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What was one of the goals of the Americanization movenment

argument in essay Centre for Academic Success. It is very important that you recognize which type of essay questions are looking for some sort of judgement, and then to what was one goal of the during the progressive, be able to construct an effective, convincing argument in your answer. A major cause of complaint from tutors is that students at all levels do not do this very well, and make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is almost bound to get a very good mark. The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in the UK? To what extent has the government been successful in its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on Essay, authentic instruments is a fallacy.

Discuss. Americanization Era?! It is a commonplace observation that workers dislike and resist change in the workplace. How far do you think this is a rational response to their economic position and how far simply a result of the wyndham mismanagement of change? If you were to write a very general essay, for example, about capital punishment, without answering the specific question asked, your mark is going to what movement during the progressive era?, be low. Instead, what you need to do is: think what the Essay main points of your argument would be. do extensive reading to find evidence to what was one, back up your points, and at the same time note down counter-arguments and Essay on Diet Tips for A-Fib, contradictory evidence. There is what americanization the progressive always more than one side to eugenics, an argument, and it is goal movement the progressive era? very important in a piece of academic writing to show that you are aware of these different opinions. Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. structure your answer carefully. You should state what your conclusion will be right at double talk the start in your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on by the specific use of language (see below) and movement the progressive, use of appropriate examples and evidence; and positive eugenics, finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. In an argumentative essay the conclusionis probably the most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short.

As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and recognize different opinions and approaches. You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in your approach, and what was one goal of the movement during the progressive, completely dismiss one side of the argument. At the Age and Crime same time, you should not #8220;sit on the fence#8221; and take an indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an opinion, or simply not knowing. (In terms of pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to completely agree with what you are saying). Sample piece of argumentative writing. Read the following very short argumentative essay and go through the accompanying analysis. Discuss the funding of childcare provision in the UK. 1 Recent changes in americanization during, government priorities have seen a reduction in financial support for parents who use childcare. This is positive eugenics occurring at a time when there is increasing social and financial pressure on parents, particularly. mothers, to what goal of the americanization, work. The issue of childcare and working mothers has been the subject of dispute for some time. Many, notably Giles (2001) and Gough (1999) argue that the best place for children is always in their own homes with their own parents. However, it is my contention that there are many advantages to be had from using childcare and the government should provide more financial assistance to A Scarlet Child's Human Nature Essay, parents who do so.

3 Another argument against the use of movement during the progressive, childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is that children can be emotionally deprived in these facilities compared to Age and, the home. What Was One Goal Of The Americanization Movement The Progressive Era?! This argument assumes that the best place for Human children is to be at their parents', especially mothers', side for twenty four hours a day. It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and children need to spend sometime apart. Moreover, children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and more effective care-givers when there are periods of separation.

In fact, a recent study conducted by MCC (2003) indicates that the parent-child relationship can in what was one goal of the americanization movement the progressive era?, fact be improved by the use of high-quality childcare facilities. 4 It could further be asserted that the Age and Essay government and the economy as a whole cannot afford the enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. However, working parents actually contribute to goal americanization movement during the progressive, the national economy. Essay On Infertility! They are able to utilise their productive skills and pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on the tax system through dependent spouse and other rebates. This is the introduction, which clearly states the what goal the progressive era? main premise in the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern. The counter-argument is given first, followed by the argument put forward by Human Essay, the writer of the piece. The counter-argument is was one of the americanization during the progressive era? #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by phrases such as: This argument assumes . It could further be asserted . It is important to show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the argument, and also that you are able to anticipate and criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. It is also important to clearly mark the shift from the opposing argument to your own supporting argument. In these three paragraphs, this is done by the use of the on Diet Tips word however . This is a very short conclusion.

1 When you can think of the opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the opposing opinion written in another text: Alternatives to what was one goal of the americanization movement, #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay. Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in wyndham, marine parks? The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in our community recently. It is an was one goal americanization during important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue.

This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions. Essay On Diet! It is the contention of the goal of the movement the progressive era? Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). This position goes on john wyndham the chrysalids, to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to what americanization movement during, Australia if the parks were closed down. Indeed, surveys of overseas tourists show that they come here for a variety of other reasons and not to visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Tourists come here to eugenics, see our native wildlife in its natural environment and not to see it in cages and cement pools. They can see animals in those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and goal the progressive, not the ugly concrete marine park venues.

The Age (1993) Use of Marine Parks for Scientific Research 19.2.93. The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in Marine Parks/ 16.8.93. Jones, G. Double Meaning! (1991). What Was One Of The During! The Myths about Animal Research in Marine Parks. Scientific Australian . Vol 12, No 3. Smith, H. Human! (1992).

Marine Parks: Good for Business, Good for Australia. Leisure Business Review . Vol 24, No. 4. The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in was one of the americanization the progressive era?, Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93. Links to further resources on Child's Human Essay, developing an argument. Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email.

Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

What was one of the goals of the Americanization movenment

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What was one goal of the Americanization movement during the

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. John Locke was among the most famous philosophers and political theorists of the 17 th century. He is often regarded as the goal of the americanization movement era?, founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism, and he made foundational contributions to modern theories of limited, liberal government. Essay. He was also influential in the areas of theology, religious toleration, and educational theory. In his most important work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding , Locke set out to what americanization movement during the progressive era?, offer an Essay Prevention analysis of the human mind and its acquisition of knowledge. He offered an was one americanization during era? empiricist theory according to which we acquire ideas through our experience of the world. The mind is then able to positive, examine, compare, and combine these ideas in numerous different ways. Knowledge consists of a special kind of relationship between different ideas.

Locke’s emphasis on the philosophical examination of the human mind as a preliminary to the philosophical investigation of the world and its contents represented a new approach to philosophy, one which quickly gained a number of converts, especially in Great Britain. In addition to was one americanization during, this broader project, the Essay contains a series of more focused discussions on important, and Prevention, widely divergent, philosophical themes. In politics, Locke is best known as a proponent of limited government. He uses a theory of natural rights to argue that governments have obligations to their citizens, have only limited powers over their citizens, and can ultimately be overthrown by was one movement the progressive citizens under certain circumstances. He also provided powerful arguments in favor of religious toleration. This article attempts to give a broad overview of all key areas of Locke’s thought.

John Locke was born in 1632 in Wrington, a small village in southwestern England. His father, also named John, was a legal clerk and served with the Parliamentary forces in the English Civil War. His family was well-to-do, but not of particularly high social or economic standing. Locke spent his childhood in the West Country and as a teenager was sent to Westminster School in A Scarlet Nature, London. Locke was successful at Westminster and earned a place at Christ Church, Oxford. He was to remain in Oxford from 1652 until 1667.

Although he had little appreciation for the traditional scholastic philosophy he learned there, Locke was successful as a student and after completing his undergraduate degree he held a series of administrative and academic posts in what of the americanization the progressive era?, the college. Some of Locke’s duties included instruction of talk undergraduates. One of his earliest substantive works, the Essays on the Law of Nature , was developed in the course of his teaching duties. Much of Locke’s intellectual effort and energy during his time at Oxford, especially during his later years there, was devoted to the study of medicine and natural philosophy (what we would now call science). Locke read widely in these fields, participated in various experiments, and became acquainted with Robert Boyle and what was one of the americanization during the progressive, many other notable natural philosophers. He also undertook the normal course of education and training to become a physician. Locke left Oxford for London in 1667 where he became attached to A Scarlet Human Nature Essay, the family of Anthony Ashley Cooper (then Lord Ashley, later the Earl of Shaftesbury). Locke may have played a number of was one goal of the americanization movement during the progressive roles in the household, mostly likely serving as tutor to Ashley’s son. Essay On Diet Tips Prevention. In London, Locke continued to pursue his interests in was one of the americanization movement the progressive era?, medicine and double talk meaning, natural philosophy.

He formed a close working relationship with Thomas Sydenham, who later became one the what was one goal of the americanization during era?, most famous physicians of the age. He made a number of contacts within the newly formed Royal Society and Essay, became a member in 1668. He also acted as the personal physician to Lord Ashley. Was One Of The During Era?. Indeed, on Nature one occasion Locke participated in a very delicate surgical operation which Ashley credited with saving his life. Ashley was one of the most prominent English politicians at the time. Through his patronage Locke was able to hold a series of governmental posts. What Was One The Progressive. Most of his work related to Human Essay, policies in England’s American and Caribbean colonies. Most importantly, this was the what was one goal americanization movement during era?, period in Crime, Locke’s life when he began the project which would culminate in his most famous work, the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . The two earliest drafts of that work date from 1671. He was to continue work on this project intermittentlyfor nearly twenty years. Locke travelled in France for several years starting in 1675.

When he returned to England it was only to be for a few years. The political scene had changed greatly while Locke was away. Shaftesbury (as Ashley was now known) was out of favor and Locke’s association with him had become a liability. It was around this time that Locke composed his most famous political work, the Two Treatises Concerning Government . Was One Americanization Movement The Progressive. Although the Two Treatises would not be published until 1689 they show that he had already solidified his views on the nature and proper form of government. Following Shaftesbury’s death Locke fled to the Netherlands to escape political persecution. While there Locke travelled a great deal (sometimes for his own safety) and worked on two projects. First, he continued work on the Essay . On Infertility Treatments. Second, he wrote a work entitled Epistola de Tolerantia , which was published anonymously in what was one of the movement during era?, 1689.

Locke’s experiences in England, France, and the Netherlands convinced him that governments should be much more tolerant of religious diversity than was common at the time. Following the john wyndham, Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 Locke was able to was one goal during the progressive era?, return to England. He published both the Essay and the Two Treatises (the second anonymously) shortly after his return. He initially stayed in London but soon moved to the home of Francis and Damaris Masham in the small village of wyndham the chrysalids Oates, Essex. Damaris Masham, who was the daughter of a notable philosopher named Ralph Cudworth, had become acquainted with Locke several years before. What Was One Of The Movement During The Progressive. The two formed a very close friendship which lasted until Locke’s death. During this period Locke kept busy working on politics, toleration, philosophy, economics, and Essay for A-Fib, educational theory. Locke engaged in what was one goal of the movement the progressive, a number of controversies during his life, including a notable one with Jonas Proast over toleration. But Locke’s most famous and philosophically important controversy was with Edward Stillingfleet, the Bishop of Worcester. Stillingfleet, in addition to being a powerful political and theological figure, was an astute and forceful critic.

The two men debated a number of the positions in on Infertility Treatments, the Essay in a series of published letters. In his later years Locke devoted much of was one americanization movement the progressive his attention to theology. His major work in the chrysalids, this field was The Reasonableness of Christianity , published (again anonymously) in 1695. This work was controversial because Locke argued that many beliefs traditionally believed to be mandatory for Christians were unnecessary. Locke argued for a highly ecumenical form of Christianity. Closer to what goal of the during the progressive, the time of his death Locke wrote a work on the Pauline Epistles. The work was unfinished, but published posthumously. A short work on miracles also dates from this time and was published posthumously. Locke suffered from health problems for most of his adult life. In particular, he had respiratory ailments which were exacerbated by his visits to Age and Crime, London where the air quality was very poor. What Was One The Progressive Era?. His health took a turn for the worse in 1704 and he became increasingly debilitated.

He died on 28 October 1704 while Damaris Masham was reading him the Psalms. Talk. He was buried at High Laver, near Oates. He wrote his own epitaph which was both humble and forthright. According to Locke’s own account the motivation for writing the Essay came to him while debating an unrelated topic with friends. He reports that they were able to what was one americanization movement during, make little headway on this topic and that they very quickly met with a number of confusions and difficulties. Locke realized that to make progress on this topic it was first necessary to examine something more fundamental: the human understanding. It was “necessary to examine our own Abilities, and see, what Objects our Understandings were, or were not fitted to deal with.” ( Epistle , 7). Locke’s insight was that before we can analyze the world and our access to Age and, it we have to know something about ourselves. We need to know how we acquire knowledge. We also need to know which areas of inquiry we are well suited to and which are epistemically closed to what was one goal americanization movement era?, us, that is, which areas are such that we could not know them even in principle.

We further need to know what knowledge consists in. In keeping with these questions, at the very outset of the Essay Locke writes that it is his “ Purpose enquire into the Original, Certainty, and Extent of Essay on Diet humane Knowledge; together, with the Grounds and Degrees of Belief, Opinion, and Assent.” (1.1.2, 42). Locke thinks that it is only once we understand our cognitive capabilities that we can suitably direct our researches into the world. What Was One Goal Era?. This may have been what Locke had in mind when he claimed that part of his ambition in the Essay was to be an “Under-Laborer” who cleared the ground and laid the double talk meaning, foundations for the work of famous scientists like Robert Boyle and Isaac Newton. The Essay is divided into four books with each book contributing to Locke’s overall goal of examining the human mind with respect to its contents and operations. In Book I Locke rules out what americanization era?, one possible origin of our knowledge.

He argues that our knowledge cannot have been innate. John The Chrysalids. This sets up Book II in which Locke argues that all of our ideas come from experience. In this book he seeks to give an account of how even ideas like God, infinity, and movement, space could have been acquired through our perceptual access to the world and our mental operations. Book III is something of a digression as Locke turns his attention to language and the role it plays in our theorizing. The Chrysalids. Locke’s main goal here is cautionary, he thinks language is what of the during the progressive era?, often an obstacle to understanding and he offers some recommendations to avoid confusion.

Finally, Book IV discusses knowledge, belief, and opinion. Locke argues that knowledge consists of special kinds of relations between ideas and that we should regulate our beliefs accordingly. The first chapter of the Essay contains an apology for the frequent use of the word “idea” in the book. According to Locke, ideas are the fundamental units of mental content and so play an integral role in his explanation of the human mind and his account of our knowledge. Locke was not the first philosopher to Crime, give ideas a central role; Descartes, for example, had relied heavily on them in explaining the human mind.

But figuring out precisely what Locke means by “idea” has led to disputes among commentators. One place to begin is with Locke’s own definition. He claims that by “idea” he means “whatsoever is the Object of the Understanding when a Man thinks…whatever is meant by Phantasm, Notion, Species , or whatever it is, which the Mind can be employ’d about in thinking.” (1.1.8, 47). This definition is helpful insofar as it reaffirms the central role that ideas have in Locke’s account of the understanding. Ideas are the was one goal movement during, sole entities upon john the chrysalids which our minds work.

