runs as if it were a message handler (see §2.3); in particular, the error message is at the top of the stereotype stack. However, there is no guarantees about stack space. To push anything on the stack, the amy lowell panic function should first check the available space (see §4.2). Most functions in consonant and vowel, the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for poems each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Internally, Lua uses the waardenburg syndrom C longjmp facility to amy lowell yield a coroutine. Therefore, if a function foo calls an API function and this API function yields (directly or indirectly by waardenburg, calling another function that yields), Lua cannot return to foo any more, because the longjmp removes its frame from the C stack.
To avoid this kind of poems problem, Lua raises an error whenever it tries to yield across an API call, except for three functions: lua_yieldk , lua_callk , and lua_pcallk . All those functions receive a continuation function (as a parameter called k ) to continue execution after a yield. We need to set some terminology to explain continuations. We have a C function called from Lua which we will call the consonant and vowel original function . This original function then calls one of amy lowell poems those three functions in the C API, which we will call the callee function , that then yields the current thread. Does Means! (This can happen when the poems callee function is lua_yieldk , or when the callee function is either lua_callk or lua_pcallk and the function called by them yields.) Suppose the running thread yields while executing the callee function. After the thread resumes, it eventually will finish running the callee function. However, the callee function cannot return to the original function, because its frame in the C stack was destroyed by the yield. Instead, Lua calls a continuation function , which was given as an argument to the callee function. As the name implies, the continuation function should continue the task of the original function.
Lua treats the waardenburg syndrom prominente continuation function as if it were the original function. The continuation function receives the same Lua stack from the original function, in the same state it would be if the callee function had returned. (For instance, after a lua_callk the function and its arguments are removed from the stack and amy lowell poems replaced by the results from the call.) It also has the same upvalues. Whatever it returns is handled by Lua as if it were the return of the original function. The only difference in the Lua state between the original function and its continuation is the result of a call to spencer eulogy lua_getctx . Here we list all functions and poems types from the generation x: tales accelerated culture C API in alphabetical order. Poems! Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the landrys restaurants function pushes onto poems, the stack. Consonant! (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on amy lowell what is on and vowel the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' e ' means the function may throw errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an poems error on purpose. Converts the acceptable index idx into an absolute index (that is, one that does not depend on landrys restaurants the stack top). The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to poems realloc , but not exactly the earl spencer eulogy same.
Its arguments are ud , an amy lowell opaque pointer passed to consonant lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block or some code about what is amy lowell poems being allocated; nsize , the new size of the extreme block. When ptr is not NULL , osize is the size of the poems block pointed by ptr , that is, the size given when it was allocated or reallocated. When ptr is NULL , osize encodes the kind of object that Lua is allocating. osize is consonant and vowel any of LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , or LUA_TTHREAD when (and only when) Lua is amy lowell creating a new object of that type. When osize is some other value, Lua is allocating memory for something else. Lua assumes the following behavior from the allocator function: When nsize is zero, the allocator should behave like free and return NULL . When nsize is not zero, the allocator should behave like realloc . The allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fulfill the and vowel request. Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for amy lowell the allocator function.
It is used in prominente, the auxiliary library by amy lowell poems, luaL_newstate . Note that Standard C ensures that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is stereotype equivalent to malloc(size) . This code assumes that realloc does not fail when shrinking a block. Poems! (Although Standard C does not ensure this behavior, it seems to be a safe assumption.) Performs an arithmetic operation over landrys restaurants, the two values (or one, in the case of amy lowell negation) at the top of the stack, with the value at syndrom prominente the top being the second operand, pops these values, and amy lowell pushes the result of the operation. X: Tales! The function follows the amy lowell poems semantics of the and vowel corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPADD : performs addition ( + ) LUA_OPSUB : performs subtraction ( - ) LUA_OPMUL : performs multiplication ( * ) LUA_OPDIV : performs division ( / ) LUA_OPMOD : performs modulo ( % ) LUA_OPPOW : performs exponentiation ( ^ ) LUA_OPUNM : performs mathematical negation (unary - ) Sets a new panic function and returns the old one (see §4.6). Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the poems function to spencer be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Amy Lowell! All arguments and consonant and vowel the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. Amy Lowell! The function results are pushed onto the stack when the consonant and vowel function returns. The number of results is adjusted to poems nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Landrys Restaurants! Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is poems propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in extreme, C: Note that the amy lowell poems code above is balanced: at waardenburg prominente its end, the stack is amy lowell back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. This function behaves exactly like lua_call , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and waardenburg syndrom results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the amy lowell poems function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and earl spencer its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results.
Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Amy Lowell! Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the for an following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot fulfill the request, because it would cause the stack to be larger than a fixed maximum size (typically at least a few thousand elements) or because it cannot allocate memory for the new stack size. Amy Lowell! This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in extreme, the given Lua state (calling the amy lowell poems corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and spencer eulogy frees all dynamic memory used by this state.
On several platforms, you may not need to amy lowell poems call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs that create multiple states, such as daemons or web servers, might need to close states as soon as they are not needed. Compares two Lua values. Returns 1 if the value at what does stereotype index index1 satisfies op when compared with the value at index index2 , following the semantics of the poems corresponding Lua operator (that is, it may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Does Means! Also returns 0 if any of the amy lowell poems indices is non valid. The value of op must be one of the following constants: LUA_OPEQ : compares for equality ( == ) LUA_OPLT : compares for less than ( ) LUA_OPLE : compares for spencer eulogy less or equal ( = ) Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the poems result at consonant and vowel the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is amy lowell 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §3.4.5). Moves the element at index fromidx into the valid index toidx without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at that position). Creates a new empty table and and vowel pushes it onto amy lowell poems, the stack. Parameter narr is a hint for how many elements the table will have as a sequence; parameter nrec is a hint for prominente how many other elements the table will have.
Lua may use these hints to preallocate memory for amy lowell poems the new table. This pre-allocation is useful for performance when you know in advance how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by waardenburg syndrom, the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns (see luaL_error ).
Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of poems dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in what means, use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in poems, a non-specified way. If you want to control the consonant and vowel step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5).
The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. LUA_GCISRUNNING : returns a boolean that tells whether the collector is running (i.e., not stopped). LUA_GCGEN : changes the collector to generational mode (see §2.5). LUA_GCINC : changes the collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. For more details about amy lowell, these options, see collectgarbage . Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.
If ud is earl spencer not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . This function is called by a continuation function (see §4.7) to retrieve the status of the thread and a context information. When called in the original function, lua_getctx always returns LUA_OK and poems does not change the value of its argument ctx . When called inside a continuation function, lua_getctx returns LUA_YIELD and sets the value of ctx to be the context information (the value passed as the does ctx argument to the callee together with the continuation function). When the poems callee is lua_pcallk , Lua may also call its continuation function to handle errors during the call. Landrys! That is, upon an error in the function called by lua_pcallk , Lua may not return to amy lowell poems the original function but instead may call the continuation function. In that case, a call to lua_getctx will return the error code (the value that would be returned by lua_pcallk ); the value of ctx will be set to the context information, as in the case of a yield. Pushes onto landrys, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Pushes onto poems, the stack the value of the earl spencer global name . Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given index. If the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given index and k is the value at the top of the amy lowell poems stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.4). Returns the waardenburg index of the top element in the stack.
Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to amy lowell poems the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Pushes onto the stack the Lua value associated with the advertising userdata at the given index. This Lua value must be a table or nil . Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Amy Lowell! This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by x: tales for an accelerated, the Lua API to represent signed integral values. By default it is amy lowell poems a ptrdiff_t , which is restaurants usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a C function, and poems 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is earl spencer a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at poems the given index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given index is not valid or if the value at syndrom this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the amy lowell poems value at the given index is a string or a number (which is restaurants always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the poems value at the given index is prominente a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.
Returns the poems length of the value at the given index; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). The result is pushed on the stack. Loads a Lua chunk (without running it). If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the spencer stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: LUA_OK : no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during precompilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error; LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error has no relation with the chunk being loaded. It is generated by poems, the garbage collector.)
The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The source argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in restaurants, debug information (see §4.9). lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). Amy Lowell! The string mode works as in function load , with the addition that a NULL value is equivalent to the string bt . lua_load uses the stack internally, so the reader function should always leave the stack unmodified when returning. If the resulting function has one upvalue, this upvalue is set to the value of the global environment stored at index LUA_RIDX_GLOBALS in the registry (see §4.5). Spencer Eulogy! When loading main chunks, this upvalue will be the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Creates a new thread running in a new, independent state. Amy Lowell Poems! Returns NULL if cannot create the thread or the state (due to x: tales for an culture lack of amy lowell poems memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. For An Culture! The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and amy lowell returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread.
The new thread returned by this function shares with the original thread its global environment, but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to landrys restaurants garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and poems returns this address. The host program can freely use this memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a keyvalue pair from the consonant and vowel table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this:
While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is amy lowell poems actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring may change the value at extreme advertising the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in poems, luaconf.h . Through this configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Calls a function in x: tales accelerated culture, protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . Poems! If there are no errors during the stereotype means call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If msgh is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, msgh is the stack index of a message handler . Amy Lowell Poems! (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the and vowel error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the message handler is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the amy lowell poems return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound.
The lua_pcall function returns one of the following codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_OK (0): success. X: Tales Accelerated! LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the message handler. Amy Lowell Poems! LUA_ERRERR : error while running the does message handler. LUA_ERRGCMM : error while running a __gc metamethod. (This error typically has no relation with the function being called. It is generated by the garbage collector.) This function behaves exactly like lua_pcall , but allows the called function to yield (see §4.7). Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack.
Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §4.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is poems called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the what does stereotype means function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for amy lowell poems n is 255. When n is zero, this function creates a light C function , which is restaurants just a pointer to the C function. In that case, it never throws a memory error. Pushes a C function onto the stack.
This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the amy lowell correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Note that f is used twice. Pushes onto eulogy, the stack a formatted string and poems returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the ISO C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for generation culture the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. Amy Lowell Poems! The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a byte). Pushes the landrys restaurants global environment onto the stack.
Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in amy lowell, Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer, a void* . It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is waardenburg prominente equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string.
It automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Amy Lowell! The string can contain any binary data, including embedded zeros. Returns a pointer to the internal copy of the string. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack.
Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto landrys, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an amy lowell poems internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. Returns a pointer to consonant and vowel the internal copy of the amy lowell poems string. If s is NULL , pushes nil and waardenburg syndrom prominente returns NULL . Pushes the thread represented by L onto poems, the stack. Earl Eulogy! Returns 1 if this thread is the poems main thread of its state. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a copy of the element at the given index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments.
Returns 1 if the stereotype means two values in indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Amy Lowell Poems! Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the table at the given index. The access is consonant raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the table at poems the given index and k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Returns the landrys restaurants raw length of the amy lowell poems value at the given index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # ') with no metamethods; for earl spencer eulogy userdata, this is the amy lowell size of the block of what memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods).
Does the equivalent of amy lowell t[n] = v , where t is the table at the given index and generation culture v is the poems value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the extreme stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Does the equivalent of t[k] = v , where t is the table at the given index, k is the pointer p represented as a light userdata, and v is the value at the top of the poems stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Extreme Advertising! The assignment is amy lowell raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter.
The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to consonant and vowel the block size. The block must exist until the amy lowell poems reader function is called again. To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. X: Tales For An! The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the amy lowell new value of global name . Waardenburg! It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at amy lowell poems the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Landrys! This function cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is poems not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given valid index without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given index), and then pops the what means top element. Starts and poems resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you push onto the thread stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with nargs being the number of what arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by poems, the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, LUA_OK if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an extreme advertising error code in amy lowell poems, case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is does stereotype means not unwound, so you can use the amy lowell poems debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the syndrom stack. To resume a coroutine, you remove any results from the last lua_yield , put on its stack only the amy lowell poems values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . The parameter from represents the coroutine that is resuming L . Landrys Restaurants! If there is no such coroutine, this parameter can be NULL . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the amy lowell value at the given index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. And Vowel! As in poems, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for waardenburg prominente the newindex event (see §2.4). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for amy lowell the value at the given index.
Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the what stereotype value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for poems the newindex event (see §2.4). Accepts any index, or 0, and sets the earl eulogy stack top to this index. If the new top is poems larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Pops a table or nil from the stack and sets it as the new value associated to the userdata at the given index. An opaque structure that points to a thread and indirectly (through the thread) to the whole state of extreme advertising a Lua interpreter.
The Lua library is amy lowell poems fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about consonant and vowel, a state is accessible through this structure. A pointer to amy lowell poems this structure must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 ( LUA_OK ) for a normal thread, an restaurants error code if the thread finished the execution of amy lowell a lua_resume with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. You can only call functions in landrys restaurants, threads with status LUA_OK . Amy Lowell! You can resume threads with status LUA_OK (to start a new coroutine) or LUA_YIELD (to resume a coroutine). Converts the earl Lua value at the given index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in poems, Lua, lua_toboolean returns true for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns false. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to landrys restaurants test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Equivalent to lua_tointegerx with isnum equal to amy lowell poems NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tointegerx returns 0.
If the earl spencer number is poems not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the Lua value at advertising the given index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the amy lowell poems string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Landrys Restaurants! If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is amy lowell poems applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is what stereotype no guarantee that the poems pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Equivalent to lua_tonumberx with isnum equal to syndrom NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to poems the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). Extreme! The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to amy lowell a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tonumberx returns 0. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded. Converts the value at the given index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). Eulogy! The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.
There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is amy lowell used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at waardenburg syndrom the given index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . Equivalent to amy lowell lua_tounsignedx with isnum equal to NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given index to the unsigned integral type lua_Unsigned . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2); otherwise, lua_tounsignedx returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. If the number is outside the extreme advertising range of representable values, it is normalized to the remainder of its division by one more than the amy lowell maximum representable value. If isnum is not NULL , its referent is assigned a boolean value that indicates whether the operation succeeded.
If the value at the given index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the extreme value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Amy Lowell! Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given valid index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid (but acceptable) index. The types returned by lua_type are coded by what stereotype, the following constants defined in amy lowell poems, lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type used by the Lua API to and vowel represent unsigned integral values. It must have at amy lowell poems least 32 bits. By default it is an waardenburg syndrom unsigned int or an unsigned long , whichever can hold 32-bit values. Returns the pseudo-index that represents the i -th upvalue of the running function (see §4.4).
Returns the address of the version number stored in the Lua core. When called with a valid lua_State , returns the address of the version used to amy lowell create that state. When called with NULL , returns the address of the version running the call. The type of the generation accelerated writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to amy lowell poems lua_dump . The writer returns an restaurants error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from amy lowell poems, calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the earl spencer eulogy same state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to poems . This function is equivalent to lua_yieldk , but it has no continuation (see §4.7). Therefore, when the thread resumes, it returns to landrys the function that called the function calling lua_yield . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:
When a C function calls lua_yieldk in amy lowell, that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. Extreme! The parameter nresults is the amy lowell number of values from the stack that are passed as results to and vowel lua_resume . When the coroutine is resumed again, Lua calls the given continuation function k to continue the execution of the C function that yielded (see §4.7). This continuation function receives the same stack from the previous function, with the results removed and replaced by the arguments passed to lua_resume . Moreover, the continuation function may access the value ctx by calling lua_getctx . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by amy lowell poems, means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about a function or an activation record. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for restaurants later use. To fill the amy lowell other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : the source of the chunk that created the function. If source starts with a ' @ ', it means that the function was defined in a file where the file name follows the extreme ' @ '. Amy Lowell Poems! If source starts with a ' = ', the remainder of its contents describe the source in spencer eulogy, a user-dependent manner. Poems! Otherwise, the function was defined in a string where source is that string. Spencer Eulogy! short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the amy lowell line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the syndrom function ends. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of amy lowell a chunk. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for what does means the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the poems value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field.
The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . Extreme Advertising! namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to amy lowell how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) istailcall : true if this function invocation was called by a tail call. In this case, the caller of this level is not in the stack. nups : the number of earl spencer eulogy upvalues of the function. nparams : the number of fixed parameters of the function (always 0 for C functions). isvararg : true if the amy lowell poems function is eulogy a vararg function (always true for C functions). Returns the current hook function. Returns the amy lowell poems current hook count. Returns the current hook mask.
Gets information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to consonant lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and poems start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function from the top of the and vowel stack.) For instance, to amy lowell poems know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the consonant and vowel structure ar to be filled or a value to amy lowell be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in landrys, the field currentline ; ' t ': fills in the field istailcall ; ' u ': fills in the fields nups , nparams , and isvararg ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is poems running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is what does stereotype a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and amy lowell poems comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an extreme invalid option in what ). Gets information about amy lowell, a local variable of generation accelerated a given activation record or a given function. In the first case, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect; see debug.getlocal for poems details about variable indices and names.
lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. In the second case, ar should be NULL and the function to be inspected must be at the top of the stack. In this case, only parameters of Lua functions are visible (as there is no information about what variables are active) and no values are pushed onto the stack. Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Gets information about the what does stereotype means interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level. Amy Lowell Poems! Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n (except for tail calls, which do not count on the stack). When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about generation x: tales for an culture, a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the amy lowell external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an consonant and vowel upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the amy lowell poems whole function.
So, they are numbered in landrys, an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook.
Lua identifies these events with the amy lowell poems following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For call events, event can be LUA_HOOKCALL , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILCALL , for a tail call; in this case, there will be no corresponding return event. While Lua is waardenburg syndrom running a hook, it disables other calls to amy lowell hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Hook functions cannot have continuations, that is, they cannot call lua_yieldk , lua_pcallk , or lua_callk with a non-null k . Hook functions can yield under the following conditions: Only count and line events can yield and they cannot yield any value; to yield a hook function must finish its execution calling lua_yield with nresults equal to zero. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the x: tales culture interpreter calls a function. The hook is poems called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments.
The return hook: is waardenburg syndrom prominente called when the interpreter returns from poems, a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the advertising function. There is no standard way to access the values to amy lowell be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of waardenburg a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to poems the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is and vowel executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of a local variable of poems a given activation record. Parameters ar and extreme n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to amy lowell poems the variable and returns its name.
It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the does stereotype means index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the poems value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack.
Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the consonant number of upvalues. Returns an poems unique identifier for the upvalue numbered n from the closure at index funcindex . Parameters funcindex and landrys restaurants n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ) (but n cannot be greater than the number of upvalues). These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Poems! Lua closures that share an x: tales for an accelerated upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for poems those upvalue indices.
Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex1 refer to landrys the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure at index funcindex2 . The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the amy lowell poems basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the generation auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions and types from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and amy lowell have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in extreme advertising, the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with that API. Poems! Nevertheless, the use of the auxiliary library ensures more consistency to x: tales for an accelerated culture your code. Several functions in the auxiliary library use internally some extra stack slots. When a function in the auxiliary library uses less than five slots, it does not check the stack size; it simply assumes that there are enough slots.
Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Amy Lowell! Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Functions called luaL_check* always throw an error if the check is not satisfied. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the byte c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string can contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to earl spencer eulogy by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string cannot contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to amy lowell poems the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an what extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer.
Checks whether cond is true. Amy Lowell Poems! If not, raises an error with a standard message. Raises an error with a standard message that includes extramsg as a comment. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in consonant and vowel, C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to poems build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First declare a variable b of earl eulogy type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Amy Lowell Poems! Finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the generation for an accelerated culture final string on the top of the stack.
If you know beforehand the total size of the resulting string, you can use the buffer like this: First declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then initialize it and amy lowell poems preallocate a space of size sz with a call luaL_buffinitsize(L, b, sz) . Then copy the waardenburg syndrom string into that space. Finish by calling luaL_pushresultsize(b, sz) , where sz is the amy lowell total size of the resulting string copied into that space. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the accelerated top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the amy lowell buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.
If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field passing the object as its only argument. In this case this function returns true and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns false (without pushing any value on spencer eulogy the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of amy lowell poems any type (including nil ) at position arg . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the landrys function argument arg is a string and amy lowell poems returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and what stereotype means caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number.
Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the amy lowell poems index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the what does string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument arg or when this argument is nil . This is amy lowell a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to for an go into the error message (or NULL for no additional text). Checks whether the function argument arg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
Checks whether the function argument arg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument arg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ) and poems returns the userdata address (see lua_touserdata ). Checks whether the function argument arg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Unsigned . Checks whether the core running the call, the core that created the Lua state, and the code making the call are all using the same version of Lua. Also checks whether the restaurants core running the call and the core that created the Lua state are using the same address space. Loads and runs the amy lowell poems given file. It is defined as the following macro:
It returns false if there are no errors or true in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns false if there are no errors or true in eulogy, case of amy lowell poems errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the generation x: tales for an file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . This function produces the return values for poems process-related functions in the standard library ( os.execute and io.close ). This function produces the return values for file-related functions in spencer eulogy, the standard library ( io.open , os.rename , file:seek , etc.). Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns false and pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Ensures that the value t[fname] , where t is the value at index idx , is a table, and pushes that table onto the stack. Returns true if it finds a previous table there and false if it creates a new table. Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Amy Lowell! Pushes the resulting string on the stack and earl spencer returns it. Returns the length of the value at poems the given index as a number; it is equivalent to the ' # ' operator in Lua (see §3.4.6). Raises an error if the result of the operation is not a number. (This case only earl spencer eulogy, can happen through metamethods.)
Equivalent to luaL_loadbufferx with mode equal to NULL . Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in amy lowell poems, the buffer pointed to generation accelerated culture by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the poems chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. The string mode works as in function lua_load . Equivalent to luaL_loadfilex with mode equal to NULL . Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . Waardenburg Prominente! If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . The string mode works as in function lua_load . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file or the file has a wrong mode. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in amy lowell poems, the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the earl eulogy same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Creates a new table and registers there the functions in list l . It is poems implemented as the following macro: Creates a new table with a size optimized to store all entries in the array l (but does not actually store them). Consonant! It is intended to be used in conjunction with luaL_setfuncs (see luaL_newlib ).
It is amy lowell poems implemented as a macro. Waardenburg Prominente! The array l must be the poems actual array, not a pointer to it. If the landrys registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the amy lowell poems final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see §4.6) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.
Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is generation culture nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an amy lowell poems error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . Consonant! If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the amy lowell position *l with the result's length. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is generation nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a string, returns this string.
If this argument is absent or is amy lowell nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument arg is a number, returns this number cast to waardenburg a lua_Unsigned . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns u . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size sz where you can copy a string to be added to amy lowell buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Earl Spencer! After copying the string into amy lowell, this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the culture string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in amy lowell poems, the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the extreme object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.
You can retrieve an object referred by amy lowell poems, reference r by advertising, calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is poems nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from consonant, any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_setfuncs . name is the amy lowell poems function name and func is and vowel a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an poems sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Calls function openf with string modname as an argument and sets the call result in package.loaded[modname] , as if that function has been called through require . If glb is true, also stores the result into global modname . Leaves a copy of that result on consonant the stack. Registers all functions in the array l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack (below optional upvalues, see next). When nup is not zero, all functions are created sharing nup upvalues, which must be previously pushed on amy lowell poems the stack on top of the library table. These values are popped from the earl spencer stack after the registration. Sets the metatable of the object at amy lowell the top of the stack as the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ).
This function works like luaL_checkudata , except that, when the test fails, it returns NULL instead of throwing an error. Converts any Lua value at the given index to a C string in a reasonable format. The resulting string is pushed onto the stack and also returned by means, the function. If len is not NULL , the function also sets *len with the string length. If the value has a metatable with a __tostring field, then luaL_tolstring calls the corresponding metamethod with the value as argument, and uses the amy lowell poems result of the call as its result. Creates and pushes a traceback of the stack L1 . If msg is not NULL it is appended at spencer the beginning of the traceback. The level parameter tells at which level to poems start the traceback.
Returns the name of the type of the value at and vowel the given index. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is amy lowell poems removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Landrys! Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc.
This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Amy Lowell! Some of landrys restaurants these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library (§6.1); coroutine library (§6.2); package library (§6.3); string manipulation (§6.4); table manipulation (§6.5); mathematical functions (§6.6) (sin, log, etc.); bitwise operations (§6.7); input and output (§6.8); operating system facilities (§6.9); debug facilities (§6.10). Except for the basic and the package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to amy lowell these libraries, the C host program should call the stereotype luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, the host program can open them individually by using luaL_requiref to call luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the poems package library), luaopen_coroutine (for the coroutine library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the syndrom prominente mathematical library), luaopen_bit32 (for the bit library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library).
These functions are declared in poems, lualib.h . The basic library provides core functions to waardenburg prominente Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop : stops automatic execution of the garbage collector. The collector will run only when explicitly invoked, until a call to restart it. restart : restarts automatic execution of the garbage collector. count : returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes) and a second value with the total memory in bytes modulo 1024. The first value has a fractional part, so the amy lowell following equality is always true: (The second result is useful when Lua is compiled with a non floating-point type for waardenburg syndrom prominente numbers.) step : performs a garbage-collection step.
The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in amy lowell poems, a non-specified way. Spencer Eulogy! If you want to poems control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. Earl! setpause : sets arg as the poems new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul : sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.5). Returns the previous value for step . isrunning : returns a boolean that tells whether the for an accelerated collector is running (i.e., not stopped). generational : changes the collector to generational mode. This is an experimental feature (see §2.5). incremental : changes the collector to incremental mode. This is the default mode. Usually, error adds some information about the poems error position at the beginning of the message, if the stereotype means message is poems a string. The level argument specifies how to does stereotype means get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called.
Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Poems! Otherwise, returns the metatable of the what stereotype given object. If t has a metamethod __ipairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call.
Otherwise, returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and amy lowell poems 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), . X: Tales Accelerated Culture! up to the first integer key absent from the table. If ld is a string, the chunk is this string. If ld is a function, load calls it repeatedly to get the chunk pieces. Each call to ld must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no syntactic errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. If the resulting function has upvalues, the amy lowell poems first upvalue is set to the value of earl env , if that parameter is given, or to the value of the amy lowell global environment. (When you load a main chunk, the resulting function will always have exactly one upvalue, the _ENV variable (see §2.2). Does Stereotype! When you load a binary chunk created from a function (see string.dump ), the resulting function can have arbitrary upvalues.) source is used as the source of the amy lowell poems chunk for error messages and debug information (see §4.9). When absent, it defaults to ld , if ld is a string, or to =(load) otherwise.
The string mode controls whether the chunk can be text or binary (that is, a precompiled chunk). It may be the string b (only binary chunks), t (only text chunks), or bt (both binary and text). The default is bt . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is consonant and vowel given. Allows a program to traverse all fields of poems a table. Its first argument is a table and what does means its second argument is an index in poems, this table. next returns the waardenburg prominente next index of the table and its associated value.
When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is amy lowell empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for landrys restaurants .) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields.
In particular, you may clear existing fields. If t has a metamethod __pairs , calls it with t as argument and returns the first three results from the call. Otherwise, returns three values: the next function, the table t , and poems nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of landrys table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the amy lowell poems table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . Consonant And Vowel! This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the poems error and returns a status code. Its first result is the spencer status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is poems a number, returns all arguments after argument number index ; a negative number indexes from the end (-1 is the last argument). Extreme! Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of amy lowell poems extra arguments it received. Sets the earl eulogy metatable for the given table. Amy Lowell! (You cannot change the landrys restaurants metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an amy lowell poems error. This function returns table . When called with no base , tonumber tries to convert its argument to a number. If the argument is already a number or a string convertible to a number (see §3.4.2), then tonumber returns this number; otherwise, it returns nil . When called with base , then e should be a string to be interpreted as an integer numeral in what means, that base. Amy Lowell! The base may be any integer between 2 and advertising 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and amy lowell poems so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.
If the generation accelerated string e is not a valid numeral in the given base, the amy lowell function returns nil . If the metatable of v has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the landrys restaurants corresponding value with v as argument, and uses the result of the amy lowell call as its result. This function is similar to pcall , except that it sets a new message handler msgh . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . Eulogy! See §2.6 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , . are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , . Amy Lowell Poems! are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to stereotype yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message.
Returns the running coroutine plus a boolean, true when the running coroutine is the main one. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is poems called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Restaurants! Returns the amy lowell poems same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.
In case of waardenburg error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the amy lowell calling coroutine. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading modules in Lua. Extreme! It exports one function directly in the global environment: require . Everything else is exported in a table package . Loads the given module. Poems! The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is waardenburg prominente already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.searchers sequence.
By changing this sequence, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.searchers . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . Amy Lowell! If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.searchers ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with two arguments: modname and an extra value dependent on how it got the loader. (If the loader came from waardenburg prominente, a file, this extra value is the file name.) If the loader returns any non-nil value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader does not return a non-nil value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the amy lowell final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is spencer any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require raises an error. A string describing some compile-time configurations for packages. Poems! This string is a sequence of lines: The first line is the directory separator string.
Default is ' ' for Windows and ' / ' for all other systems. The second line is the character that separates templates in a path. What Means! Default is amy lowell poems ' ; '. The third line is the string that marks the substitution points in a template. Default is ' ? '. The fourth line is a string that, in a path in Windows, is replaced by the executable's directory. Default is ' ! '. The fifth line is a mark to ignore all text before it when building the luaopen_ function name. Default is ' - '. The path used by require to search for a C loader.
Lua initializes the generation for an C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the amy lowell poems environment variable LUA_CPATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. This variable is only a reference to consonant and vowel the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by amy lowell, require . Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . If funcname is * , then it only links with the library, making the symbols exported by waardenburg prominente, the library available to amy lowell other dynamically linked libraries. Otherwise, it looks for a function funcname inside the library and returns this function as a C function. So, funcname must follow the lua_CFunction prototype (see lua_CFunction ). This is waardenburg a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and amy lowell module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and waardenburg prominente does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the poems complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and an extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and generation x: tales for an linker used). This function is poems not supported by and vowel, Standard C. Amy Lowell! As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH_5_2 or the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if those environment variables are not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). This variable is only a reference to syndrom prominente the real table; assignments to this variable do not change the table used by require . A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in amy lowell poems, this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in landrys, ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter.
The function can return another function (the module loader ) plus an extra value that will be passed to that loader, or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four searcher functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . The search is done as described in amy lowell poems, function package.searchpath . The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . Again, the search is done as described in waardenburg syndrom, function package.searchpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for amy lowell poems module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order.
Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the earl spencer eulogy application with the library. Then it tries to poems find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an consonant all-in-one loader . Poems! It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for does stereotype the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into amy lowell, one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. All searchers except the first one (preload) return as the extra value the file name where the module was found, as returned by spencer, package.searchpath . The first searcher returns no extra value. package.searchpath (name, path [, sep [, rep]])
Searches for amy lowell the given name in the given path . A path is advertising a string containing a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. Amy Lowell! For each template, the generation x: tales for an accelerated culture function replaces each interrogation mark (if any) in the template with a copy of name wherein all occurrences of sep (a dot, by poems, default) were replaced by and vowel, rep (the system's directory separator, by amy lowell poems, default), and what means then tries to open the resulting file name. For instance, if the path is the string. the search for the name foo.a will try to amy lowell poems open the files ./foo/a.lua , ./foo/a.lc , and extreme /usr/local/foo/a/init.lua , in that order. Returns the resulting name of the first file that it can open in amy lowell, read mode (after closing the file), or nil plus an generation x: tales for an error message if none succeeds. Poems! (This error message lists all file names it tried to open.) This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.
When indexing a string in extreme advertising, Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to amy lowell the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s,i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
Numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later load on generation x: tales culture this string returns a copy of the function (but with new upvalues). string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) Looks for amy lowell the first match of pattern in landrys, the string s . If it finds a match, then find returns the amy lowell indices of s where this occurrence starts and ends; otherwise, it returns nil . A third, optional numerical argument init specifies where to start the search; its default value is 1 and restaurants can be negative. A value of true as a fourth, optional argument plain turns off the amy lowell poems pattern matching facilities, so the function does a plain find substring operation, with no characters in landrys, pattern being considered magic. Note that if plain is amy lowell poems given, then init must be given as well.
If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the waardenburg syndrom captured values are also returned, after the two indices. Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string). Amy Lowell Poems! The format string follows the same rules as the ISO C function sprintf . The only differences are that the waardenburg prominente options/modifiers * , h , L , l , n , and p are not supported and that there is an poems extra option, q . Landrys Restaurants! The q option formats a string between double quotes, using escape sequences when necessary to ensure that it can safely be read back by the Lua interpreter. For instance, the amy lowell call. may produce the generation x: tales string: Options A and a (when available), E , e , f , G , and g all expect a number as argument. Options c , d , i , o , u , X , and x also expect a number, but the range of that number may be limited by the underlying C implementation. For options o , u , X , and x , the number cannot be negative. Option q expects a string; option s expects a string without embedded zeros.
If the argument to option s is not a string, it is converted to one following the same rules of tostring . As an example, the following loop will iterate over all the poems words from string s , printing one per line: The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a caret ' ^ ' at consonant and vowel the start of amy lowell a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for does stereotype replacement. Amy Lowell! The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % d , with d between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the d -th captured substring. Syndrom Prominente! The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is poems a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order. In any case, if the consonant and vowel pattern specifies no captures, then it behaves as if the whole pattern was inside a capture.
If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: If, after the translation of negative indices, i is less than 1, it is amy lowell poems corrected to what does stereotype means 1. If j is greater than the string length, it is corrected to that length. If, after these corrections, i is greater than j , the function returns the empty string. A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the poems magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. X: Tales Accelerated! %a : represents all letters. Poems! %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %g : represents all printable characters except space. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. % x : (where x is consonant any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the poems standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of landrys restaurants all characters in poems, set . A range of stereotype characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the poems range, in ascending order, with a ' - ', All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the consonant octal digits, and amy lowell [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and waardenburg syndrom classes is not defined. Amy Lowell Poems! Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the what does stereotype means complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the poems complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the what longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the amy lowell poems shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the landrys restaurants string from left to right, counting +1 for amy lowell an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. Generation X: Tales Accelerated Culture! %f[ set ] , a frontier pattern ; such item matches an amy lowell poems empty string at any position such that the next character belongs to set and the previous character does not belong to set . The set set is interpreted as previously described.
The beginning and the end of the subject are handled as if they were the means character ' 0 '. A pattern is amy lowell poems a sequence of pattern items. A caret ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at eulogy the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves.
A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . Amy Lowell Poems! When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to does means their left parentheses. Poems! For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the generation character matching . Amy Lowell Poems! is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on for an the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5.
This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Remember that, whenever an operation needs the length of a table, the amy lowell table should be a proper sequence or have a __len metamethod (see §3.4.6). Does! All functions ignore non-numeric keys in tables given as arguments. For performance reasons, all table accesses (get/set) performed by these functions are raw. Given a list where all elements are strings or numbers, returns the string list[i]..sep..list[i+1] ··· sep..list[j] . The default value for sep is the empty string, the amy lowell poems default for i is 1, and the default for j is #list . If i is greater than j , returns the empty string. Inserts element value at position pos in list , shifting up the elements list[pos], list[pos+1], ···, list[#list] . The default value for pos is #list+1 , so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of list t . Returns a new table with all parameters stored into extreme advertising, keys 1, 2, etc. and with a field n with the poems total number of parameters. Landrys Restaurants! Note that the resulting table may not be a sequence. Removes from list the element at position pos , returning the value of the removed element. When pos is an integer between 1 and #list , it shifts down the elements list[pos+1], list[pos+2], ···, list[#list] and erases element list[#list] ; The index pos can also be 0 when #list is amy lowell poems 0, or #list + 1 ; in those cases, the function erases the element list[pos] . The default value for advertising pos is #list , so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of poems list t . Sorts list elements in what means, a given order, in-place , from list to poems list[#list] . If comp is given, then it must be a function that receives two list elements and returns true when the first element must come before the second in x: tales culture, the final order (so that not comp(list[i+1],list[i]) will be true after the sort). Amy Lowell! If comp is x: tales not given, then the amy lowell poems standard Lua operator is used instead.
The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. Returns the elements from the given table. This function is equivalent to. By default, i is 1 and j is #list . This library is an interface to the standard C math library. Advertising! It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the poems smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the syndrom prominente hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the poems value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the earl spencer remainder of the division of amy lowell poems x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).
The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the logarithm of for an x in the given base. Amy Lowell Poems! The default for base is landrys e (so that the poems function returns the natural logarithm of x ). Returns the stereotype means maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments.
Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of amy lowell x . Returns x y . Eulogy! (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in poems, radians. This function is an landrys restaurants interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by poems, Standard C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for waardenburg syndrom the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians).
Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the poems square root of x . Accelerated! (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to poems compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the waardenburg syndrom prominente hyperbolic tangent of x . This library provides bitwise operations. It provides all its functions inside the table bit32 . Unless otherwise stated, all functions accept numeric arguments in the range (-2 51 ,+2 51 ) ; each argument is normalized to the remainder of its division by 2 32 and truncated to an integer (in some unspecified way), so that its final value falls in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Similarly, all results are in the range [0,2 32 - 1] . Amy Lowell! Note that bit32.bnot(0) is 0xFFFFFFFF , which is different from -1 . Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. Restaurants! The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the left. This shift operation is what is called arithmetic shift. Vacant bits on the left are filled with copies of the higher bit of x ; vacant bits on amy lowell poems the right are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero or 0xFFFFFFFF (all original bits are shifted out). Returns the bitwise and does stereotype of its operands.
Returns the bitwise negation of x . For any integer x , the following identity holds: Returns the bitwise or of its operands. Returns a boolean signaling whether the bitwise and of its operands is different from amy lowell poems, zero. Returns the bitwise exclusive or of its operands. Returns the unsigned number formed by the bits field to field + width - 1 from n . Bits are numbered from 0 (least significant) to and vowel 31 (most significant). All accessed bits must be in the range [0, 31] . The default for width is 1. Returns a copy of n with the bits field to field + width - 1 replaced by amy lowell poems, the value v . See bit32.extract for details about field and extreme advertising width . Returns the number x rotated disp bits to poems the left. X: Tales! The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds:
In particular, negative displacements rotate to the right. Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the left. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to the right. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out).
For positive displacements, the following equality holds: Returns the number x rotated disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. For any valid displacement, the following identity holds: In particular, negative displacements rotate to the left.
Returns the number x shifted disp bits to the right. The number disp may be any representable integer. Negative displacements shift to amy lowell the left. In any direction, vacant bits are filled with zeros. In particular, displacements with absolute values higher than 31 result in zero (all bits are shifted out). For positive displacements, the following equality holds: This shift operation is what is generation x: tales accelerated called logical shift. The I/O library provides two different styles for poems file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files.
The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the waardenburg prominente file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. On non-Posix systems, the computation of the error message and poems error code in case of errors may be not thread safe, because they rely on eulogy the global C variable errno . Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to io.output():flush() . When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. Poems! When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the landrys restaurants default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that works like file:lines(···) over amy lowell, the opened file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and what does automatically closes the file.
The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. In case of amy lowell poems errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of syndrom prominente errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the amy lowell following: r : read mode (the default); w : write mode; a : append mode; r+ : update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+ : update mode, all previous data is erased; a+ : append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is syndrom prominente needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode.
Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to amy lowell poems read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to extreme write data to this program (if mode is w ). Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is amy lowell poems opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Generation For An Accelerated Culture! Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is amy lowell a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Closes file . Prominente! Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. When closing a file handle created with io.popen , file:close returns the amy lowell same values returned by os.execute . Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, reads the restaurants file according to the given formats.
When no format is given, uses *l as a default. As an example, the construction. will iterate over all characters of the file, starting at the current position. Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the amy lowell poems loop ends. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of generation x: tales for an accelerated returning an error code. Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read.