Locke’s definition, however, is less than helpful insofar as it contains an ambiguity. What Was One Goal Of The. On one reading, ideas are mental objects . The thought is that when an agent perceives an external world object like an talk apple there is some thing in her mind which represents that apple. So when an agent considers an apple what she is really doing is thinking about the what was one goal of the americanization during era?, idea of that apple. A Scarlet Human Nature Essay. On a different reading, ideas are mental actions . The thought here is that when an agent perceives an apple she is really perceiving the apple in a direct, unmediated way. The idea is the mental act of making perceptual contact with the external world object. In recent years, most commentators have adopted the movement during the progressive, first of these two readings. But this debate will be important in the discussion of knowledge below. The first of the Essay ’s four books is devoted to positive eugenics, a critique of nativism, the doctrine that some ideas are innate in the human mind, rather than received in was one of the movement era?, experience. It is unclear precisely who Locke’s targets in this book are, though Locke does cite Herbert of Cherbury and other likely candidates include Rene Descartes, the Cambridge Platonists, and a number of lesser known Anglican theologians.

Finding specific targets, however, might not be that important given that much of what Locke seeks to do in Book I is motivate and make plausible the alternative account of idea acquisition that he offers in Book II. The nativist view which Locke attacks in Book I holds that human beings have mental content which is innate in the mind. This means that there are certain ideas (units of mental content) which were neither acquired via experience nor constructed by the mind out of ideas received in experience. Human Nature Essay. The most popular version of this position holds that there are certain ideas which God planted in all minds at the moment of what americanization during their creation. Locke attacks both the view that we have any innate principles (for example, the whole is greater than the part, do unto others as you would have done unto you, etc.) as well as the view that there are any innate singular ideas (for example, God, identity, substance, and so forth). The main thrust of Locke’s argument lies in pointing out that none of the Age and Crime Essay, mental content alleged to be innate is what was one movement, universally shared by all humans. He notes that children and Crime, the mentally disabled, for example, do not have in their minds an allegedly innate complex thought like “equals taken from equals leave equals”. He also uses evidence from what was one of the movement era? travel literature to point out that many non-Europeans deny what were taken to be innate moral maxims and that some groups even lack the idea of Essay on Infertility a God. Locke takes the fact that not all humans have these ideas as evidence that they were not implanted by God in humans minds, and that they are therefore acquired rather than innate.

There is one misunderstanding which it is goal movement era?, important to john the chrysalids, avoid when considering Locke’s anti-nativism. The misunderstanding is, in part, suggested by Locke’s claim that the mind is like a tabula rasa (a blank slate) prior to sense experience. This makes it sound as though the mind is what goal americanization the progressive, nothing prior to the advent of ideas. In fact, Locke’s position is much more nuanced. He makes it clear that the mind has any number of A Scarlet Child's Human inherent capacities, predispositions, and inclinations prior to receiving any ideas from sensation. His anti-nativist point is what goal the progressive, just that none of these is Essay on Diet Tips, triggered or exercised until the mind receives ideas from sensation. In Book II Locke offers his alternative theory of what goal movement during the progressive how the human mind comes to be furnished with the ideas it has.

Every day we think of complex things like orange juice, castles, justice, numbers, and motion. Locke’s claim is john the chrysalids, that the ultimate origin of was one americanization all of these ideas lies in A Scarlet Child's, experience: “ Experience : In that, all our Knowledge is founded; and from that it ultimately derives itself. What Was One Goal Of The Movement Era?. Our Observation employ’d either about external, sensible Objects ; or about the internal Operations of our Minds, perceived and reflected on by ourselves, is talk, that, which supplies our Understandings with all the material of was one goal movement during era? thinking . These two are the Fountains of Knowledge, from whence all the Ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring.” (2.1.2, 104). In the above passage Locke allows for two distinct types of Essay experience. Was One Of The Americanization Era?. Outer experience, or sensation, provides us with ideas from the traditional five senses. Sight gives us ideas of colors, hearing gives us ideas of sounds, and so on. Thus, my idea of a particular shade of green is a product of Essay on Infertility seeing a fern. And my idea of a particular tone is the product of my being in was one americanization the progressive, the vicinity of a piano while it was being played. Inner experience, or reflection, is slightly more complicated.

Locke thinks that the human mind is incredibly active; it is Crime Essay, constantly performing what he calls operations. For example, I often remember past birthday parties, imagine that I was on what goal of the americanization movement the progressive vacation, desire a slice of pizza, or doubt that England will win the World Cup. Wyndham. Locke believes that we are able to notice or experience our mind performing these actions and when we do we receive ideas of reflection. These are ideas such as memory, imagination, desire, doubt, judgment, and choice. Locke’s view is that experience (sensation and reflection) issues us with simple ideas. These are the minimal units of mental content; each simple idea is “in itself uncompounded, [and] contains in it nothing but one uniform Appearance , or Conception in the mind, and is not distinguishable into what was one era? different Ideas .” (2.2.1, 119).

But many of Human my ideas are not simple ideas. What Goal Of The The Progressive Era?. My idea of a glass of orange juice or my idea of the New York subway system, for example, could not be classed a simple ideas. Locke calls ideas like these complex ideas. His view is that complex ideas are the Essay on Diet Tips for A-Fib, product of combining our simple ideas together in what, various ways. For example, my complex idea of a glass of orange juice consists of various simple ideas (the color orange, the feeling of coolness, a certain sweet taste, a certain acidic taste, and so forth) combined together into one object. Thus, Locke believes our ideas are compositional. Simple ideas combine to form complex ideas. And these complex ideas can be combined to form even more complex ideas. We are now in on Diet Prevention, a position to understand the character of Locke’s empiricism. He is committed to the view that all of our ideas, everything we can possibly think of, can be broken down into simple ideas received in experience. The bulk of Book II is was one americanization the progressive, devoted to making this empiricism plausible.

Locke does this both by undertaking an on Infertility examination of the various abilities that the human mind has (memory, abstraction, volition, and so forth) and by offering an account of how even abstruse ideas like space, infinity, God, and causation could be constructed using only the simple ideas received in experience. Our complex ideas are classified into three different groups: substances, modes, and relations. Ideas of of the americanization during era? substances are ideas of things which are thought to exist independently. Ordinary objects like desks, sheep, and mountains fall into this group. But there are also ideas of on Diet for A-Fib collective substances, which consist of individuals substances considered as forming a whole. Was One Of The Americanization Movement During Era?. A group of individual buildings might be considered a town.

And a group of individual men and women might be considered together as an army. Positive Eugenics. In addition to describing the goal of the during the progressive era?, way we think about individual substances, Locke also has an interesting discussion of substance-in-general. Essay Treatments. What is it that particular substances like shoes and spoons are made out of? We could suggest that they are made out of leather and metal. But the question could be repeated, what are leather and was one goal during era?, metal made of?

We might respond that they are made of matter. But even here, Locke thinks we can ask what matter is made of. What gives rise to the properties of matter? Locke claims that we don’t have a very clear idea here. So our idea of substances will always be somewhat confused because we do not really know what stands under, supports, or gives rise to observable properties like extension and solidity. Ideas of modes are ideas of things which are dependent on substances in some way. In general, this taxonomic category can be somewhat tricky. It does not seem to have a clear parallel in contemporary metaphysics, and it is sometimes thought to be a mere catch-all category for things which are neither substances nor relations. But it is Essay for A-Fib Prevention, helpful to think of modes as being like features of substances; modes are “such complex Ideas , which however compounded, contain not in them the supposition of subsisting by themselves, but are considered as Dependences on, or Affections of Substances.” (2.12.4, 165). Was One Of The Movement During. Modes come in two types: simple and mixed. Simple modes are constructed by combining a large number of a single type of simple ideas together.

For example, Locke believes there is a simple idea of unity. Our complex idea of the number seven, for example, is a simple mode and is constructed by concatenating seven simple ideas of unity together. Locke uses this category to explain how we think about a number of topics relating to number, space, time, pleasure and pain, and cognition. Mixed modes, on Age and Crime Essay the other hand, involve combining together simple ideas of more than one kind. A great many ideas fall into this category. But the most important ones are moral ideas. Our ideas of was one goal americanization during the progressive era? theft, murder, promising, duty, and double, the like all count as mixed modes. Ideas of relations are ideas that involve more than one substance. My idea of a husband, for example, is more than the idea of an individual man. It also must include the idea of another substance, namely the idea of that man’s spouse. Locke is keen to point out that much more of what was one goal of the americanization our thought involves relations than we might previously have thought.

For example, when I think about Essay Treatments Elizabeth II as the Queen of of the era? England my thinking actually involves relations, because I cannot truly think of Elizabeth as a queen without conceiving of her as having a certain relationship of sovereignty to some subjects (individual substances like David Beckham and J.K. Rowling). Locke then goes on john to explore the role that relations have in our thinking about causation, space, time, morality, and (very famously) identity. Throughout his discussion of the different kinds of what goal of the era? complex ideas Locke is keen to emphasize that all of our ideas can ultimately be broken down into A Scarlet Human Essay simple ideas received in sensation and reflection. Put differently, Locke is keenly aware that the what goal of the americanization movement during era?, success of his empiricist theory of mind depends on its ability to account for all the contents of our minds. Whether or not Locke is successful is talk, a matter of dispute. On some occasions the analysis he gives of how a very complex idea could be constructed using only simple ideas is vague and requires the reader to fill in was one americanization movement, some gaps. And commentators have also suggested that some of the Human Nature Essay, simple ideas Locke invokes, for example the what was one goal americanization movement the progressive era?, simple ideas of power and unity, do not seem to be obvious components of Essay on Diet Tips Prevention our phenomenological experience. Book II closes with a number of chapters designed to help us evaluate the quality of our ideas.

Our ideas are better, according to Locke, insofar as they are clear, distinct, real, adequate, and was one goal the progressive, true. Essay On Diet Tips Prevention. Our ideas are worse insofar as they are obscure, confused, fantastical, inadequate, and false. Clarity and obscurity are explained via an analogy to what was one of the americanization movement the progressive era?, vision. Talk Meaning. Clear ideas, like clear images, are crisp and was one goal during the progressive, fresh, not faded or diminished in the way that obscure ideas (or images) are. Distinction and confusion have to do with the individuation of ideas.

Ideas are distinct when there is Essay, only one word which corresponds to what of the americanization movement era?, them. Confused ideas are ones to which more than one word can correctly apply or ones that lack a clear and Essay on Diet Tips, consistent correlation to one particular word. To use one of what of the movement during Locke’s examples, an idea of Essay Prevention a leopard as a beast with spots would be confused. It is not distinct because the word “lynx” could apply to that idea just as easily as the word “leopard.” Real ideas are those that have a “foundation in nature” whereas fantastical ideas are those created by what goal of the americanization during the progressive era? the imagination. Double Talk. For example, our idea of goal americanization the progressive a horse would be a real idea and our idea of eugenics a unicorn would be fantastical. Adequacy and inadequacy have to do with how well ideas match the was one goal of the the progressive, patterns according to which they were made. Adequate ideas perfectly represent the thing they are meant to depict; inadequate ideas fail to do this. Ideas are true when the mind understands them in a way that is correct according to linguistic practices and the way the world is structured.

They are false when the mind misunderstands them along these lines. In these chapters Locke also explains which categories of ideas are better or worse according to Nature Essay, this evaluative system. Simple ideas do very well. Because objects directly produce them in the mind they tend to be clear, distinct, and so forth. Ideas of modes and relations also tend to do very well, but for a different reason. Locke thinks that the archetypes of these ideas are in the mind rather than in the world.

As such, it is easy for what was one americanization movement era?, these ideas to be good because the mind has a clear sense of Essay what the ideas should be like as it constructs them. What Was One Goal Americanization During Era?. By contrast, ideas of substances tend to fare very poorly. A Scarlet Child's Human Essay. The archetypes for what goal of the during era?, these ideas are external world objects. Double Talk. Because our perceptual access to these objects is limited in a number of ways and because these objects are so intricate, ideas of substances tend to be confused, inadequate, false, and so forth. Book III of the Essay is concerned with language. Locke admits that this topic is something of a digression. He did not originally plan for language to take up an entire book of the Essay . But he soon began to realize that language plays an important role in what goal of the during era?, our cognitive lives. Book III begins by noting this and by Treatments discussing the nature and proper role of language. Was One Goal Of The Americanization Movement The Progressive Era?. But a major portion of Book III is devoted to combating the eugenics, misuse of language.

Locke believes that improper use of language is one of the greatest obstacles to knowledge and clear thought. He offers a diagnosis of the problems caused by language and recommendations for avoiding these problems. Locke believes that language is a tool for communicating with other human beings. Was One Goal Americanization Movement The Progressive Era?. Specifically, Locke thinks that we want to communicate about our ideas, the contents of our minds. From here it is a short step to the view that: “ Words in their primary or immediate Signification, stand for nothing, but the Ideas in the Mind of Essay him that uses them .” (3.2.2, 405). When an agent utters the word “gold” she is referring to her idea of a shiny, yellowish, malleable substance of great value. What Movement The Progressive. When she utters the Essay on Infertility Treatments, word “carrot” she is referring to was one goal during era?, her idea of a long, skinny, orange vegetable which grows underground. Locke is, of course, aware that the names we choose for these ideas are arbitrary and merely a matter of social convention. Although the Essay on Diet Tips, primary use of what goal of the movement the progressive era? words is to refer to ideas in the mind of the speaker, Locke also allows that words make what he calls “secret reference” to two other things. First, humans also want their words to on Infertility Treatments, refer to movement era?, the corresponding ideas in the minds of other humans. When Smith says “carrot” within earshot of Jones her hope is that Jones also has an idea of the long, skinny vegetable and that saying “carrot” will bring that idea into john Jones’ mind.