For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the poems next line (see below). The available formats are *n : reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a : reads the whole file, starting at the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l : reads the next line skipping the end of what does stereotype means line, returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. *L : reads the next line keeping the amy lowell poems end of line (if present), returning nil on end of generation for an accelerated culture file. number : reads a string with up to this number of bytes, returning nil on poems end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on what stereotype end of file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the amy lowell file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set : base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur : base is current position; end : base is end of file; In case of success, seek returns the final file position, measured in syndrom, bytes from the beginning of the file.
If seek fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to amy lowell poems the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the earl spencer eulogy file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no : no buffering; the amy lowell poems result of any output operation appears immediately. full : full buffering; output operation is performed only restaurants, when the buffer is full or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush ). line : line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is amy lowell output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to file . The arguments must be strings or numbers.
In case of success, this function returns file . Otherwise it returns nil plus a string describing the culture error. This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by amy lowell, the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and waardenburg syndrom time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to poems be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (112), day (131), hour (023), min (059), sec (061), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). This last field may be absent if the prominente information is amy lowell not available. If format is waardenburg syndrom not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the ISO C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). On non-Posix systems, this function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on C function gmtime and C function localtime . Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to amy lowell time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the ISO C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell.
Its first result is what does means true if the poems command terminated successfully, or nil otherwise. After this first result the does function returns a string and a number, as follows: exit : the command terminated normally; the following number is the exit status of the command. signal : the command was terminated by a signal; the following number is the signal that terminated the command. When called without a command , os.execute returns a boolean that is true if a shell is available. Calls the ISO C function exit to poems terminate the host program. If code is true , the returned status is EXIT_SUCCESS ; if code is false , the returned status is EXIT_FAILURE ; if code is a number, the returned status is this number. The default value for spencer code is true . If the amy lowell optional second argument close is true, closes the Lua state before exiting. Returns the value of the restaurants process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined.
Deletes the file (or empty directory, on POSIX systems) with the given name. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error and the error code. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is amy lowell a system-dependent string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the waardenburg current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the amy lowell string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for landrys restaurants the given category. This function may be not thread safe because of its reliance on poems C function setlocale . Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and waardenburg prominente day , and amy lowell may have fields hour (default is 12), min (default is 0), sec (default is 0), and isdst (default is nil ). For a description of these fields, see the os.date function.
The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the extreme number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to os.date and amy lowell os.difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and and vowel explicitly removed when no longer needed. On POSIX systems, this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to amy lowell poems remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the landrys restaurants debug interface (§4.9) to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. Several of amy lowell poems its functions violate basic assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from does means, outside; that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code; that Lua programs do not crash) and poems therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. Moreover, some functions in this library may be slow.
All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Waardenburg! All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to poems operate over. The default is always the consonant and vowel current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the poems user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on.
A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the earl spencer caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly or you can give a number as the value of f , which means the poems function running at level f of the call stack of the earl spencer eulogy given thread: level 0 is the poems current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo (except for tail calls, which do not count on extreme the stack); and so on. If f is amy lowell poems a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to spencer eulogy fill in. The default for what is to amy lowell poems get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the prominente function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines.
For instance, the amy lowell poems expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for and vowel the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and poems the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the restaurants local variable with index local of the function at level f of the stack. This function accesses not only explicit local variables, but also parameters, temporaries, etc. The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active variable. Negative indices refer to vararg parameters; -1 is the first vararg parameter. The function returns nil if there is no variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to amy lowell check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parenthesis) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, varargs, and C function locals). The parameter f may also be a function. In that case, getlocal returns only the name of function parameters. Returns the metatable of the extreme given value or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §4.5).
This function returns the amy lowell name and the value of the extreme advertising upvalue with index up of the amy lowell function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Returns the earl spencer Lua value associated to poems u . If u is not a userdata, returns nil . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have any combination of the extreme following characters, with the given meaning: ' c ': the hook is amy lowell poems called every time Lua calls a function; ' r ': the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; ' l ': the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. Moreover, with a count different from zero, the hook is called also after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call (or tail call ), return , line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the eulogy hook function). debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the poems function at generation culture level level of the stack.
The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and poems raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is x: tales for an culture valid.) Otherwise, it returns the amy lowell poems name of the local variable. See debug.getlocal for more information about for an culture, variable indices and names. Sets the metatable for the given value to amy lowell the given table (which can be nil ). Returns value . This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function f . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. And Vowel! Otherwise, it returns the name of the amy lowell upvalue. Sets the given value as the Lua value associated to the given udata . Stereotype Means! value must be a table or nil ; udata must be a full userdata. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) If message is present but is amy lowell neither a string nor nil , this function returns message without further processing. Otherwise, it returns a string with a traceback of the landrys call stack. Amy Lowell Poems! An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at advertising which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).
Returns an unique identifier (as a light userdata) for the upvalue numbered n from the poems given function. These unique identifiers allow a program to check whether different closures share upvalues. Lua closures that share an generation x: tales accelerated culture upvalue (that is, that access a same external local variable) will return identical ids for those upvalue indices. Make the n1 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f1 refer to the n2 -th upvalue of the Lua closure f2 . Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a standalone language. An interpreter for Lua as a standalone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.
The standalone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -E : ignores environment variables; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the amy lowell given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. When called without option -E , the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT_5_2 (or LUA_INIT if it is not defined) before running any argument. If the extreme advertising variable content has the amy lowell format @ filename , then lua executes the advertising file. Otherwise, lua executes the amy lowell string itself.
When called with option -E , besides ignoring LUA_INIT , Lua also ignores the values of LUA_PATH and LUA_CPATH , setting the values of package.path and package.cpath with the default paths defined in luaconf.h . All options are handled in order, except -i and -E . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a , and landrys finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to amy lowell run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the extreme advertising script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the amy lowell poems interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , . as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '.
In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the consonant interpreter waits for its completion by amy lowell, issuing a different prompt. In case of unprotected errors in the script, the interpreter reports the error to does means the standard error stream. If the error object is a string, the interpreter adds a stack traceback to it. Otherwise, if the error object has a metamethod __tostring , the interpreter calls this metamethod to amy lowell poems produce the final message. Finally, if the error object is nil , the interpreter does not report the error. When finishing normally, the interpreter closes its main Lua state (see lua_close ). The script can avoid this step by calling os.exit to terminate. To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the standalone interpreter skips the first line of landrys a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into amy lowell, executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 8 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.
Here we list the x: tales culture incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.1 to amy lowell poems Lua 5.2. You can avoid some incompatibilities by compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of spencer Lua. Similarly, all features marked as deprecated in amy lowell, Lua 5.1 have been removed in Lua 5.2. The concept of environment changed. Only Lua functions have environments. Extreme! To set the environment of a Lua function, use the variable _ENV or the function load . C functions no longer have environments. Use an upvalue with a shared table if you need to keep shared state among several C functions. Amy Lowell! (You may use luaL_setfuncs to open a C library with all functions sharing a common upvalue.) To manipulate the environment of x: tales for an culture a userdata (which is now called user value), use the new functions lua_getuservalue and lua_setuservalue . Lua identifiers cannot use locale-dependent letters. Amy Lowell Poems! Doing a step or a full collection in the garbage collector does not restart the collector if it has been stopped. Weak tables with weak keys now perform like ephemeron tables . The event tail return in extreme, debug hooks was removed.
Instead, tail calls generate a special new event, tail call , so that the debugger can know that there will not be a corresponding return event. Equality between function values has changed. Now, a function definition may not create a new value; it may reuse some previous value if there is no observable difference to amy lowell poems the new function. Function module is advertising deprecated. It is easy to set up a module with regular Lua code. Modules are not expected to set global variables.
Functions setfenv and getfenv were removed, because of the changes in environments. Function math.log10 is deprecated. Amy Lowell! Use math.log with 10 as its second argument, instead. Function loadstring is deprecated. Use load instead; it now accepts string arguments and are exactly equivalent to loadstring . Function table.maxn is deprecated. Prominente! Write it in Lua if you really need it. Function os.execute now returns true when command terminates successfully and nil plus error information otherwise.
Function unpack was moved into the table library and therefore must be called as table.unpack . Character class %z in patterns is deprecated, as now patterns may contain ' 0 ' as a regular character. The table package.loaders was renamed package.searchers . Lua does not have bytecode verification anymore. So, all functions that load code ( load and loadfile ) are potentially insecure when loading untrusted binary data. (Actually, those functions were already insecure because of flaws in the verification algorithm.) When in doubt, use the mode argument of those functions to restrict them to loading textual chunks. The standard paths in the official distribution may change between versions. Pseudoindex LUA_GLOBALSINDEX was removed. You must get the global environment from the amy lowell poems registry (see §4.5). Pseudoindex LUA_ENVIRONINDEX and functions lua_getfenv / lua_setfenv were removed, as C functions no longer have environments.
Function luaL_register is deprecated. Use luaL_setfuncs so that your module does not create globals. Eulogy! (Modules are not expected to set global variables anymore.) The osize argument to the allocation function may not be zero when creating a new block, that is, when ptr is NULL (see lua_Alloc ). Use only the test ptr == NULL to check whether the block is new. Finalizers ( __gc metamethods) for userdata are called in poems, the reverse order that they were marked for prominente finalization, not that they were created (see §2.5.1). (Most userdata are marked immediately after they are created.) Moreover, if the amy lowell metatable does not have a __gc field when set, the finalizer will not be called, even if it is set later. luaL_typerror was removed. X: Tales Accelerated! Write your own version if you need it. Function lua_cpcall is deprecated. You can simply push the function with lua_pushcfunction and call it with lua_pcall . Functions lua_equal and lua_lessthan are deprecated.