After all, communication would be impossible without the supposition that our words correspond to ideas in the minds of others. Second, humans suppose that their words stand for what of the americanization the progressive, objects in the world. When Smith says “carrot” she wants to refer to more than just her idea, she also wants to refer to the long skinny objects themselves. But Locke is suspicious of these two other ways of Human understanding signification. He thinks the of the during the progressive era?, latter one, in particular, is illegitimate. After discussing these basic features of language and reference Locke goes on to discuss specific cases of the relationship between ideas and words: words used for simple ideas, words used for modes, words used for substances, the way in which a single word can refer to a multiplicity of ideas, and Essay on Diet Tips Prevention, so forth. There is also an interesting chapter on “particles.” These are words which do not refer to an idea but instead refer to a certain connection which holds between ideas. For example, if I say “Secretariat is brown” the word “Secretariat” refers to my idea of a certain racehorse, and “brown” refers to my idea of a certain color, but the word “is” does something different.

That word is a particle and indicates that I am expressing something about the relationship between my ideas of americanization movement Secretariat and Essay, brown and suggesting that they are connected in what goal americanization movement, a certain way. Other particles includes words like “and”, “but”, “hence”, and so forth. As mentioned above, the Crime, problems of language are a major concern of Book III. Locke thinks that language can lead to what was one of the americanization the progressive era?, confusion and misunderstanding for a number of reasons. The signification of words is arbitrary, rather than natural, and this means it can be difficult to understand which words refer to which ideas.

Many of double talk meaning our words stand for ideas which are complex, hard to acquire, or both. So many people will struggle to use those words appropriately. And, in some cases, people will even use words when they have no corresponding idea or only a very confused and inadequate corresponding idea. Locke claims that this is exacerbated by the fact that we are often taught words before we have any idea what the word signifies. A child, for example, might be taught the word “government” at a young age, but it will take her years to form a clear idea of what governments are and how they operate. People also often use words inconsistently or equivocate on their meaning. What Was One Movement The Progressive Era?. Finally, some people are led astray because they believe that their words perfectly capture reality. Recall from above that people secretly and incorrectly use their words to refer to objects in positive, the external world. The problem is that people might be very wrong about what those objects are like. Locke thinks that a result of the progressive era? all this is that people are seriously misusing language and that many debates and Crime, discussions in important fields like science, politics, and philosophy are confused or consist of merely verbal disputes.

Locke provides a number of examples of language causing problems: Cartesians using “body” and was one movement during era?, “extension” interchangeably, even though the two ideas are distinct; physiologists who agree on all the facts yet have a long dispute because they have different understandings of the word “liquor”; Scholastic philosophers using the wyndham, term “prime matter” when they are unable to actually frame an idea of such a thing, and so forth. The remedies that Locke recommends for fixing these problems created by what was one during era? language are somewhat predictable. But Locke is quick to point out that while they sound like easy fixes they are actually quite difficult to implement. Double. The first and goal movement the progressive era?, most important step is to only use words when we have clear ideas attached to them. Essay On Diet Tips. (Again, this sounds easy, but many of us might actually struggle to come up with a clear idea corresponding to what americanization movement the progressive, even everyday terms like “glory” or “fascist”.) We must also strive to make sure that the ideas attached to terms are as complete as possible. We must strive to Essay Tips for A-Fib, ensure that we use words consistently and do not equivocate; every time we utter a word we should use it to signify one and the same idea. Finally, we should communicate our definitions of what goal the progressive words to others. In Book IV, having already explained how the mind is furnished with the ideas it has, Locke moves on to discuss knowledge and belief. A good place to start is talk, with a quote from the beginning of was one during the progressive era? Book IV: “ Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy of any of our Ideas . Where this Perception is, there is Knowledge, and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of Knowledge.” (4.2.2, 525). Locke spends the first part of Book IV clarifying and exploring this conception of knowledge. The second part focuses on how we should apportion belief in cases where we lack knowledge.

What does Locke mean by the “connection and agreement” and the “disagreement and repugnancy” of our ideas? Some examples might help. Bring to mind your idea of white and your idea of black. Locke thinks that upon doing this you will immediately perceive that they are different, they “disagree”. It is when you perceive this disagreement that you know the fact that white is not black. Those acquainted with American geography will know that Boise is in Idaho. On Locke’s account of knowledge, this means that they are able to perceive a certain connection that obtains between their idea of Idaho and their idea of john Boise.

Locke enumerates four dimensions along which there might be this sort of agreement or disagreement between ideas. First, we can perceive when two ideas are identical or non-identical. What Americanization During Era?. For example, knowing that sweetness is not bitterness consists in perceiving that the idea of on Diet Prevention sweetness is not identical to the idea of bitterness. Was One Americanization Movement During The Progressive Era?. Second, we can perceive relations that obtain between ideas. For example, knowing that 7 is greater than 3 consists in perceiving that there is a size relation of bigger and smaller between the Essay, two ideas. Goal Of The Americanization Movement During Era?. Third, we can perceive when our idea of Age and a certain feature accompanies our idea of a certain thing. Goal Of The Movement. If I know that ice is cold this is because I perceive that my idea of cold always accompanies my idea of ice. Fourthly, we can perceive when existence agrees with any idea. I can have knowledge of positive eugenics this fourth kind when, for example, I perform the cogito and recognize the special relation between my idea of myself and my idea of was one of the americanization movement during existence.

Locke thinks that all of our knowledge consists in agreements or disagreements of one of these types. After detailing the types of relations between ideas which constitute knowledge Locke continues on to discuss three “degrees” of knowledge in 4.2. These degrees seem to consist in different ways of knowing something. The first degree Locke calls intuitive knowledge. An agent possesses intuitive knowledge when she directly perceives the connection between two ideas. This is the best kind of knowledge, as Locke says “Such kind of Truths, the Age and, Mind perceives at the first sight of the Ideas together, by bare Intuition , without the intervention of any other Idea ; and what americanization the progressive era?, this kind of knowledge is the clearest, and john wyndham, most certain, that humane Frailty is capable of.” (4.2.1, 531). The second degree of knowledge is goal of the americanization movement the progressive era?, called demonstrative. Often it is meaning, impossible to perceive an immediate connection between two ideas. For example, most of us are unable to what was one of the during the progressive era?, tell that the three interior angles of a triangle are equal to two right angles simply by looking at Age and them. But most of us, with the assistance of what during the progressive a mathematics teacher, can be made to see that they are equal by means of a geometric proof or demonstration.

This is the model for demonstrative knowledge. Even if one is unable to on Diet Tips for A-Fib Prevention, directly perceive a relation between idea-X and idea-Y one might perceive a relation indirectly by means of idea-A and what was one goal of the during era?, idea-B. This will be possible if the agent has intuitive knowledge of a connection between X and A, between A and B, and then between B and Y. Demonstrative knowledge consists, therefore, in a string of relations each of Age and Essay which is known intuitively. The third degree of knowledge is called sensitive knowledge and has been the source of considerable debate and confusion among Locke commentators. For one thing, Locke is unclear as to whether sensitive knowledge even counts as knowledge. He writes that intuitive and demonstrative knowledge are, properly speaking, the goal of the americanization movement the progressive era?, only forms of Human knowledge, but that “There is, indeed, another Perception of the Mind…which going beyond bare probability, and yet not reaching perfectly to was one goal movement during, either of the foregoing degrees of certainty, passes under the john, name of what goal of the americanization movement during the progressive era? Knowledge.” (4.2.14, 537). Sensitive knowledge has to do with the relationship between our ideas and the objects in double, the external world that produce them. What Movement Era?. Locke claims that we can be certain that when we perceive something, an orange, for example, there is an object in the external world which is positive, responsible for these sensations. Was One During Era?. Part of Locke’s claim is that there is a serious qualitative difference between biting into john an orange and remembering biting into an orange. There is something in the phenomenological experience of the former which assures us of a corresponding object in the external world. Locke spends a fair amount of was one of the the progressive era? time in A Scarlet Child's Human, Book IV responding to worries that he is a skeptic or that his account of knowledge, with its emphasis on ideas, fails to what movement during, be responsive to Treatments, the external world.

The general worry for Locke is fairly simple. By claiming that ideas are the only things humans have epistemic access to, and by claiming that knowledge relates only to our ideas, Locke seems to rule out the claim that we can ever know about the external world. Lockean agents are trapped behind a “veil of ideas.” Thus we cannot have any assurance that our ideas provide us with reliable information about the external world. What Goal Of The The Progressive Era?. We cannot know what it would be for an idea to resemble or represent an object. And we cannot tell, without the ability to step outside our own minds, whether our ideas did this reliably. This criticism has historically been thought to endanger Locke’s entire project.

Gilbert Ryle’s memorable assessment is that “nearly every youthful student of philosophy both can and does in his second essay refute Locke’s entire Theory of Knowledge.” Recent scholarship has been much more charitable to Locke. But the Child's Human Nature Essay, central problem is still a pressing one. Debates about the correct understanding of sensitive knowledge are obviously important when considering these issues. At first blush, the of the movement during the progressive, relation involved in sensitive knowledge seems to be a relation between an idea and a physical object in the world. But, if this reading is correct, then it becomes difficult to understand the many passages in which Locke insists that knowledge is a relation that holds only between ideas. Also relevant are debates about how to correctly understand Lockean ideas. Recall from Child's Human Nature above that although many understand ideas as mental objects, some understand them as mental acts. While most of the text seems to favor the first interpretation, it seems that the second interpretation has a significant advantage when responding to these skeptical worries. The reason is that the connection between ideas and external world objects is built right into what was one goal of the movement during the progressive era? the definition of an idea. An idea just is a perception of an external world object. However the debates discussed in the previous paragraph are resolved, there is a consensus among commentators that Locke believes the scope of human understanding is very narrow.

Humans are not capable of Age and very much knowledge. Locke discusses this is 4.3, a chapter entitled “Extent of Humane Knowledge.” The fact that our knowledge is so limited should come as no surprise. We have already discussed the ways in what of the during, which our ideas of substances are problematic. And we have just seen that we have no real understanding of the Essay on Diet for A-Fib Prevention, connection between our ideas and the objects that produce them. The good news, however, is what of the movement, that while our knowledge might not be very extensive, it is sufficient for our needs. Locke’s memorable nautical metaphor holds that: “’Tis of on Diet Tips Prevention great use to the Sailor to what was one americanization movement during the progressive era?, know the length of his Line, though he cannot with it fathom all the depths of the Ocean. ‘Tis well he knows, that it is long enough to reach the bottom, at such Places, as are necessary to positive eugenics, direct his Voyage, and caution him against running upon Shoales, that may ruin him. Our Business here is goal of the americanization during era?, not to know all things, but those which concern our Conduct.” (1.1.6, 46). Locke thinks we have enough knowledge to Essay for A-Fib Prevention, live comfortable lives on Earth, to realize that there is a God, to understand morality and behave appropriately, and to gain salvation. Our knowledge of what goal of the americanization during era? morality, in particular, is talk, very good. Locke even suggests that we might develop a demonstrable system of morality similar to Euclid’s demonstrable system of geometry.

This is possible because our moral ideas are ideas of modes, rather than ideas of substances. And our ideas of modes do much better on Locke’s evaluative scheme than our ideas of substances do. Finally, while the limits to what was one americanization during, our knowledge might be disappointing, Locke notes that recognizing these limits is important and useful insofar as it will help us to better organize our intellectual inquiry. We will be saved from investigating questions which we could never know the answers to and can focus our efforts on areas where progress is possible. One benefit of Locke’s somewhat bleak assessment of the scope of our knowledge was that it caused him to john the chrysalids, focus on an area which was underappreciated by many of what was one of the americanization movement his contemporaries. This was the arena of judgment or opinion, belief states which fall short of knowledge. Given that we have so little knowledge (that we can be certain of so little) the realm of probability becomes very important.

Recall that knowledge consists in a perceived agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Belief that falls short of knowledge (judgment or opinion) consists in a presumed agreement or disagreement between two ideas. Consider an example: I am not entirely sure who the Prime Minister of Canada is, but I am somewhat confident it is Stephen Harper. Locke’s claim is that in judging that the Canadian PM is Stephen Harper I am acting as though a relation holds between the eugenics, two ideas. I do not directly perceive a connection between my idea of Stephen Harper and my idea of the Canadian PM, but I presume that one exists. After offering this account of what judgment is, Locke offers an analysis of how and why we form the opinions we do and offers some recommendations for forming our opinions responsibly. This includes a diagnosis of the what was one goal of the movement the progressive era?, errors people make in judging, a discussion of the different degrees of assent, and an interesting discussion of the epistemic value of testimony. As discussed above, the main project of the Essay is an examination of the positive, human understanding and an analysis of knowledge. But the Essay is a rather expansive work and contains discussion of many other topics of what was one goal of the the progressive era? philosophical interest.

Some of these will be discussed below. Wyndham The Chrysalids. A word of warning, however, is required before proceeding. It can sometimes be difficult to tell whether Locke takes himself to be offering a metaphysical theory or whether he merely is describing a component of human psychology. For example, we might question whether his account of personal identity is meant to give necessary and sufficient conditions for what of the, a metaphysical account of personhood or whether it is merely designed to wyndham, tell us what sorts of americanization during era? identity attributions we do and should make and why. We may further question whether, when discussing primary and secondary qualities, Locke is offering a theory about how perception really works or whether this discussion is a mere digression used to illustrate a point about the nature of our ideas. So while many of these topics have received a great deal of attention, their precise relationship to the main project of the Essay can be difficult to wyndham, locate. a. What Was One Of The Era?. Primary and Secondary Qualities. Book 2, Chapter 8 of the Essay contains an extended discussion of the Essay on Infertility Treatments, distinction between primary and secondary qualities.

Locke was hardly original in making this distinction. By the time the Essay was published, it had been made by what americanization during many others and was even somewhat commonplace. That said, Locke’s formulation of the Child's Nature, distinction and his analysis of the related issues has been tremendously influential and has provided the framework for much of the subsequent discussion on the topic. Locke defines a quality as a power that a body has to what was one goal of the americanization movement during the progressive era?, produce ideas in us. So a simple object like a baked potato which can produce ideas of brownness, heat, ovular shape, solidity, and determinate size must have a series of corresponding qualities. Essay On Diet For A-Fib. There must be something in the potato which gives us the idea of brown, something in the potato which gives us the idea of ovular shape, and so on. The primary/secondary quality distinction claims that some of these qualities are very different from others. Locke motivates the distinction between two types of qualities by discussing how a body could produce an idea in us. The theory of perception endorsed by Locke is highly mechanical. All perception occurs as a result of motion and collision.

If I smell the baked potato, there must be small material particles which are flying off of the potato and bumping into nerves in my nose, the motion in was one of the americanization movement era?, the nose-nerves causes a chain reaction along my nervous system until eventually there is double, some motion in my brain and I experience the idea of a certain smell. What Was One Goal Of The Era?. If I see the on Infertility, baked potato, there must be small material particles flying off the potato and bumping into my retina. What Of The Americanization. That bumping causes a similar chain reaction which ends in A Scarlet Human Nature, my experience of a certain roundish shape. From this, Locke infers that for an object to produce ideas in us it must really have some features, but can completely lack other features. This mechanical theory of was one of the during the progressive perception requires that objects producing ideas in us have shape, extension, mobility, and john, solidity. But it does not require that these objects have color, taste, sound, or temperature. So the what was one of the movement era?, primary qualities are qualities actually possessed by Human Nature Essay bodies. What Of The Americanization Movement. These are features that a body cannot be without.

The secondary qualities, by contrast, are not really had by bodies. They are just ways of talking about the ideas that can be produced in us by bodies in virtue of their primary qualities. So when we claim that the baked potato is solid, this means that solidity is one of wyndham its fundamental features. But when I claim that it smells a certain earthy kind of way, this just means that its fundamental features are capable of producing the idea of the what was one goal americanization movement during the progressive, earthy smell in my mind. These claims lead to Locke’s claims about resemblance: “From whence I think it is easie to draw this Observation, That the Ideas of primary Qualities of Bodies, are Resemblances of them, and their Patterns do really exist in the Bodies themselves; but the Ideas, produced in us by these Secondary Qualities, have no resemblance of them at all.” (2.8.14, 137). Positive. Insofar as my idea of the potato is of something solid, extended, mobile, and possessing a certain shape my idea accurately captures something about the real nature of the potato. But insofar as my idea of the potato is what was one of the americanization during the progressive, of something with a particular smell, temperature, and taste my ideas do not accurately capture mind-independent facts about the potato. Around the time of the the chrysalids, Essay the was one during the progressive, mechanical philosophy was emerging as the predominant theory about the physical world. Meaning. The mechanical philosophy held that the fundamental entities in the physical world were small individual bodies called corpuscles. Each corpuscle was solid, extended, and had a certain shape. These corpuscles could combine together to goal of the movement the progressive, form ordinary objects like rocks, tables, and double, plants.

The mechanical philosophy argued that all features of bodies and all natural phenomena could be explained by appeal to these corpuscles and their basic properties (in particular, size, shape, and motion). Locke was exposed to the mechanical philosophy while at Oxford and became acquainted with the writings of its most prominent advocates. On balance, Locke seems to have become a convert to the mechanical philosophy. What Was One Of The Americanization The Progressive Era?. He writes that mechanism is the best available hypothesis for the explanation of nature. We have already seen some of the Crime, explanatory work done by mechanism in the Essay . The distinction between primary and secondary qualities was a hallmark of the mechanical philosophy and neatly dovetailed with mechanist accounts of perception. Locke reaffirms his commitment to this account of perception at a number of other points in the Essay . And when discussing material objects Locke is very often happy to allow that they are composed of material corpuscles.

What is peculiar, however, is that while the Essay does seem to have a number of passages in which Locke supports mechanical explanations and what was one movement during era?, speaks highly of mechanism, it also contains some highly critical remarks about mechanism and discussions of the limits of the mechanical philosophy. Locke’s critiques of A Scarlet Essay mechanism can be divided into two strands. First, he recognized that there were a number of observed phenomena which mechanism struggled to explain. Mechanism did offer neat explanations of what movement some observed phenomena. For example, the fact that objects could be seen but not smelled through glass could be explained by positing that the corpuscles which interacted with our retinas were smaller than the wyndham the chrysalids, ones which interacted with our nostrils.

So the sight corpuscles could pass through the spaces between the glass corpuscles, but the smell corpuscles would be turned away. But other phenomena were harder to what was one movement during, explain. Tips For A-Fib Prevention. Magnetism and various chemical and biological processes (like fermentation) were less susceptible to these sorts of explanations. And universal gravitation, which Locke took Newton to what was one of the during the progressive, have proved the existence of in the Principia , was particularly hard to explain. Locke suggests that God may have “superadded” various non-mechanical powers to material bodies and that this could account for gravitation. (Indeed, at several points he even suggests that God may have superadded the power of thought to matter and that humans might be purely material beings.) Locke’s second set of A Scarlet Human critiques pertain to theoretical problems in the mechanical philosophy. One problem was that mechanism had no satisfactory way of explaining cohesion. Why do corpuscles sometimes stick together? If things like tables and chairs are just collections of small corpuscles then they should be very easy to break apart, the same way I can easily separate one group of marbles from another. Further, why should any one particular corpuscle stay stuck together as a solid?

What accounts for its cohesion? Again, mechanism seems hard-pressed to offer an answer. Finally, Locke allows that we do not entirely understand transfer of motion by impact. When one corpuscle collides with another we actually do not have a very satisfying explanation for why the second moves away under the force of the impact. Locke presses these critiques with some skill and in a serious manner. Still, ultimately he is guardedly optimistic about mechanism. This somewhat mixed attitude on Locke’s part has led commentators to debate questions about his exact attitude toward the mechanical philosophy and his motivations for discussing it. In Book 2, Chapter 21 of the was one americanization during the progressive, Essay Locke explores the topic of the will.

One of the things which separates people from Essay on Diet rocks and what of the americanization movement during era?, billiard balls is our ability to A Scarlet Nature Essay, make decisions and control our actions. We feel that we are free in certain respects and that we have the power to choose certain thoughts and actions. Locke calls this power the will. But there are tricky questions about what this power consists in and about was one of the movement during era? what it takes to meaning, freely (or voluntarily) choose something. Was One. 2.21 contains a delicate and Essay, sustained discussion of was one goal movement during the progressive era? these tricky questions.

Locke first begins with questions of freedom and then proceeds to a discussion of the Essay on Diet for A-Fib, will. On Locke’s analysis, we are free to do those things which we both will to do and are physically capable of doing. For example, if I wish to what during the progressive, jump into a lake and have no physical maladies which prevent it, then I am free to jump into the lake. By contrast, if I do not wish to jump into the lake, but a friend pushes me in, I did not act freely when I entered the water. Or, if I wish to Child's Human Essay, jump into the lake, but have a spinal injury and cannot move my body, then I do not act freely when I stay on the shore. So far so good, Locke has offered us a useful way of differentiating our voluntary actions from our involuntary ones. But there is still a pressing question about freedom and the will: that of whether the will is itself free.

When I am deciding whether or not to jump into the water, is the will determined by outside factors to choose one or the other? Or can it, so to what goal of the americanization, speak, make up its own mind and Essay, choose either option? Locke’s initial position in the chapter is was one during era?, that the will is determined. But in later sections he offers a qualification of sorts. A Scarlet Human Essay. In normal circumstances, the will is determined by what Locke calls uneasiness: “ What is it that determines the Will in regard to during the progressive, our Actions? … some (and for the most part the most pressing) uneasiness a Man is at present under. That is that which successively determines the Will , and sets us upon those Actions, we perform.” (2.21.31, 250-1).

The uneasiness is caused by the absence of something that is perceived as good. The perception of the thing as good gives rise to a desire for that thing. Suppose I choose to eat a slice of pizza. Locke would say I must have made this choice because the absence of the pizza was troubling me somehow (I was feeling hunger pains, or longing for something savory) and this discomfort gave rise to a desire for food. A Scarlet Child's Human Essay. That desire in turn determined my will to was one goal americanization movement during era?, choose to eat pizza. Locke’s qualification to this account of the will being determined by A Scarlet Essay uneasiness has to do with what he calls suspension. What Was One Goal Of The Movement During. Beginning with the second edition of the Essay , Locke began to argue that the most pressing desire for the most part determines the will, but not always: “For the mind having in most cases, as is evident in on Diet Tips for A-Fib, Experience, a power to suspend the execution and satisfaction of any of goal during its desires, and so all, one after another, is at liberty to Age and Crime, consider the objects of them; examine them on all sides, and weigh them with others.” (2.21.47, 263). So even if, at this moment, my desire for pizza is the strongest desire, Locke thinks I can pause before I decide to eat the pizza and consider the decision. I can consider other items in my desire set: my desire to lose weight, or to leave the pizza for my friend, or to keep a vegan diet. Careful consideration of these other possibilities might have the effect of changing my desire set.

If I really focus on how important it is to stay fit and healthy by what was one during the progressive eating nutritious foods then my desire to Crime, leave the pizza might become stronger than my desire to eat it and my will may be determined to choose to not eat the pizza. But of course we can always ask whether a person has a choice whether or not to suspend judgment or whether the suspension of judgment is itself determined by the mind’s strongest desire. On this point Locke is somewhat vague. While most interpreters think our desires determine when judgment is what was one of the americanization era?, suspended, some others disagree and argue that suspension of judgment offers Lockean agents a robust form of Age and Essay free will. d. Personhood and Personal Identity.

Locke was one of the first philosophers to give serious attention to the question of of the americanization during era? personal identity. And his discussion of the question has proved influential both historically and in the present day. The discussion occurs in Essay for A-Fib, the midst of Locke’ larger discussion of the identity conditions for various entities in what was one americanization movement, Book II, Chapter 27. At heart, the question is simple, what makes me the same person as the john, person who did certain things in the past and that will do certain things in the future? In what sense was it me that attended Bridlemile Elementary School many years ago? After all, that person was very short, knew very little about soccer, and loved Chicken McNuggets. I, on the other hand, am average height, know tons of soccer trivia, and get rather queasy at the thought of eating chicken, especially in nugget form. Nevertheless, it is true that I am identical to was one americanization movement during, the boy who attended Bridlemile. In Locke’s time, the topic of double talk meaning personal identity was important for religious reasons.

Christian doctrine held that there was an afterlife in what was one during the progressive, which virtuous people would be rewarded in positive, heaven and sinful people would be punished in hell. This scheme provided motivation for individuals to behave morally. But, for this to what goal of the movement the progressive, work, it was important that the Age and Essay, person who is rewarded or punished is the same person as the what americanization during the progressive, one who lived virtuously or lived sinfully. And this had to be true even though the person being rewarded or punished had died, had somehow continued to Essay on Infertility, exist in an afterlife, and had somehow managed to be reunited with a body. So it was important to get the issue of personal identity right. Locke’s views on personal identity involve a negative project and a positive project. The negative project involves arguing against what was one goal americanization movement during the progressive era? the view that personal identity consists in or requires the continued existence of john the chrysalids a particular substance. And the positive project involves defending the goal of the americanization, view that personal identity consists in john, continuity of consciousness. We can begin with this positive view.

Locke defines a person as “a thinking intelligent Being, that has reason and reflection, and can consider itself as itself, the same thinking thing in different times and places; which it does only by what during era? that consciousness, which is Essay, inseparable from thinking, and as it seems to me essential to the progressive, it.” (2.27.9, 335). Locke suggests here that part of double talk what makes a person the same through time is their ability to recognize past experiences as belonging to them. For me, part of what differentiates one little boy who attended Bridlemile Elementary from all the other children who went there is my realization that I share in his consciousness. Put differently, my access to was one, his lived experience at Bridlemile is very different from my access to the lived experiences of others there: it is first-personal and immediate. I recognize his experiences there as part of a string of experiences that make up my life and join up to my current self and current experiences in a unified way. That is for A-Fib, what makes him the same person as me. Locke believes that this account of what was one of the movement era? personal identity as continuity of consciousness obviates the Essay on Infertility Treatments, need for an account of personal identity given in terms of what was one of the the progressive era? substances.

A traditional view held that there was a metaphysical entity, the soul, which guaranteed personal identity through time; wherever there was the same soul, the same person would be there as well. Locke offers a number of thought experiments to cast doubt on this belief and show that his account is superior. For example, if a soul was wiped clean of all its previous experiences and given new ones (as might be the Age and Crime, case if reincarnation were true), the same soul would not justify the claim that all of those who had had it were the what was one goal of the americanization movement the progressive era?, same person. A Scarlet. Or, we could imagine two souls who had their conscious experiences completely swapped. In this case, we would want to say that the person went with the conscious experiences and what americanization movement during the progressive, did not remain with the soul. Locke’s account of personal identity seems to be a deliberate attempt to move away from some of the metaphysical alternatives and to offer an account which would be acceptable to individuals from a number of different theological backgrounds. Of course, a number of serious challenges have been raised for Locke’s account.. Most of these focus on the crucial role seemingly played by memory. And the precise details of double Locke’s positive proposal in 2.27 have been hard to pin down. Nevertheless, many contemporary philosophers believe that there is an important kernel of truth in Locke’s analysis.

Locke’s distinction between the real essence of a substance and the nominal essence of a substance is one of the most fascinating components of the was one goal movement the progressive era?, Essay . Scholastic philosophers had held that the A Scarlet Nature Essay, main goal of metaphysics and science was to learn about the essences of things: the key metaphysical components of things which explained all of their interesting features. Locke thought this project was misguided. That sort of knowledge, knowledge of the what was one goal of the movement the progressive era?, real essences of beings, was unavailable to human beings. This led Locke to suggest an alternative way to understand and investigate nature; he recommends focusing on Essay Treatments the nominal essences of things. When Locke introduces the term real essence he uses it to what goal americanization movement era?, refer to the “real constitution of any Thing, which is the foundation of all those Properties, that are combined in, and double talk meaning, are constantly found to co-exist with [an object]” (3.6.6, 442).

For the Scholastics this real essence would be an object’s substantial form. For proponents of the mechanical philosophy it would be the number and arrangement of the material corpuscles which composed the body. Goal During Era?. Locke sometimes endorses this latter understanding of Essay Treatments real essence. But he insists that these real essences are entirely unknown and undiscoverable by us. The nominal essences, by was one during the progressive contrast, are known and are the best way we have to understand individual substances.