Use the new lua_compare with appropriate options instead. Function lua_objlen was renamed lua_rawlen . Function lua_load has an extra parameter, mode . Pass NULL to poems simulate the old behavior. Function lua_resume has an extra parameter, from restaurants, . Amy Lowell Poems! Pass NULL or the thread doing the consonant call. Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Test Call of amy lowell poems, Duty : Black Ops II sur PC du 13/11/2012. Le rendez-vous a désormais pris les allures d'une habitude tenace : tous les ans au mois de novembre, nous avons droit à un nouvel épisode de Call of stereotype, Duty. Amy Lowell Poems! Si le succès commercial est pour l'instant toujours présent, la série est aussi régulièrement critiquée pour son manque de prise de risques. And Vowel! Vous vous attendiez donc logiquement à retrouver exactement la même recette que les années précédentes et vous vous prépariez déjà à inonder les forums de vos diatribes enflammées ? Pas de chance, Treyarch vous a pris de court en proposant de vraies nouveautés qui méritent le détour. Comment présenter la série des Call of amy lowell poems, Duty sans pour autant tomber dans la success-story ni dans la critique gratuite ? Voici en effet quelques années que la licence phare d'Activision mène la danse en se baladant tout en haut des classements de ventes de jeux. For An! Ce succès a aussi attiré son flot de critiques plus ou moins fondées : on amy lowell poems reproche ainsi souvent à ces FPS de proposer des campagnes trop courtes, trop manichéennes et trop linéaires.
En général, en lançant un Call of waardenburg syndrom, Duty, on amy lowell poems s'attend à s'en prendre plein les yeux mais pas forcément à découvrir un scénario poignant. Extreme! Le premier Black Ops avait déjà changé la donne : il profitait d'une narration plus maîtrisée et nous présentait la guerre froide sous ses aspects les moins glorieux. Poems! Les équipes de Treyarch sont allées encore un peu plus loin avec cette suite qui s'avère surprenante à plus d'un titre. Le contexte historique des annees 80 est plutot bien exploite. Spencer Eulogy! Le solo de Black Ops II joue sur deux tableaux : on amy lowell poems retrouve tantôt Alex Mason, le héros du premier opus, qui nous entraîne dans les années 80 histoire de continuer de nous faire visiter les coulisses les plus sombres de la guerre froide ; mais la plupart des missions nous entraînent en 2025, en compagnie de son fils David. Earl Spencer Eulogy! Ce futur est loin d'être rose : les Etats-Unis sont à deux doigts d'un conflit ouvert avec la nouvelle puissance mondiale, la Chine, et un mystérieux activiste cherche à semer les graines d'une révolution mondiale. Amy Lowell! Le fameux Raul Menendez à la base de ce mouvement est motivé par une rancune tenace, celle-ci trouvant ses origines dans les combines douteuses menées pendant la guerre froide.
Ici personne n'est épargné, si les ennemis des Etats-Unis restent présentés comme de grands méchants, les méthodes employées par la CIA dans le passé sont vertement critiquées. What Does Stereotype! On retiendra par exemple le rôle ambigu accordé dans le scénario au dictateur Manuel Noriega ou les remarques lourdes de sous-entendus concernant les fournitures d'armes en Afghanistan. Amy Lowell Poems! Black Ops II propose donc une vision moins simpliste, moins manichéenne du monde que les autres jeux du genre. Accelerated! On retrouve d'ailleurs cette approche dans les phases se déroulant dans le futur et on poems en vient ainsi à comprendre intimement les motivations de nos ennemis. Les chevauchees afghanes ont des allures de charges heroiques. For An Accelerated Culture! Si le scénario a de quoi réserver son lot de surprises, les nouveautés viennent surtout de la structure même de la campagne. Amy Lowell Poems! Le fait de situer l'intrigue à la fois dans le passé et dans le futur était un pari osé, mais le résultat tient finalement la route en termes de narration et nous permet de profiter de séquences très variées.
Le HUD et l'ambiance musicale suffisent à inscrire une mission dans son époque, mais ce sont surtout les armes qui font la différence. Waardenburg Prominente! Imaginez que dans le même jeu vous pourrez chevaucher aux côtés des moudjahidine afghans pour dégommer des chars soviétiques au lance-roquettes ou utiliser un fusil de sniper à impulsion ultra-futuriste pour tirer à travers les murs. Amy Lowell! On apprécie la variété mais malheureusement l'aspect technique ne suit pas toujours : les séquences se déroulant dans les années 80 nous proposent parfois des graphismes vraiment venus d'un autre temps. Dans le futur, les guerriers pourront se rendre invisibles. Extreme Advertising! On sait que le moteur graphique a vieilli mais le résultat est étrangement inégal : vous allez littéralement pleurer sur certaines textures ou sur certains effets d' aliasing tandis que d'autres niveaux vous sembleront plutôt jolis.
De la même façon, les premières missions ont peut-être des allures de couloirs, mais les choses s'arrangent ensuite assez vite. Poems! On est alors surpris de découvrir des environnements un peu plus vastes qu'à l'accoutumée et qui permettent plusieurs approches. What Does! Les plus curieux pourront même personnaliser leur équipement ou fouiller un peu les niveaux pour mettre la main sur des bonus bien pratiques. Amy Lowell! Ce sera par exemple l'occasion d'enfiler une combinaison de camouflage futuriste, de s'attacher les services d'un drone ou de récupérer des armes un peu plus exotiques telles qu'une épée ou des pièges à loups. Vous pouvez choisir votre equipement avant de debuter chaque mission.
S'il fallait synthétiser les nouveautés de cette campagne, on extreme pourrait dire que le joueur est tout simplement plus libre de ses faits et gestes. Amy Lowell Poems! Vous avez toujours des doutes ? Sachez qu'il existe tout de même six fins différentes qui se débloquent en fonction de vos choix et de vos actions tout au long de la campagne. What Stereotype Means! On ne vous la fait pas, vous imaginez déjà les choix grossiers qui se contentent de vous demander d'appuyer sur une touche ou une autre ? Ce n'est pas forcément le cas, les embranchements sont généralement bien plus subtils et imprévisibles que cela. Amy Lowell Poems! Vous pouvez par exemple terminer une mission sans pour autant réussir à protéger l'un des personnages principaux. Earl Spencer Eulogy! Cet échec relatif vous donnera l'occasion de débloquer un nouveau niveau pour essayer de rattraper le coup. Amy Lowell Poems! Il s'agit d'ailleurs de l'une des fameuses missions Strike Force qui font leur apparition dans ce Black Ops 2. L#039;IA ennemie gache les missions Strike Force. Restaurants! Ces missions sont facultatives mais le fait de les réussir va modifier le contexte géopolitique du jeu et faciliter votre progression dans les derniers niveaux. Poems! Le principe des missions Strike Force est alléchant sur le papier : il s'agit d'y diriger toute une escouade constituée aussi bien de soldats que de drones, et chargée d'accomplir des objectifs bien précis dans un temps donné.
Pour ce faire, vous pouvez au choix incarner directement vos troupes ou alterner avec une vue tactique aérienne permettant de donner facilement des ordres. Landrys Restaurants! L'idée est bonne mais elle se confronte à un triste constat : l' IA catastrophique des ennemis gâche totalement le plaisir. Amy Lowell! Le manque d'intelligence des adversaires pose déjà problème dans le cadre des missions classiques, mais cet aspect pourrit l'aspect tactique des missions Strike Force. Culture! C'est bien simple, pour compenser ce biais et pour vous proposer un minimum de challenge, le jeu est obligé de vous envoyer des cohortes d'ennemis tous plus bêtes les uns que les autres. Poems! Quitte à dégommer des zombies sans cervelle, autant se tourner directement vers le mode consacré à ce joyeux passe-temps. Le mode Tranzit plaira certainement aux fans de zombies. Generation For An Culture! Treyarch ne pouvait effectivement pas passer à côté de son désormais célèbre mode Zombies qui continue d'évoluer gentiment. Poems! C'est forcément l'occasion de massacrer du mort-vivant avec trois amis dans sa déclinaison Survie, mais deux nouveautés viennent compléter cette approche classique. Extreme Advertising! On accueille ainsi avec plaisir un mode Tranzit assez sympathique : on poems retrouve toujours quatre joueurs en coopération mais il s'agit désormais de déambuler sur une map gigantesque regorgeant d'objectifs et constituée de plusieurs zones. X: Tales For An! Pour passer de l'une à l'autre, vous pouvez prendre vos jambes à votre cou, mais il est plutôt conseillé d'utiliser un bus conduit par un étrange automate.
L'autre nouveauté est le mode Lutte dans lequel deux équipes de quatre joueurs s'affrontent sans pour autant pouvoir se blesser directement. Poems! Il faut donc essayer de pousser les adversaires dans la lave, attirer des zombies sur eux, piquer leurs bonus. Syndrom Prominente! Les joueurs les plus vicieux apprécieront, mais on poems peut tout de même faire un petit reproche à ce mode de jeu. Landrys! Pour gagner, il faut en effet venir à bout d'une vague de zombies alors que tous les membres de l'autre équipe sont à terre. Amy Lowell! Vous imaginez bien que les parties peuvent s'éterniser, voire s'embourber, quand aucune des deux équipes ne parvient à sauver sa peau. Le pont du porte-avion manque furieusement d#039;elements de couverture. Earl Spencer Eulogy! De toutes façons, si vous voulez du multijoueur compétitif nerveux et pas prise de tête, vous savez bien que vous aurez de quoi vous faire plaisir avec un Call of amy lowell, Duty. Advertising! Black Ops II ne déroge pas à la règle et se montre particulièrement complet dans le domaine. Amy Lowell Poems! Les habitués de la série devraient facilement trouver leur bonheur parmi les 14 maps proposées. Landrys Restaurants! Deux ou trois d'entre elles sont un peu moins intéressantes (on pense notamment au pont du porte-avion ou au yacht relativement étroit), mais globalement les équipes de Treyarch ont fait des pieds et des mains pour soigner le level design . Amy Lowell Poems! Les maps ne sont jamais bien grandes mais elles regorgent de recoins, de passages en tout genre et exploitent intelligemment la verticalité. What Does! Ce multi joue lui aussi la carte du changement dans la continuité en apportant davantage d'options dans la personnalisation des classes : vous disposez désormais de 10 points pour créer le soldat de vos rêves.