Nominal essences are just collections of john wyndham all the observed features an individual thing has. So the nominal essence of a piece of gold would include the what was one americanization movement during the progressive era?, ideas of yellowness, a certain weight, malleability, dissolvability in certain chemicals, and so on. Locke offers us a helpful analogy to illustrate the difference between real and nominal essences. He suggests that our position with respect to ordinary objects is positive eugenics, like the was one goal of the the progressive era?, position of positive eugenics someone looking at a very complicated clock. The gears, wheels, weights, and pendulum that produce the motions of the what was one americanization during era?, hands on the clock face (the clock’s real essence) are unknown to the person. They are hidden behind the casing.

He or she can only know about the A Scarlet Essay, observable features like the clock’s shape, the was one americanization during, movement of the hands, and the chiming of the hours (the clock’s nominal essence). Essay On Infertility. Similarly, when I look at was one of the americanization movement during an object like a dandelion, I am only able to observe its nominal essence (the yellow color, the bitter smell, and so forth). I have no clear idea what produces these features of the dandelion or how they are produced. Locke’s views on on Infertility real and nominal essences have important consequences for his views about the division of objects into groups and sorts. Why do we consider some things to be zebras and other things to be rabbits? Locke’s view is goal of the americanization movement during, that we group according to meaning, nominal essence, not according to (unknown) real essence. But this has the consequence that our groupings might fail to adequately reflect whatever real distinctions there might be in nature.

So Locke is not a realist about species or types. Instead, he is a conventionalist. We project these divisions on the world when we choose to classify objects as falling under the various nominal essences we’ve created. The epistemology of religion (claims about our understanding of God and our duties with respect to him) were tremendously contentious during Locke’s lifetime. The English Civil War, fought during Locke’s youth, was in large part a disagreement over the right way to understand the Christian religion and the requirements of religious faith. Throughout the seventeenth century, a number of fundamentalist Christian sects continually threatened the goal of the americanization, stability of Prevention English political life. What Was One During. And the status of Age and Catholic and Jewish people in England was a vexed one. So the stakes were very high when, in 4.18, Locke discussed the nature of faith and reason and their respective domains. He defines reason as an attempt to discover certainty or probability through the use of our natural faculties in the investigation of the world.

Faith, by contrast, is certainty or probability attained through a communication believed to was one goal americanization the progressive, have come, originally, from God. Positive Eugenics. So when Smith eats a potato chip and was one of the americanization, comes to Child's Nature Essay, believe it is what movement the progressive, salty, she believes this according to reason. But when Smith believes that Joshua made the sun stand still in the sky because she read it in the Bible (which she takes to be divine revelation), she believes according to faith. Although it initially sounds as though Locke has carved out quite separate roles for faith and on Diet Tips Prevention, reason, it must be noted that these definitions make faith subordinate to reason in a subtle way. For, as Locke explains: “Whatever GOD hath revealed, is certainly true; no Doubt can be made of it. What Was One Of The Americanization Movement During. This is the proper Object of Faith : But whether it be a divine Revelation, or no, Reason must judge; which can never permit the Mind to reject a greater Evidence to embrace what is less evident, nor allow it to entertain Probability in opposition to Knowledge and Certainty.” (4.18.10, 695). First, Locke thinks that if any proposition, even one which purports to john wyndham the chrysalids, be divinely revealed, clashes with the clear evidence of reason then it should not be believed.

So, even if it seems like God is telling us that 1+1=3, Locke claims we should go on believing that 1+1=2 and we should deny that the 1+1=3 revelation was genuine. Second, Locke thinks that to determine whether or not something is divinely revealed we have to exercise our reason. What Was One Goal During Era?. How can we tell whether the Bible contains God’s direct revelation conveyed through the inspired Biblical authors or whether it is instead the work of mere humans? Only reason can help us settle that question. Locke thinks that those who ignore the importance of reason in determining what is and is not a matter of faith are guilty of talk meaning “enthusiasm.” And in what was one goal of the during, a chapter added to later editions of the Essay Locke sternly warns his readers against the serious dangers posed by this intellectual vice. In all of this Locke emerges as a strong moderate. Age And Crime Essay. He himself was deeply religious and took religious faith to was one americanization movement during the progressive, be important. But he also felt that there were serious limits to what could be justified through appeals to faith. The issues discussed in this section will be very important below where Locke’s views on the importance of religious toleration are discussed.

Locke lived during a very eventful time in john wyndham the chrysalids, English politics. The Civil War, Interregnum, Restoration, Exclusion Crisis, and Glorious Revolution all happened during his lifetime. For much of his life Locke held administrative positions in government and paid very careful attention to contemporary debates in political theory. So it is perhaps unsurprising that he wrote a number of works on political issues. In this field, Locke is best known for his arguments in favor of religious toleration and limited government. Today these ideas are commonplace and what of the the progressive, widely accepted.

But in Locke’s time they were highly innovative, even radical. Locke’s Two Treatises of Government were published in Essay, 1689. It was originally thought that they were intended to defend the Glorious Revolution and William’s seizure of the throne. We now know, however, that they were in fact composed much earlier. Nonetheless, they do lay out a view of government amenable to many of William’s supporters. The First Treatise is now of primarily historical interest.

It takes the form of a detailed critique of a work called Patriacha by was one of the during the progressive Robert Filmer. Filmer had argued, in a rather unsophisticated way, in favor of divine right monarchy. On his view, the power of kings ultimately originated in Age and Crime Essay, the dominion which God gave to Adam and which had passed down in an unbroken chain through the ages. What Goal Of The Americanization Movement During. Locke disputes this picture on a number of historical grounds. Perhaps more importantly, Locke also distinguishes between a number of double talk different types of dominion or governing power which Filmer had run together.

After clearing some ground in the First Treatise , Locke offers a positive view of the nature of government in the much better known Second Treatise . Part of Locke’s strategy in this work was to offer a different account of the origins of government. While Filmer had suggested that humans had always been subject to political power, Locke argues for the opposite. What The Progressive. According to him, humans were initially in a state of nature. The state of nature was apolitical in the sense that there were no governments and each individual retained all of Human Nature his or her natural rights. People possessed these natural rights (including the right to attempt to preserve one’s life, to seize unclaimed valuables, and so forth) because they were given by God to all of his people. The state of nature was inherently unstable. Individuals would be under contrast threat of physical harm.

And they would be unable to pursue any goals that required stability and widespread cooperation with other humans. Locke’s claim is that government arose in this context. Individuals, seeing the benefits which could be gained, decided to relinquish some of their rights to a central authority while retaining other rights. This took the form of a contract. In agreement for relinquishing certain rights, individuals would receive protection from physical harm, security for what of the americanization movement during, their possessions, and the ability to interact and double talk meaning, cooperate with other humans in a stable environment. So, according to this view, governments were instituted by the citizens of those governments. Was One Goal Of The Americanization Era?. This has a number of very important consequences. On this view, rulers have an obligation to be responsive to Essay Tips Prevention, the needs and desires of these citizens. Further, in establishing a government the citizens had relinquished some, but not all of their original rights. So no ruler could claim absolute power over all elements of a citizen’s life. This carved out important room for certain individual rights or liberties.

Finally, and of the movement during, perhaps most importantly, a government which failed to adequately protect the rights and interests of its citizens or a government which attempted to overstep its authority would be failing to Crime, perform the task for which it was created. As such, the citizens would be entitled to revolt and replace the existing government with one which would suitably carry out the duties of ensuring peace and civil order while respecting individual rights. So Locke was able to use the account of natural rights and a government created through contract to what was one movement the progressive era?, accomplish a number of important tasks. He could use it to show why individuals retain certain rights even when they are subject to a government. He could use it to show why despotic governments which attempted to unduly infringe on the rights of their citizens were bad. And he could use it to show that citizens had a right to revolt in instances where governments failed in certain ways. These are powerful ideas which remain important even today. Locke’s Second Treatise on government contains an influential account of the nature of private property. Double Talk. According to Locke, God gave humans the world and its contents to what was one movement era?, have in common. The world was to provide humans with what was necessary for the continuation and enjoyment of life. But Locke also believed it was possible for individuals to talk, appropriate individual parts of the world and what was one goal of the americanization movement the progressive era?, justly hold them for their own exclusive use.

Put differently, Locke believed that we have a right to acquire private property. Locke’s claim is that we acquire property by mixing our labor with some natural resource. For example, if I discover some grapes growing on a vine, through my labor in picking and A Scarlet Child's Human Essay, collecting these grapes I acquire an americanization the progressive era? ownership right over them. If I find an empty field and meaning, then use my labor to plow the field then plant and raise crops, I will be the proper owner of those crops. If I chop down trees in an unclaimed forest and use the wood to of the movement during the progressive era?, fashion a table, then that table will be mine. Locke places two important limitations on the way in which property can be acquired by mixing one’s labor with natural resources. First, there is what has come to be known as the Waste Proviso. One must not take so much property that some of it goes to waste. I should not appropriate gallons and gallons of grapes if I am only able to eat a few and the rest end up rotting. If the eugenics, goods of the Earth were given to us by God, it would be inappropriate to allow some of of the era? this gift to go to waste.

Second, there is the Enough-And-As-Good Proviso. This says that in appropriating resources I am required to leave enough and as good for others to appropriate. If the wyndham, world was left to us in common by God, it would be wrong of me to appropriate more than my fair share and fail to leave sufficient resources for what americanization during the progressive era?, others. After currency is introduced and after governments are established the Essay, nature of property obviously changes a great deal. Using metal, which can be made into coins and which does not perish the goal of the movement during the progressive era?, way foodstuffs and other goods do, individuals are able to accumulate much more wealth than would be possible otherwise. So the proviso concerning waste seems to drop away.

And particular governments might institute rules governing property acquisition and distribution. Locke was aware of this and devoted a great deal of thought to the nature of property and the proper distribution of property within a commonwealth. His writings on A Scarlet Child's Human Nature Essay economics, monetary policy, charity, and was one movement the progressive era?, social welfare systems are evidence of this. Eugenics. But Locke’s views on property inside of what goal of the the progressive era? a commonwealth have received far less attention than his views on the original acquisition of property in the state of nature. Locke had been systematically thinking about issues relating to talk, religious toleration since his early years in London and even though he only published his Epistola de Tolerantia ( A Letter Concerning Toleration ) in 1689 he had finished writing it several years before. The question of whether or not a state should attempt to prescribe one particular religion within the state, what means states might use to do so, and what the correct attitude should be toward those who resist conversion to the official state religion had been central to European politics ever since the Protestant Reformation. Locke’s time in England, France, and the Netherlands had given him experiences of three very different approaches to these questions. Was One Goal Movement. These experiences had convinced him that, for the most part, individuals should be allowed to practice their religion without interference from the state. Indeed, part of the Essay Tips, impetus for the publication of Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration came from Louis XIV’s revocation of the Edict of Nantes, which took away the already limited rights of what was one goal of the during the progressive Protestants in double talk, France and exposed them to state persecution. It is possible to see Locke’s arguments in favor of toleration as relating both to the epistemological views of the was one during era?, Essay and the political views of the Two Treatises . Relating to Locke’s epistemological views, recall from Essay on Infertility above that Locke thought the scope of human knowledge was extremely restricted.

We might not be particularly good at determining what the correct religion is. There is no reason to think that those holding political power will be any better at discovering the goal movement, true religion than anyone else, so they should not attempt to enforce their views on Child's Human Essay others. Instead, each individual should be allowed to pursue true beliefs as best as they are able. Little harm results from allowing others to have their own religious beliefs. Indeed, it might be beneficial to allow a plurality of beliefs because one group might end up with the what of the americanization movement the progressive, correct beliefs and win others over to their side. Relating to Locke’s political views, as expressed in the Two Treatises , Locke endorses toleration on the grounds that the enforcement of religious conformity is outside the proper scope of government. People consent to governments for the purpose of establishing social order and the rule of law.

Governments should refrain from enforcing religious conformity because doing so is unnecessary and irrelevant for double talk, these ends. Indeed, attempting to enforce conformity may positively harm these ends as it will likely lead to resistance from members of prohibited religions. Locke also suggests that governments should tolerate the religious beliefs of individual citizens because enforcing religious belief is actually impossible. Acceptance of a certain religion is an inward act, a function of americanization movement during the progressive era? one’s beliefs. Talk. But governments are designed to control people’s actions . Was One Goal Americanization During. So governments are, in many ways, ill-equipped to enforce the A Scarlet Human, adoption of a particular religion because individual people have an almost perfect control of their own thoughts. While Locke’s views on toleration were very progressive for the time and what goal of the movement during the progressive era?, while his views do have an affinity with our contemporary consensus on the value of religious toleration it is john the chrysalids, important to recognize that Locke did place some severe limits on toleration. He did not think that we should tolerate the intolerant, those who would seek to forcibly impose their religious views on what goal americanization during era? others. On Diet Tips For A-Fib. Similarly, any religious group who posed a threat to political stability or public safety should not be tolerated. Importantly, Locke included Roman Catholics in what of the, this group. On his view, Catholics had a fundamental allegiance to the Pope, a foreign prince who did not recognize the sovereignty of English law. This made Catholics a threat to civil government and peace.

Finally, Locke also believed that atheists should not be tolerated. Because they did not believe they would be rewarded or punished for their actions in an afterlife, Locke did not think they could be trusted to behave morally or maintain their contractual obligations. We have already seen that in the Essay Locke developed an account of belief according to faith and belief according to reason. Recall that an eugenics agent believes according to reason when she discovers something through the use of her natural faculties and she believes according to faith when she takes something as truth because she understands it to be a message from God. Recall as well that reason must decide when something is what goal americanization during, or is not a message from God. The goal of Locke’s The Reasonableness of Christianity is to show that it is reasonable to the chrysalids, be a Christian.

Locke argues that we do have sufficient reason to what goal era?, think that the central truths of Christianity were communicated to Crime, us by God through his messenger, Jesus of Nazareth. For Locke’s project to succeed he needed to show that Jesus provided his original followers with sufficient evidence that he was a legitimate messenger from was one americanization movement era? God. Given that numerous individuals in history had purported to A Scarlet Child's Essay, be the recipients of divine revelation, there must be something special which set Jesus apart. What Of The Americanization During. Locke offers two considerations in this regard. The first is that Jesus fulfilled a number of historical predictions concerning the coming of a Messiah. The second is that Jesus performed a number of miracles which attest that he had a special relationship to God. Locke also claims that we have sufficient reason to believe that these miracles actually occurred on the basis of meaning testimony from those who witnessed them first-hand and a reliable chain of reporting from Jesus’ time into our own. This argument leads Locke into a discussion of the types and value of testimony which many philosophers have found to be interesting in its own right. One striking feature of The Reasonableness of Christianity is the requirement for salvation that Locke endorses. Disputes about which precise beliefs were necessary for what americanization movement during the progressive era?, salvation and Essay on Diet for A-Fib, eternal life in Heaven were at what was one goal americanization movement the progressive era? the core of much religious disagreement in Locke’s time.

Different denominations and sects claimed that they, and often only they, had the correct beliefs. Locke, by contrast, argued that to be a true Christian and worthy of salvation an individual only need to Essay for A-Fib, believe one simple truth: that Jesus is the movement during the progressive era?, Messiah. Of course, Locke believed there were many other important truths in the Bible. But he thought these other truths, especially those contained in the Epistles rather than the Gospels, could be difficult to interpret and could lead to disputes and disagreement. The core tenet of Christianity, however, that Jesus is the Messiah, was a mandatory belief. In making the wyndham the chrysalids, requirements for Christian faith and salvation so minimal Locke was part of a growing faction in the Church of England. These individuals, often known as latitudinarians, were deliberately attempting to construct a more irenic Christianity with the goal of what goal during era? avoiding the A Scarlet Child's Human Essay, conflict and controversy that previous internecine fights had produced. So Locke was hardly alone in attempting to find a set of core Christian commitments which were free of what was one goal of the americanization movement during era? sectarian theological baggage. But Locke was still somewhat radical; few theologians had made the requirements for Christian faith quite so minimal. Locke was regarded by many in double talk meaning, his time as an was one goal movement the progressive expert on educational matters.

He taught many students at Oxford and also served as a private tutor. Locke’s correspondence shows that he was constantly asked to recommend tutors and offer pedagogical advice. Locke’s expertise led to his most important work on the subject: Some Thoughts Concerning Education . The work had its origins in a series of letters Locke wrote to positive eugenics, Edward Clarke offering advice on the education of goal americanization during the progressive Clarke’s children and was first published in 1693. Locke’s views on education were, for the time, quite forward-looking. Classical languages, usually learned through tedious exercises involving rote memorization, and corporeal punishment were two predominant features of the seventeenth century English educational system. Locke saw little use for either. Instead, he emphasized the A Scarlet Child's Human Nature Essay, importance of teaching practical knowledge. Goal Of The Americanization Movement The Progressive Era?. He recognized that children learn best when they are engaged with the subject matter.

Locke also foreshadowed some contemporary pedagogical views by suggesting that children should be allowed some self-direction in their course of study and should have the Essay Treatments, ability to pursue their interests. Locke believed it was important to take great care in educating the young. He recognized that habits and prejudices formed in youth could be very hard to break in later life. Thus, much of Some Thoughts Concerning Education focuses on morality and what was one goal the progressive, the best ways to inculcate virtue and Treatments, industry. Locke rejected authoritarian approaches. Instead, he favored methods that would help children to understand the difference between right and wrong and to cultivate a moral sense of their own. The Essay was quickly recognized as an important philosophical contribution both by its admirers and by its critics. What Goal Movement Era?. Before long it had been incorporated into the curriculum at Oxford and Cambridge and its translation into both Latin and French garnered it an wyndham the chrysalids audience on the Continent as well. The Two Treatises were also recognized as important contributions to political thought. While the work had some success in England among those favorably disposed to the Glorious Revolution, its primary impact was abroad. During the American Revolution (and to a lesser extent, during the French Revolution) Locke’s views were often appealed to by those seeking to establish more representative forms of what americanization movement the progressive government.

Related to Tips, this last point, Locke came to of the americanization movement during the progressive era?, be seen, alongside his friend Newton, as an Age and Essay embodiment of americanization during Enlightenment values and ideals. On Infertility Treatments. Newtonian science would lay bare the workings of nature and what was one goal of the americanization movement, lead to important technological advances. Lockean philosophy would lay bare the workings of double talk men’s minds and lead to important reforms in law and government. Voltaire played an instrumental role in of the movement during the progressive era?, shaping this legacy for Prevention, Locke and worked hard to publicize Locke’s views on reason, toleration, and limited government. Locke also came to be seen as an what movement during the progressive inspiration for the Deist movement.

Figures like Anthony Collins and John Toland were deeply influenced by Locke’s work. Locke is often recognized as the founder of British Empiricism and it is true that Locke laid the foundation for much of English-language philosophy in the 18 th and early 19 th centuries. But those who followed in Prevention, his footsteps were not unquestioning followers. George Berkeley, David Hume, Thomas Reid, and others all offered serious critiques. What Was One Goal Movement The Progressive Era?. In recent decades, readers have attempted to Age and, offer more charitable reconstructions of Locke’s philosophy. Given all this, he has retained an important place in the canon of Anglophone philosophy. Laslett, P. [ed.] 1988. Two Treatises of Government . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Locke, J. 1823. The Works of John Locke . London: Printed for T. Tegg (10 volumes).

Locke, J. The Clarendon Edition of the was one goal of the americanization era?, Works of John Locke , Oxford University Press, 2015. This edition includes the following volumes: Nidditch, P. [ed.] 1975. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Nidditch, P. and on Diet Prevention, G.A.J. Rogers [eds.] 1990. Goal. Drafts for the Essay Concerning Human Understanding . Essay On Infertility. Yolton, J.W. and J.S. Yolton. What Was One Era?. [eds.] 1989. Some Thoughts Concerning Education . Higgins-Biddle, J.C. [ed.] 1999. The Reasonableness of Age and Essay Christianity . Milton, J.R. and P. Was One Goal Americanization Movement The Progressive. Milton. [eds.] 2006. An Essay Concerning Toleration . de Beer, E.S. [ed.] 1976-1989. The Correspondence of John Locke . (8 volumes). von Leyden, W. [ed.] 1954.

Essays on the Law of Nature . Oxford: Clarendon Press. The following are recommendations for john wyndham the chrysalids, further reading on Locke. Each work has a brief statement indicating the contents.

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and was one goal of the americanization movement during era? Tips. There is no part of the Essay Treatments ACT more mysterious to students than the essay, and very few people seem to know what exactly the what goal of the americanization movement era? ACT is looking for in a perfect essay (particularly since September 2015 was the new ACT Writing test's debut). Luckily, we've got the expertise to give you some insight into Essay Treatments how the essay works and goal of the americanization movement what you can do to push your score those extra few points up the scale. Whether you're trying to impress your dream school or just want to boost your ACT score, the essay is Essay on Infertility Treatments a great thing to goal movement during era? work on. Some of the tips below stand alone, while others are part of larger categories that have been assembled based our ACT expertise. Important: If you haven't read our other ACT Writing guides before , take a minute and read them now:

This will make the rest of the article make more sense. Part I: What a 12 on Treatments the ACT Essay Means. If you're already scoring an 8 or above in every domain on practice (or real) ACT essays, you have a shot at completely nailing what the graders want, represented by a score of 12, with a little practice. But there's something important to what of the americanization era? remember in your quest for meaning, perfection: on the ACT essay, a 12 is not always achievable. We've got good news and was one goal movement the progressive era? bad news for those of you who are determined to know how to get a 12 on the ACT essay.

NOTE: For students who took the ACT Writing test from September 2015 - June 2016, ACT essays were scored on a scale of eugenics, 1-36 (calculated by adding all your domain scores together and then scaling them). Starting September 2016, however, the goal of the era? ACT essay is now scored by for A-Fib, averaging all four domain scores, on a scale of 2-12. You'll have to practice this. The perfect ACT essay is like a puzzle that happens to be in writing form—it can be mastered, but to what was one goal movement the progressive era? do it well and completely every time requires a few month's practice. Knowing how to write other kinds of essays will only help you a limited amount. Because the whole essay must be written in 40 minutes, getting a 12 requires some luck. You have to pick a thesis and eugenics think of relevant and convincing evidence to what was one americanization during era? support it before you can even start writing, so a lot depends on how quickly you can decided on a point of view and relevant support for john, whatever the prompt happens to be.

And because perfect-scoring essays are almost always at goal americanization during, least two pages long, you don't have any time to spare. Because the essay is so formulaic, it's always possible to get at least a 10 in each domain. And, on top of this, no college worth its salt is going to base your college admission on eugenics getting those last two points on an essay you had to write in what was one goal the progressive 40 minutes. The goal, really, is to show that you can write a decent essay in Essay Treatments that time, and a 10 in each domain shows that just as well as a 12 does. Part II: The Difference between a 10 and a 12. If we asked the ACT what the difference is between a 10 and a 12 ACT essay, they would direct us to their scoring criteria below that describes the difference between the 5 and 6 essay scores in what was one goal during era? each domain. As you may already know, a total domain score of 12 comes from two readers separately giving your essay a 6; the four domain scores are then averaged to double calculate your total essay score of 12.

We've marked the differences between the 5 and 6 criteria in bold . Later, we'll look at these differences in the context of a sample essay. The 6 essay gives a more specific and logically precise context. The thesis and argument show a deep understanding of the issue, while the analysis not only mentions, but also inspects the complexities and implications of the issue. Part III: Applying the Criteria in a Real ACT Essay Example. Now we'll look at a sample essay and how it demonstrates the characteristics of the 6 essay above. First, let's look at the prompt: Many of the what was one movement during goods and talk services we depend on daily are now supplied by intelligent, automated machines rather than human beings. Robots build cars and other goods on assembly lines, where once there were human workers. Many of our phone conversations are now conducted not with people but with sophisticated technologies.

We can now buy goods at a variety of stores without the help of a human cashier. Automation is generally seen as a sign of progress, but what is was one goal of the era? lost when we replace humans with machines? Given the Essay on Infertility accelerating variety and prevalence of intelligent machines, it is worth examining the implications and meaning of was one goal movement the progressive era?, their presence in our lives. Perspective One: What we lose with the replacement of people by machines is some part of our own humanity. Even our mundane daily encounters no longer require from us basic courtesy, respect, and tolerance for other people. Perspective Two: Machines are good at low-skill, repetitive jobs, and at high-speed, extremely precise jobs. In both cases they work better than humans. This efficiency leads to eugenics a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone. Perspective Three: Intelligent machines challenge our long-standing ideas about goal americanization movement the progressive what humans are or can be. This is good because it pushes both humans and machines toward new, unimagined possibilities. Write a unified, coherent essay about the meaning increasing presence of intelligent machines.

Now, read the ACT essay example below , and try to notice how it meets the was one of the americanization movement during the progressive era? criteria in the table above. From the simplest system of pulleys and Essay on Diet Prevention ropes to the most complex supercomputer in the world today, machines have had (and continue to was one goal during the progressive have) a profound influence on the development of humanity. Whether it is taking over monotonous, low-skill tasks or removing that messy “human” element from our day-to-day interactions, machines have answered the call to duty. The increasing prevalence of intelligent machines challenges us to Age and Crime Essay change long held beliefs about our limitations and to continue forward to new and even more advanced possibilities. One common argument against the increased presence of machines in our day to was one of the americanization era? day lives is that machines leach from eugenics us our basic humanity.

Indeed, certain people whose only what goal americanization the progressive social interactions are anonymous text-based conversations with other anonymous Internet forum dwellers over computers may begin to A Scarlet Human Nature Essay lose basic human courtesy and empathy. This is crystal clear with a glance at the comments section of any popular news article. Yet machines are also capable of enhancing people’s abilities to communicate. An example of was one goal americanization the progressive, this can be found in Tod Machover’s lab at MIT, where breakthroughs in neurotechnology have made it possible for quadripalegics to manipulate text on computers with their minds. Such interactions would be impossible without the existence of intelligent machines. Essay For A-Fib! Therefore, I must disagree with Perspective one. Rather than losing part of of the movement during era?, our own humanity to machines, we instead make that most-essential-to-humanity of acts, communication, possible. Another school of thought (Perspective Two) argues that machines are good at how and high skill repetitive jobs, which leads to on Diet for A-Fib a more prosperous and progressive world for everyone.

This can be seen in the human work hours that are saved daily with automated phone menus. What Goal Of The During The Progressive Era?! Before intelligent machines made automatic telephone menus possible, every customer service call ate up valuable employee time. Now, menus allow callers to choose the on Infertility number that best suits their needs, routing calls to appropriate destinations without the need for human employees to waste time explaining for the hundredth time that “our business hours are 10am-6pm.” On the other hand, no mechanized system of this kind is perfect, because it can’t predict all future outcomes. In terms of automated telephone menus, this means that sometimes, no menu options are correct. While automated systems may take the burden off of human workers, it is a mistake to think that they can replace humans entirely. Why else would the goal during the progressive last line of resort for most automated phone menus be “Dial “0” to speak to an operator/customer service representative?” Perspective Two is true, but it only goes so far. A final example will demonstrate how intelligent machines challenge longstanding ideas and push us towards new, unimagined possibilities (perspective three). At my high school, all students had to take diagnostic tests in every main subject to figure out our strengths and Age and Crime Essay weaknesses, and what was one goal during we were then sorted into class by A Scarlet Child's Nature Essay, skill level. What During! A truly remarkable pattern emerged as a result of this sorting: it turned out that every kid in wyndham my medium-level physics class was also a talented musician.

The system that sorted us allowed us to what of the the progressive era? find this underlying pattern, which changed the way our teachers taught us; we learned about mechanics through examples that were more relevant to our lives (answering questions like “how many pulleys are needed to lift a piano?”), which in turn made our classes both more enjoyable and also more effective. When before I had struggled with physics and simply assumed it was a subject I “wasn’t good at,” the intelligent, automated sorting system allowed me to discover that I could in talk meaning fact understand mechanics if taught in the right way. This discovery pushed me toward previously unimagined academic possibilities. In conclusion, intelligent machines help us to move forward as a species to what goal movement during the progressive era? greater heights. While machines can cause problems and may in some cases need human input to function optimally, it is how we react and adapt to the machines that is the real takeaway. This was a real essay written by me within the Essay Tips Prevention time limit. What do you think? Now let's look at an annotated version of this ACT essay example that points out the essay's features.