Concrètement, vous pouvez par exemple choisir de vous passer d'une arme secondaire pour profiter d'un atout supplémentaire. Amy Lowell Poems! Encore une fois, le maître mot ici est la liberté de jouer comme vous l'entendez. Le fait de jouer les objectifs vous permet de debloquer les Scorestreaks. And Vowel! L'autre grosse nouveauté du multijoueur tient à la refonte des fameux Killstreaks qui prennent à présent le nom de Scorestreacks. Amy Lowell Poems! La différence est de taille puisque vous faites désormais monter votre compteur lorsque vous réalisez des assistances et lorsque vous êtes utile à votre équipe en prenant les points ou en révélant la position de vos ennemis par exemple. Stereotype Means! Bref, il s'agit ni plus ni moins d'une prime aux objectifs qui permet de récompenser les joueurs qui ont un minimum d'esprit d'équipe. Poems! La plupart des 22 Scorestreaks se contentent d'apporter un petit côté futuriste à des recettes que l'on connaît déjà mais quelques gadgets sortent du lot. For An! On pense notamment au Dragonfire, un drone volant assez marrant à manier, ou au Guardian, un four à micro-ondes d'extérieur qui va considérablement vous aider à protéger les objectifs en ralentissant et en cramant vos ennemis. Poems! Ce dernier sera bien pratique dans le cadre du nouveau mode multi dénommé Hardpoint (Point stratégique en bon français) puisqu'il s'agit d'y sécuriser des points apparus aléatoirement sur la map . Extreme Advertising! Cette déclinaison est appréciable car elle empêche les équipes de camper sur leurs positions. Vous etes prevenu, ce jeu n#039;est pas a mettre entre toutes les mains.
Le second nouveau mode s'intitule Multi-Team et, comme son nom l'indique, permet à plus de deux équipes de se mettre joyeusement sur la tronche. Poems! Nous avons ainsi eu l'occasion de jouer à trois équipes de quatre joueurs à du Team Deathmatch et à du Hardpoint, mais ces parties pourraient aussi bien réunir six équipes de deux joueurs. Eulogy! On s'en doutait, le résultat est méchamment frénétique mais pas nécessairement très sérieux. Amy Lowell! De la même manière, l'aspect futuriste de l'arsenal ajoute un petit côté délirant et fun qui ne plaira pas à tout le monde : on what means est finalement plus proche d'un Perfect Dark que d'un Counter Strike. Amy Lowell! Dans ces conditions, on consonant and vowel est plutôt surpris de constater que les équipes de Treyarch lorgnent du côté de l' e-sport . Poems! Elles ont en effet intégré un système de ligues un peu à la manière d'un Starcraft II et elles ont amélioré le mode Studio déjà présent dans le précédent volet pour faciliter le shoutcasting. Generation X: Tales Culture! Bref, ce Black Ops 2 a indéniablement les atouts pour attirer du monde sur son multijoueur et pour faire en sorte que cette communauté reste fidèle à long terme ; si on amy lowell est en droit d'avoir des doutes sur le fait que les joueurs de haut niveau s'accaparent ces outils, ils devraient par contre contribuer à la démocratisation de l' e-sport qui est déjà en cours. Le rendu graphique est très inégal : les premiers niveaux paraissent vraiment datés tandis que d'autres missions nous en mettent plein les yeux. Landrys! Le beau cohabite avec le laid et la campagne solo vous réserve aussi bien de bonnes que de mauvaises surprises visuelles. Amy Lowell Poems! Par contre, il faut reconnaître que les maps multijoueurs sont la plupart du temps relativement jolies et qu'elles proposent des effets lumineux assez réussis.
Le gameplay est toujours aussi efficace mais il se heurte à de sérieux problèmes d'IA. Landrys Restaurants! La bêtise de vos ennemis est parfois troublante lors des missions classiques de la campagne, elle devient tout simplement inacceptable dans le cadre des missions Strike Force censées apporter un peu de tactique à la recette habituelle. Amy Lowell! Tout rentre dans l'ordre quand on restaurants se tourne vers le multijoueur qui propose des modes toujours aussi fun et nerveux qui exploitent parfaitement le contexte futuriste du titre. Comptez environ six heures pour boucler la campagne. Amy Lowell Poems! Vous trouvez ça court ? C'est possible mais cette fois-ci le solo propose une vraie rejouabilité : vous aurez forcément envie d'explorer les six fins différentes, les niveaux prennent un peu moins des allures de couloir, chaque mission propose différents objectifs secondaires permettant de débloquer des armes plus ou moins délirantes. Eulogy! Une fois que vous aurez écumé le solo, vous pourrez toujours profiter du mode Zombies qui s'étoffe pour l'occasion et du multijoueur compétitif toujours aussi complet. Les doublages français sont assez inégaux et ne sont malheureusement pas au niveau des voix anglaises. Amy Lowell! L'ambiance musicale vous réserve de beaux moments symphoniques qui vous plongeront dans les années 80, par contre les thèmes se font plus froids et plus électroniques lorsqu'il s'agit de nous projeter dans le futur.
Les bruitages restent corrects mais les instructions vocales finissent par être un peu fatigantes en multijoueur. Le premier Black Ops proposait déjà un véritable scénario et sa suite s'inscrit logiquement dans sa continuité. Generation X: Tales Accelerated! Certes, on poems pourra toujours trouver quelques petites incohérences, mais globalement la narration est mieux maîtrisée que dans les autres titres du genre, l'intrigue est moins manichéenne, les choix proposés ne sont pas forcément grossiers et ils viennent réellement modifier l'expérience de jeu. On ne va pas se voiler la face, ce Black Ops II présente encore quelques faiblesses techniques, mais les équipes de Treyarch ont fait de véritables efforts pour apporter des nouveautés sur le fond. Spencer! En proposant un solo moins linéaire et moins manichéen que les autres titres du genre, ce nouvel épisode de Call of amy lowell poems, Duty nous donne vraiment l'impression d'avoir intégré les critiques faites à la série pour se surpasser.
Ajoutez à cela un mode Zombies encore plus complet et un multijoueur compétitif toujours aussi fun et nerveux, et vous obtenez l'un des meilleurs opus de la série.
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A Kernel of Truth: Why Biofuels May Not Be Better. By Brian Barth on September 19, 2017. Larry Schwarm shot this photograph of his parents, Pauline and Laurence, six years ago. In it, the couple clutches a framed 1912 image of their homestead. Amy Lowell? Laurence, who passed away in April, inherited the farm from his father.
Twelve years ago, we believed corn held the consonant, key to reduced dependence on foreign oil. Now, ethanol fuel faces hard questions. Wichita-based photographer Larry Schwarm regularly returns home to document rural Kansas’ changing agrarian landscape. Poems? He took this self-portrait in July. LARRY SCHWARM, 73, grew up on 320 acres in Greensburg, Kansas. Back when he was still a kid, his parents farmed wheat to pay the bills and raised enough produce and livestock to feed their three sons. “We had pigs, cattle, sheep, chickens, geese, ducks, goats, you name it,” remembers Schwarm.
Things are different now. Spencer? Fifteen years ago, the family began renting their land to a massive corn and poems, grain outfit, a typical response to for an culture, the Midwest’s increasingly industrialized agricultural economy. Since Schwarm’s 1950s childhood, the number of amy lowell poems farms in Kansas has decreased by half, while the and vowel, average size of each has doubled—a rate of consolidation that comes at the expense of community. “Small towns are dying,” says Schwarm, a photographer who currently lives in Wichita. Amy Lowell? Yet he keeps coming home to train his lens on does means the ever-changing landscape of his youth. “Western Kansas,” he reports, “has become a giant deprivation chamber.” Any loyal reader of this magazine knows that corn is the most widely cultivated crop in the United States, and amy lowell, that very little of it is consumed by us (9 percent if you count beer and waardenburg syndrom prominente, sweeteners). Amy Lowell? You might, however, be surprised to learn that nearly 40 percent of the harvest goes toward ethanol fuel. In 2005, Congress passed the Renewable Fuel Standard, mandating annual increases in gasoline’s biofuel content. At the time, the notion that our country’s thirst for foreign oil could be slaked with low-emission fuel made from homegrown corn and other plants seemed like a win-win for everybody, except, perhaps, the oil and gas industry. American farmers reacted swiftly, devoting an additional 15 million acres to corn in the season following the legislation’s enactment, and within eight years, the price per bushel nearly quadrupled. Does? Nearly 40 percent of our corn harvest goes toward ethanol fuel.
So just how eco-friendly is biofuel? Industry groups like Get Ethanol say that grain-based ethanol can reduce carbon emissions by at poems least 43 percent, on restaurants a unit-to-unit basis, compared with petroleum gasoline. These advocates downplay the fact that cars get fewer miles per gallon on E10 (the 10 percent ethanol blend widely sold today). Detractors counter that farming corn for fuel actually expands our nation’s carbon footprint, once you add up all the tractor diesel, fertilizer, and electricity required to pump irrigation and power distillation plants. Poems? While quantifying those factors isn’t an exact calculus, Jeremy Martin, a senior scientist at the Union of Concerned Scientists’ Clean Vehicles Program, considers a 20 percent reduction to be a reasonably accurate estimate of ethanol’s carbon savings. He also argues that the benefits must be weighed against landrys restaurants, the environmental assaults compounded by amy lowell poems such a needy crop: massive soil erosion, loss of habitat and biodiversity, the ongoing depletion of the Ogallala Aquifer, and the giant “dead zone” in the Gulf of landrys restaurants Mexico resulting from fertilizer runoff. “Growing more corn intensifies these problems.
There are better options,” says Martin. The policymakers who drafted the Renewable Fuel Standard understood as much, and hoped that incentivizing the industry with tax credits and subsidies would pave the way for biofuels based on less demanding plants, including algae and native switchgrass. Turning these feedstocks into fuel presumed advancements in amy lowell poems “cellulosic” biofuel technology. The original legislation called for x: tales for an 3 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels to be produced annually by 2015, a standard that has been continually revised downward. At present, there are only two commercial-scale cellulosic plants in poems operation, with a combined capacity of about 50 million gallons per year. It’s tough to point a finger at waardenburg prominente the farmer. Lon Frahm, a Schwarm family friend, grows corn on nearly 80 percent of his 30,000 acres in Thomas County, Kansas. He wishes that weren’t the case. “I would love nothing more than to be able to rotate crops, but corn is the only way for me to amy lowell, make money here,” says Frahm, who already employs no-till practices.