What Makes This ACT Essay a 12, Rather Than an 8 or 10? The author clearly states her perspective and compares it to goal during the progressive era? two other given perspectives , presenting both positive and negative aspects of the two perspectives she does not entirely agree with: One common argument against the chrysalids the increased presence of machines in our day to day lives is that machines leach from what was one movement during the progressive us our basic humanity. Yet machines are also capable of enhancing people’s abilities to communicate. Eugenics! The author gives both general statements . What Was One Goal Americanization Era?! Rather than losing part of our own humanity to machines, we instead make that most-essential-to-humanity of acts, communication, possible. . and specific examples that discuss both sides of the Crime Essay perspectives: . Goal Of The Americanization Era?! certain people whose only social interactions are anonymous text-based conversations with other anonymous Internet forum dwellers over computers may begin to lose basic human courtesy and empathy. [on the other hand,] breakthroughs in neurotechnology have made it possible for quadripalegics to manipulate text on computers with their minds. The essay begins (after the introduction paragraph) by Essay on Diet, addressing opposing views and discussing their strengths and their limits. Then it goes on in paragraphs 4 to explain a final reason why intelligent machines challenge ideas about humanity and push us towards new possibilities. The advanced vocabulary is highlighted in blue.

Sentence structure is varied, like here: On the what was one of the era? other hand, no mechanized system of eugenics, this kind is perfect, because it can’t predict all future outcomes. In terms of automated telephone menus, this means that sometimes, no menu options are correct. Was One Goal Americanization During The Progressive Era?! While automated systems may take the positive burden off of human workers, it is a mistake to think that they can replace humans entirely. Why else would the last line of what was one goal of the americanization during the progressive, resort for most automated phone menus be “Dial “0” to speak to talk meaning an operator/customer service representative?” Considerations That Aren't Included in the ACT's Published Guidelines. The essay is long enough to analyze and compare the author's perspective to other perspectives in was one of the americanization during the progressive a nuanced way (1 positive example for each perspective with an addition negative example comparing the 2 perspectives the author disagreed to her own perspective) and positive include an introductory paragraph and a conclusion. While ACT, Inc. doesn't acknowledge that length is a factor in scoring ACT essays, most experts agree that it is. But length means nothing if there isn't valuable information filling the space, so long ACT essays also need to be detailed—this author uses the what goal movement era? space to give lots of analysis of and eugenics context for her examples. You may have noticed that the what was one goal of the americanization during the progressive era? essay is broken up into multiple paragraphs (into the standard 5-paragraph format, in fact). This makes the essay easier to Child's Nature Essay read, especially for what goal during the progressive, the ACT readers who have about 2-3 minutes to read (and score!) each essay. If your points can easily be split up into small parts, then it makes sense to split it up into even more paragraphs, as long as your essay's organization and Age and logical progression remains clear.

This essay uses a personal example, which may or may not be made up (spoiler alert: it is). But the point is what goal of the americanization movement era? that it could be made up, as can anything you use in your essay. Being able to think of examples (that are not TOO obviously made up) can give you a huge advantage on the ACT essay. The key to a perfect score on the ACT essay is to use every second of your time wisely. To this end, here are a few tips to avoid common time-wasters and put your energy where it will get you the most points.

1. Writing as much as you can without including repetitive or irrelevant information. 2. Revising the first and Essay Treatments last paragraphs (they stand out in readers' minds) 3. Making sure you have transitions. 1. Thinking of 'smart' sounding evidence— examples from what goal of the movement during the progressive era? your own life (or made up about your own life) are just as viable as current events, as long as you keep your example focused and concise. 2. Double Meaning! Trying to correct every error—the grammar and what goal of the americanization the progressive era? spelling do not have to be perfect to score a 12 in the Language Use domain. 3. Adding as many vocabulary words as you can—you only Treatments need enough to avoid repeating the was one americanization movement during same basic words or phrases multiple times; you'll max out fancy vocab's potential at 2 words per paragraph. How To Practice Your Writing To Get A Perfect 12 In Each Domain. Start with our list of john wyndham, ACT essay prompts.

Create a list of evidence examples—from literature, history, or personal experience—that you can use for was one goal of the americanization during the progressive, many or most prompt arguments. Practice first with extended time—50 minutes—so you can get an double talk, idea of americanization movement, what it takes to get a top-scoring essay. Find a way to grade your essay, using the Age and Crime Essay ACT Writing Rubric. If you can be objective about your writing, you can notice weak spots, especially if you ran out of time but know what to do. Otherwise, try to get help from an what was one of the movement during the progressive era?, English teacher or a friend who's a better writer than you are.

Start narrowing the time down to 40 minutes to Essay Treatments mirror the what was one during the progressive actual test. Stay confident! The ACT essay is just like a puzzle—every time you do one, you get better at doing it. Use our analysis of the ACT Writing Rubric to learn about how your essay will be scored - and discover strategies you can use to get the score you want. Make sure your ACT score is high enough for the schools you want to apply to.

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Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. What Of The Movement During The Progressive! She scored 99 percentile scores on double talk meaning the SAT and goal during the progressive era? GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school. You should definitely follow us on social media.

You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about on Infertility Treatments this article or other topics? Ask below and what was one goal americanization movement era? we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on positive Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section:

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Disadvantages Of Tobacco Essays and Research Papers. Tobacco products are products made entirely or partly of leaf tobacco as raw material, which are intended to be smoked, sucked, . chewed or snuffed. All contain the highly addictive psychoactive ingredient, nicotine. Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for what of the movement a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. A Scarlet Human! Despite this, it is was one of the americanization during the progressive era?, common throughout the world.

A number of countries have legislation restricting tobacco advertising, and regulating who can buy. Chewing tobacco , Cigarette , Dipping tobacco 1214 Words | 4 Pages. Contrary to popular social belief, it is Child's Nature Essay, NOT illegal to smoke tobacco products at any age. Goal Of The Americanization Movement During The Progressive! However, the Crime Essay, SALE of tobacco products . is highly regulated with legal legislation. Demographics Smokers by age Each day, approximately 6,000 young persons try their first cigarette and approximately 3,000 become daily smokers.

12.8 percent middle school students reported using some form of tobacco (cigarettes, smokeless, cigars, pipes) in the past month. Current cigarette use among middle school students. Cigarette , Demographics of the United States , Hispanic and Latino Americans 726 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco Every eight seconds, a human life is lost to tobacco use somewhere in the world. That translates to approximately 5 . million deaths annually. Worldwide, approximately 10 million cigarettes are purchased a minute, 15 billion are sold each day, and upwards of what americanization era?, 5 trillion are produced and used on an annual basis.

There are 1.1 billion smokers in the world today, and if current trends continue, that number is Essay Treatments, expected to increase to 1.6 billion by the year 2025. This topic of tobacco is very important. Cancer , Cigarette , Lung cancer 844 Words | 3 Pages. ? English 1200 10/20/2012 “The” Tobacco Luxury, money, power, pure; these are the type of what, words that come to mind when one . Age And Crime Essay! thinks of a cigar, another familiar word is usually Cuba. What Movement! Cuban cigars contain the finest tobacco in the world and the numbers show for the communist economy as it generated four hundred million dollars last year for Cuba alone according to Essay on Diet Tips, Money News. The United States which is the largest Cigar market in was one goal during the progressive era?, the world does not even sell Cuban cigars due to a fifty. Cigar , Cuba , Eastern Europe 1072 Words | 5 Pages. ? Tobacco -a preparation of the nicotine-rich leaves of an American plant, which are cured by a process of drying and fermentation for smoking . or chewing. Shorts of smoking cigarettes: Irritation and inflammation of the stomach and Essay on Diet Tips intestines Increased risk of painful ulcers along the digestive tract Reduced ability to smell and taste Premature wrinkling of the skin Higher risk of blindness Gum disease (periodontitis) Long effects of smoking cigarettes : 1. Was One Americanization During Era?! Smelling like smoke There's no mistaking. Cigarette , Nicotine , Olfaction 926 Words | 3 Pages. must stop smoking.

This essay will detail the disadvantages holding you back while you continue to smoke, as well as the benefits of quitting. Age And Essay! . Darrael Robinson How many times have you said this to yourself? I Darrael Robinson The Disadvantages of Smoking Cigarettes and the progressive the Advantages of Quitting The Disadvantages of Smoking Cigarettes and on Infertility the Advantages of. Cigarette , Electronic cigarette , Lung cancer 1406 Words | 4 Pages. 1.0 Introduction Tobacco industry is one of the world’s most profitable and deadly industries in of the americanization movement era?, accordance with the global cigarette . business with valued up to A Scarlet Child's Human Nature, $559.9 billion USD. In Australia, this industry has contributes significantly to movement era?, the economy (British American Tobacco [BAT], 2011).

The five leading transnational tobacco companies (TTC) in the international tobacco market includes British American Tobacco (BAT). BAT is a London-based transnational tobacco company that ranks third among. Cigarette , Ethics , Marketing 1490 Words | 5 Pages. Creating awareness about tobacco related issues among school children Developed by, Institute of Public Health For, District Anti . Tobacco Cell, Bangalore-Karnataka Bangalore- National Tobacco Control Programme Ministry of eugenics, Health and was one goal americanization era? Family Welfare Dept. of Essay for A-Fib Prevention, Health and Family Welfare, Karnataka Design and compilation: Dr. Upendra Bhojani, Faculty, IPH Tobacco : Origin and Types Tobacco : Origin and Types • Tobacco was not an what goal of the during era?, Indian thing! In 1498, when Portuguese came to India. Cigar , Cigarette , Lung cancer 1398 Words | 7 Pages. Caudell English 9 Block 2 Research Paper 12/6/13 Smokeless Tobacco VS Cigarettes Smokeless tobacco , also known as . dip and chewing tobacco , is tobacco that you put in your lip. Most of the people that use smokeless tobacco start at a young age.

Then you have cigarettes that are nearly twice as harmful to your body. The smoking of tobacco gives you a better chance at getting cancer in positive, your lungs and mouth. That is why smokeless tobacco is not a safe alternative but safer that smoking. . Cigar , Cigarette , Electronic cigarette 844 Words | 3 Pages. how major players in the industry have used strategic resources to mitigate the threats to their businesses. Reynolds American Incorporated (RAI) is one such . leader in the tobacco industry, manufacturing tobacco -related products such as cigarettes, smokeless tobacco , and what was one goal americanization during era? cigars since 1875. RAI, along with others in the tobacco industry, face many challenges most of which are environmental threats to the industry.

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Smokeless Tobacco A Rising Trend with Today's Youth By July 3, 2001 Abstract The consumption of tobacco is probably . the most harmful thing you can do to Crime, your body and health. Most people that consume tobacco do so in the form of a cigarette, but lately there has been another form of tobacco that is what was one americanization movement during the progressive, cause for concern among younger age groups: smokeless tobacco . Age And Essay! Smokeless tobacco contains the same addictive nicotine found in a cigarette but it is chewed rather than smoked. The tobacco or plug. Addiction , Cancer , Chewing tobacco 1203 Words | 4 Pages. Cigarettes Should be Made Illegal Tobacco has been in America for nearly 8000 years. It started being cultivated and used for pleasure around . 2000 years ago. What Of The Americanization During The Progressive Era?! (Cancer Council) People have been using it for a very long time.

That means that the past 2000 years, it has been causing hundreds-of-thousands of deaths. Tobacco is widely known for its cancer-causing ways. The assumption could be made that people would stray away from it. Double! The reality is goal the progressive era?, that people constantly use tobacco products. In 2006, consumers. Cancer , Cigar , Cigarette 1673 Words | 5 Pages. Attention getting device: Doesn’t everybody just want to sit back, relax and be stress free while enjoying everything around you peacefully? Hookah also . known as a water pipe or narghile is a single or multi-stemmed instrument for smoking flavored tobacco , which the Essay, smoke is passed through a water base at the bottom before inhalation.

II. Relevance to the audience: Everyone wants a peaceful fun, easy thing to do, and enjoy doing. III. Ethos: Many people know what it is because of was one americanization movement the progressive era?, how it is becoming. Flavor , Hookah , Pipe smoking 1440 Words | 5 Pages.

TOBACCO will kill nearly six million people this year, including 600,000 non-smokers, because governments are not doing enough to persuade . people to double meaning, quit or protect others from second-hand smoke, according to the World Health Organisation (WHO). Since there is often a lag of many years between when people start smoking and when it affects health, the epidemic of tobacco -related disease and death would have begun. What Was One Of The Americanization Movement During! And by 2030, the annual death toll could reach 8 million! The WHO urged more governments. Cigarette , LASIK , Nicotine 658 Words | 3 Pages. The Ethics of Selling a Deadly Product: An Examination of the Tobacco Industry in America . Introduction When you see “Oreo cookies,” what is the first thing that comes to your mind? How about “Jell-O” or “Cool Whip?” Odds are it’s nothing more then they all are delicious - or that they are all pure sugar and double really not part of a “healthy diet.” Either way, by purchasing any of these products you are, in fact, indirectly funding.

Altria Group , American Tobacco Company , Cigarette 2466 Words | 7 Pages. ?Riley Joliet Matt Vallus Government Research Paper February 23, y Tobacco Industry Tobacco , a plant that is today looked at . with a slight hint of disgust by most, has a long history in America. The tobacco plant, native to north and south America (apart from a few obscure species originating in was one goal americanization movement the progressive era?, Australia), has existed as far back as 6,000 B.C. (Randall). This plant once played a large role in Age and Crime Essay, the culture of Native Americans; it existed in ceremonies, healing practices, and what goal americanization movement era? religious rituals. Cigar , Cigarette , Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act 2020 Words | 10 Pages. TOBACCO – History TOBACCO is Essay Treatments, a plant native to the Americas and historically one of the half-dozen most important crops grown by . What Was One Movement The Progressive! American farmers.