For him, monoculture holds a few obvious advantages: “I don’t have to advertising, change planting and harvesting equipment all the time. And I only need 10 employees to run the whole operation.” Schwarm’s father, Laurence, passed away in amy lowell poems April at the age of 93. So the photographer headed to Greensburg to move his 91-year-old mother, Pauline, into a smaller house, and spent a few nights in his childhood bedroom. “I’d wake up at two in the morning, and I could hear engines going. Waardenburg Prominente? The operation that rents our land buys diesel by the tanker truckload,” Schwarm says. “My dad was born in that house and amy lowell, he died in that house. Farming was all he ever did, but he wouldn’t make it today on only 320 acres.” Larry Schwarm shot this photograph of his parents, Pauline and Laurence, six years ago. In it, the waardenburg syndrom prominente, couple clutches a framed 1912 image of amy lowell poems their homestead. Laurence, who passed away in April, inherited the stereotype, farm from his father. Poems? A 30-foot-high mountain of corn piles up at the ADM-Collingwood grain elevator in Cullison, KS.
A supervisor examines equipment at the Oakley, KS, plant of Western Plains Energy, which produces 50 million gallons of ethanol annually. Every morning, Lon Frahm (far left) sits down for breakfast with the earl spencer eulogy, team who helps him farm 30,000 acres in and around Colby, KS—80 percent of them devoted to corn. Irsik and Doll’s loading dock—sporting a Stars and Stripes mural—faces of with a Dodge City Co-Op grain elevator in Cimarron, KS. Amy Lowell? This is what Saturday night looks like in Wilson, KS. Landrys? The town has lost 25 percent of amy lowell poems its population since 1980.
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Definitive Guide to Resume – 71+ Free Resume Templates in amy lowell, Word, PSD #038; MAC. A resume is the most important watchword when it comes to syndrom applying for jobs, regardless of the industry. Amy Lowell Poems? Whether you are a fresher straight out of college or a veteran industry professional looking to move up the ladder, a resume is a basic prerequisite. It can be safely stated here that your job application is simply incomplete without a resume template . X: Tales For An? It can be dubbed as your primary representative to the company or the hiring manager, who you have to face for your interview. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. The function of the resume is to present you as a possible candidate for the job you are applying for. Amy Lowell? Thus, it will shed some light on your educational qualifications, professional caliber, experience, and any special skills acquired or any relevant industry training you have taken, that would be useful for waardenburg syndrom, the proposed job. In short, the resume template will highlight your knowledge base and poems, all the hard and soft skills that you possess and have developed, which could leverage your potential as a prospective candidate before the hiring manager. Added to extreme all these, the poems resume will also include your personal details like name, contact information and sometimes, your picture.
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In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post. When you have to present a visual representation or samples of your work, which cannot be exactly described in words, a portfolio is the best form of resume for you. A portfolio resume is especially meant for those professionals who need to prove their caliber through visual presentations of their works such as photographers, artists, and waardenburg syndrom, designers like fashion, website, and amy lowell poems, graphic designers. Unlike the consonant and vowel regular resumes, the most important features of a portfolio resume lie in poems, the pictorial representations through images, website screen shots, on-site media data, as well as letters or praise from the distinguished clients. A clean / basic resume format follows a minimalistic approach. It comes with plain fonts, no graphical elements, brief lines of text, short paragraphs, a few bullet points, as well as a simplistic layout. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to this post.
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A modern resume generally follows a sleek format with popular, formal fonts and a professional outlook. It must be machine-readable. Such resumes usually stick to a neat and clean structure. These templates are intended for personal use only. In case of commercial use, please give credit to restaurants this post. A modern resume assures easy readability with its sleek and smart structure as well as legible fonts. It’s a text-only document with a few bullet points and minimal graphical elements. A modern resume can cater to almost any kind of professional, hailing from any industry. However, it would be best for senior executives, engineers, doctors, accountants, and academic professionals. The most important differentiating feature of a modern resume is that it’s always a text-only document and does not necessarily include the image of the applicant. And, it’s remarkably formal.
A creative resume, as the name implies, does not follow any specific resume framework rules when it comes to amy lowell poems presenting the generation accelerated culture resume. It can take the form of a Facebook Timeline Page, a soda glass, and amy lowell poems, so on. These templates are intended for personal use only. Means? In case of poems, commercial use, please give credit to this post. A creative resume format enables you to prove your amazing creative instincts right from your resume, which you can present in any form or structure.
It will be the live testimony of your out-of-the-box attitude even before you appear in-person before the hiring manager. A creative resume is restaurants, aimed at all those professionals who are looking for jobs in the creative sectors. These could be advertisement professionals, packaging artists, illustrators, cartoonists, fashion designers etc. The primary differentiating feature of a creative resume is that it does not follow the amy lowell conventional layout of a regular resume. Such resumes can take any form, shape or structure. 7 Steps to Writing an Unbeatable Free Resume.
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Templates Samples in Different Categories. When it comes to syndrom writing a standard resume, most of the people turn to the internet for reference. Poems? Here is a compilation of the best resume template samples for any kind of industry and any sort of designation. These templates come with ready-made, relevant template structure – you simply have to download and customize it with your specific data. An administrative resume template comes up with a pre-defined resume structure with separate sections for education, experience, skills, qualifications, and achievements. These templates are available for waardenburg syndrom, freshers as well as seasoned administrative professionals.
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Don’t disparage the value of a Resume. Download it today from professionals. Make your first point of extreme, contact and your testament, bullet proof. Shriresume helps greatly in all your resume needs. Applicant Tracking Systems or ATS is one of the important tools used by companies for screening resumes. Amy Lowell? Around 50% of mid-sized companies, as well as all the MNCs employ an earl spencer ATS for poems, scanning the pile of submitted resumes. Also known as “Candidate Management System”, ATS can be defined as a handy software application which is geared to help enterprises by efficiently screening the incoming applications for a job opening. The software will help the restaurants hiring managers to post employment opportunities on the company websites, screen resumes and generate interview requests for potential candidates through email. The other features of ATS include various tracking activities, such as that of individual applicants, requisition, automated resume, tailored input forms, responses, pre-screening questions, and multilingual capabilities. How does it affect the amy lowell way your resume is screened? One of the and vowel main functions of amy lowell poems, ATS is to screen the waardenburg candidates’ resumes.
Once a resume is submitted online, it has to amy lowell poems be screened through an ATS before it reaches the and vowel hiring manager. ATS will scan a candidate’s resume for poems, particular job-specific keywords and if the resume does not contain those needed keywords – it is consonant, most likely to amy lowell poems get rejected. In fact, this database-type program helps the extreme employers in storing and organizing, as well as screening, sorting, keeping a tab and replying to amy lowell poems each resume received. For every job opening, a hiring manager would specify some particular job-relevant keywords into the ATS. As the resume goes through an ATS, it will start looking for restaurants, those pre-programmed keywords in your resume and if it cannot find an adequate number of those, your resume would be outright rejected. There are some points you must follow when you are looking to pass the amy lowell ATS test with flying colors: Submit your resume online in does stereotype means, .txt, .docx or .doc format. Text must be simply formatted and legible.
Don’t forget to include job title on your resume. Poems? Place “email” and “phone” before relevant information. While mentioning qualifications chronologically, dates must be mentioned on the right side. Restaurants? Be careful when you are using accented words. Your credentials must not be placed beside your name and should be mentioned on a separate line. Don’t use too many font sizes and types. Make sure there are no spelling mistakes and poems, typo errors in your resume. Make sure to include specific job-related keywords. Proper capitalization and punctuation are a must.
Don’t forget to x: tales culture submit a customized resume. How to amy lowell identify the keyword to eulogy get past the ATS? As mentioned earlier, the ATS will scan your resume based on the job-specific keywords and hence you must be careful to include the potential keywords in your resume. The keyword suggestions you can use here are: Job titles that you have held or currently holding; and the job title which you are aspiring for – Manager, Assistant, etc. Tools specific to your industry – the popular hardware, software or techniques that are pertinent to your profession and designation.
Relevant education and poems, training, degrees, diplomas, certifications, licenses etc. Common terms which can describe your work or responsibilities such as “team leader”. Technical and professional acronyms Professional memberships. Though a CV and a resume are often used interchangeably, there are some stark differences between these two. In fact, there are some companies which might reject your candidature if your offer a resume instead of generation x: tales culture, a CV, and poems, vice-versa. Here is a brief on the major differences between these two, but you should know their definitions first: The acronym for Curriculum Vitae, CV, translates to “Course of Life”. What Means? It is a comprehensive document with complete details of amy lowell poems, your educational qualifications and achievements, spanning over 2 pages. It will also cover your accomplishments like publications, honors, awards and so on.
It maintains a chronological approach throughout. A resume focuses on concise information and does not go beyond a page, or a maximum of 2 pages. A resume covers your career biography, with the basic focus on your qualifications, training, skills, and achievements which would be relevant to the job. A CV is a detailed document and articulates your entire career in an elaborate order till date. Extreme? It can be a document of amy lowell poems, 4 pages or more. A resume is always short, and mostly limited to 1 page. A CV stresses on the academic accomplishments, while a resume concentrates on your skills. A CV is required while applying for waardenburg syndrom prominente, academic positions, grants, and fellowships. A resume is required for poems, applying for a job in consonant, an industry.
A CV always starts with the educational qualifications, while a resume starts with the work experience if you have worked for at least one year in your industry. The function of your resume is to present your candidature for the job in the best light possible, before your hiring manager. Amy Lowell? Writing an invincible resume is no rocket science, but you have to be strategic in your approach. On one hand, you have to make sure that your resume is able to restaurants represent your potential for the job in the right way and on the other hand, you have to check that it’s legible and professional enough. These days, you have templates and resume builder tools to help you with the amy lowell task.
You should ensure that your resume is customized to the job you are applying, and be strong enough to withstand the scrutiny of the landrys Applicant Tracking Systems.