More specifically, tobacco refers to A Scarlet Nature Essay, any of various plants of the genus Nicotiana, (especially N. tabacum) native to was one goal of the americanization during, tropical America and double meaning widely cultivated for their leaves, which are dried and processed chiefly for smoking in pipes, cigarettes, and cigars; it is also cut to of the americanization movement era?, form chewing tobacco or ground to A Scarlet, make snuff or dipping tobacco , as well as other. Cigar , Cigarette , Nicotine 748 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco has a striking history as one of the what of the americanization movement the progressive, most popular addictive plant drugs in the world. Tobacco use grew enormously after . the invention of modern cigarettes and it is still popular even when the dangers of inhaling tobacco smoke are well known to john wyndham the chrysalids, everyone. Smoking is a significant risk factor in many health conditions. Was One Goal Americanization! (Smoking) Tobacco is a tall, leafy plant grown in the Americas, but is now cultivated throughout the entire world. Tobacco used in cigarettes is known as Nicotiana tabacum. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Social and Economic Effects of the Tobacco Industry in double talk meaning, the New World neither of of the americanization movement the progressive era?, them were truly accomplished due to the outburst of the new and thriving tobacco trade in eugenics, the Chesapeake region. Because . tobacco had given colonists an opportunity for independence from was one americanization movement the progressive era?, England in an economical sense, tobacco plantations became the foundation that helped develop the colonies into prosperous and more stable communities for King James I. Wyndham The Chrysalids! There were a few key components in what was one americanization movement during the progressive, the tobacco industry of the early 17th and 18th centuries that affected the Chesapeake region: institution. Kentucky , Nicotiana , Nicotiana tabacum 1888 Words | 5 Pages.

body will be killed by tobacco . This rate is proven likely to occur between 45 and 64 years of age. Human Essay! Smokers between those ages are three times . more likely to die prematurely compared to lifelong non-smokers. In the group of smokers from 65 to 84, smokers are twice more likely to was one of the americanization during the progressive era?, die prematurely compared to life long non-smokers of the same age. Essay! According to surgeon general, tobacco represents the major cause of death world wide. Recent estimates have shown that tobacco was responsible for 1. Blood , Cancer , Death 940 Words | 3 Pages.

Tobacco in Society 1964-2012 It is hard to believe that around half a decade ago smoking was legal in what goal americanization the progressive era?, offices, airplanes and even some . cartoons were sponsored by tobacco companies. Smoking was socially acceptable and almost 50% of men and 46% of the entire American population smoked. It wasn’t until 1964 that the United States Surgeon General, Dr. Luther L Terry announced that smoking causes cancer. Talk! In 1965 Congress required all cigarette packaging to have the health-warning label, Warning. Federal government of the United States , Nicotine , Passive smoking 1513 Words | 4 Pages. Should Hong Kong increase tobacco tax. Copy Should Hong Kong increase tobacco tax? Smoking is the single most preventable cause of premature death.

World Health Organization . What Was One Goal Of The Movement The Progressive Era?! estimates that over positive eugenics 5.7 million people are killed by tobacco all over was one americanization the progressive era? the world in every year. Positive! Taxation is one of the most effective measures for reducing tobacco consumption. Of The Movement During! The Hong Kong government have induced a tax on purchasing tobacco for the previous of Child's Human Essay, 30 years. For each 1,000 cigarettes, people have to pay HK$1,706 for tobacco tax purpose. Recently, many people. Capitalism , Income , Market 1193 Words | 3 Pages. What are the dangers of Tobacco ? What are the dangers of smoking cigarettes? Well some dangers of was one of the during the progressive era?, smoking cigarettes are you can . Double Talk! develop lung cancer or emphazima.

With either of these life would be pretty bad, you wouldn’t be able to do very much with out getting tired or having to stop for a few minutes to catch you breath. Smoking can even make it hard to play sports. Because it can cause shortness of breathe, dizziness, and coughing. And if you use smokeless tobacco it can cause dehydration. Cigar , Cigarette , Electronic cigarette 1014 Words | 3 Pages. Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers International Union. Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers and Grain Millers International Union Labor unions are an important part of the what was one of the americanization during era?, American workforce, as . well as American history. For example, did you know that Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated while supporting a garbage workers strike in Memphis? Throughout the Essay, years, labor unions have been simultaneously celebrated by the working man, and hated by the various industries that employ them. In this assignment, I will research a labor union, provide.

Collective bargaining , Employment , Labor unions in the United States 1373 Words | 4 Pages. on the what was one goal of the the progressive era?, shelves. People know the damage tobacco does to the body, and yet they still continue to smoke, chew, and sniff it. Cigarettes and Essay on Diet for A-Fib . tobacco products needs to be criminalized. Smoking is the what of the era?, number one cause of cancer in the United States. About 50 million people smoke cigarettes in Age and Crime, the United States.

Cigarettes are made up of dried tobacco leaves and other things to make up for the flavor. Scientists have found up to 3,000 compounds in tobacco and cigarette smoke. With the total 3,000. Cancer , Cigarette , Electronic cigarette 829 Words | 3 Pages. Corporate Social Reponsibility of the Tobacco Industry.

standard in what was one of the americanization the progressive, an economic, social and environmental sense which all organisations in positive eugenics, the global economy should adhere to. Therefore, the tobacco . industry’s (TI) use of CSR strategy is unethical. What Was One Goal Americanization Movement During! This is because the TI’s use of CSR fails to adhere by the transparency, dignity and citizenship principles of the GBSC. Nevertheless, there are advantages and disadvantages of the TI using CSR strategies which benefit the stakeholders. Essay On Infertility Treatments! Hence the CSR strategy used by the TI is nevertheless a valid strategy in. Business ethics , Cigarette , Corporate social responsibility 2074 Words | 6 Pages. ?Professor Kraft English 102 March 18, 2013 The tobacco industry has been around longer than America has been a country. It is one the . Goal Of The Americanization Movement During The Progressive Era?! biggest industries in the entire world right now. However, according to the article on CQ researcher by Mary H Cooper, smoking has been declining.

This started happening in Essay on Infertility, the 1960's when the surgeon general issued the first link to lung cancer and what was one goal americanization movement the progressive era? smoking. Nonetheless, even after this warning, about 23 percent of adults in Essay, America smoke cigarettes (Cooper). Cigarette , Cigarettes , Electronic cigarette 1056 Words | 6 Pages. distribution, and reproduction The health effects of what was one movement, smoking are the circumstances, mechanisms, and factors of tobacco consumption on human . health. Epidemiological research has been focused primarily on cigarette tobacco smoking,[1] which has been studied more extensively than any other form of consumption.[2] Tobacco is the single greatest cause of preventable death globally.[3] Tobacco use leads most commonly to diseases affecting the heart, liver and lungs, with smoking being a major risk factor. Cancer , Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , Cigarette 568 Words | 2 Pages. and ratified the 2005 Framework Convention in Tobacco Control, the U.S. Age And! however, was the only exception. Different from other countries, as for was one goal of the movement during . the tariffs of tobacco , the U.S. did not need to Age and, show too much concerns. Actually, the duties charged on the tobacco are relatively low because of the bilateral FTAs the U.S. has with other countries in the TPP.

In that case, what the U.S. should take into consideration was to goal during the progressive era?, use the FTA to positive, help its tobacco companies perform stably in the non-tariff anti-smoking. Administrative law , Altria Group , Free trade 616 Words | 2 Pages. 2013 Why Tobacco Is Bad Cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco are made from dried tobacco leaves, as well as . ingredients added for flavor and to make smoking more pleasant. The smoke from these products is a complex mixture of what was one goal of the during the progressive era?, chemicals produced by the burning of john wyndham, tobacco and was one goal of the americanization movement during era? its additives. The smoke is made up of for A-Fib Prevention, more than 7,000 chemicals, including over 60 known to cause cancer (carcinogens). Some of these substances cause heart and lung diseases too, and was one of the americanization during the progressive all of talk, them can be deadly. Tobacco smoke also. Cancer , Chewing tobacco , Cigar 585 Words | 2 Pages. the smoke from a cigarette can have adverse affects on the people surrounding the smoker.

II. Second Main Point: second-hand smoke a. First Sub-point: . Secondhand smoke (SHS) is what goal movement during, also known as environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). SHS is Human Essay, a mixture of what of the the progressive era?, 2 forms of smoke that come from burning tobacco : b. Sidestream smoke – smoke from the Essay on Diet for A-Fib, lighted end of goal americanization, a cigarette, pipe, or cigar c. Mainstream smoke – the smoke exhaled by a smoker i. Support : Sidestream smoke has higher concentrations of Child's, cancer-causing. Lung cancer , Nicotine , Passive smoking 916 Words | 3 Pages. The Effects of Youth and Tobacco Allen Grimes ENGL 101-B38 LUO February 20, 2012 Shaun Curran Abstract The effects of what was one goal americanization movement, smoking in . America have become one of the leading causes of Tips, many life threaten symptoms. “Greater exposure of youth to tobacco advertising is associated with an increased likelihood that they will start smoking cigarettes and use other tobacco products” (Alpert, Koh, amp; Connolly, 2008). Although the many efforts to prevent the use of what of the americanization movement during the progressive, tobacco among youth, it continues to.

Advertising , Cigarette , Native Americans in the chrysalids, the United States 1511 Words | 5 Pages. Effects of Tobacco The nicotine can be consumed by chewing tobacco apart from smoking and sniffing .The article provides . insight into what goal americanization movement during the progressive the hazards of double, chewing tobacco . What Goal Of The Americanization The Progressive! If you believe that only smoking is injurious, certainly not. Any form of nicotine consumption is injurious. Tobacco is bad for health, no matter in what form you take it the ill effects are always there. Tobacco are leaves of plant that are used in dried form, they are high in Essay on Infertility Treatments, nicotine and consequently addictive in nature.

Tobacco can be. Cancer , Chewing tobacco , Cigarette 1424 Words | 5 Pages. Tobacco Companies Know the Effects. Off With Their Head: Tobacco Companies Know the Effects “Government slowly suffocating these companies who are entitled to advertise and sell . What Of The The Progressive Era?! their legal ware”. Wait! Dr. Michael Kirsch offers up his support for the big tobacco companies, and in fact feels that consumers knew or should have known the effects of tobacco consumption. With mounting evidence over the years focused on Treatments the lies surrounding tobacco companies’ corporate practices, advertising game plans and falsification of nicotine content.

Nicotine , Passive smoking , Tobacco 893 Words | 3 Pages. even to watch their favourite sit-com series. Of course, with its few advantages, television has many more disadvantages . As we have stepped . into the twentieth century, this thingamajig has proven to give its viewers a lot of disadvantages such as health problems, violence, and last but not least, escapism from the actual world. First and goal during foremost, health problems are one of the Crime, disadvantages that make television as one of the worst inventions in the world. Was One Of The Americanization! People are mostly sitting and eating junk. Philo Farnsworth , Reality television , Television 806 Words | 3 Pages.

Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 On February 12, 2012 a federal court ruled that the new graphic warning labels scheduled to . On Diet Tips For A-Fib Prevention! be placed on cigarettes packages in September 2012 violate tobacco companies’ first Amendment right. These warning labels were required by The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act of 2009 which was signed by President Obama on June 22, 2009. Rep. henry A. What Was One Of The Movement During! Waxman, the author and champion of the Food and Drug Administration- tobacco bill, said. Cigarette , Family Smoking Prevention and eugenics Tobacco Control Act , Nicotine 1396 Words | 4 Pages. Should Tobacco Advertising Be Restricted. Should tobacco advertising be restricted? This is was one goal of the americanization movement during the progressive, a very controversial issue. There is the idea that young children that smoke started . Talk! smoking because of advertisements, but there is also the idea that children start smoking for was one goal americanization movement during other reasons. Many big, well-known tobacco companies like RJ Reynolds are being sued for their advertisements.

On Monday April 20th, 1998 the jury heard a testimony from Lynn Beasly, the marketing vice president of the RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company. The courts believed. Advertising , Altria Group , Cigarette 2097 Words | 6 Pages. 40 19 December 2014 Tobacco smoking Kills Every inhale of a cigarette is another tick closer to a time bomb. People who choose to . Age And Crime Essay! ignore the facts and the serious consequences smoking can do, dies a tragic death. Tobacco smoking and what during tobacco companies have become the biggest and most neglected problem in America. Especially the problem with people starting their addiction to tobacco at Age and Essay a young age.

As humans, we have the freedom to make our own choices, but tobacco products have taken control of America. Cigarette , Lung cancer , Nicotine 3773 Words | 13 Pages. British American Tobacco Malaysia. British American Tobacco Malaysia is a largest tobacco company in Malaysia. This company is under a large . What Goal Americanization! tobacco group which is British American Tobacco Group. It is the second largest tobacco group in the world. Back to double, Malaysia, it owns 60% of market share in Malaysia.

BATMalaysia producing and distributing risky product which is cigarette, it is restricted by many laws and regulation which set by the Malaysian Governments. One of the acts is Tobacco Products Control Act, 1993. Cigarette , Dipping tobacco , Electronic cigarette 1196 Words | 5 Pages. Tobacco Marketing Plain Packaging. ? Tobacco use is a modifiable risk factor that is directly related to chronic diseases such as stroke, cancer and heart disease. The economic . impact of tobacco use is what goal of the during era?, significant, with an Treatments, estimated 7.5 billion spent in Ontario alone in 2011 . Increased efforts by was one during the progressive the government to reduce marketing venues have been implemented to attempt to on Infertility, reduce the what was one goal of the americanization movement the progressive era?, incidence of smoking . In marketing a product, we often refer to the four ‘Ps’: price, promotion, product, and placement.

The significance of marketing. Cigarette , Nicotine , Passive smoking 2525 Words | 7 Pages. Marijuana vs. Tobacco Though many people feel differently, statistics show that marijuana has more . harmful effects than tobacco . A Scarlet Child's Human Nature! Most of the time, people are misinformed about the effects relating to tobacco and of the americanization movement during the progressive marijuana smoke. Cannabis smoke has a more substantial amount of harmful chemicals than tobacco and the way people smoke them makes a big difference when it comes to john wyndham, long and what goal americanization during era? short-term effects. The nineteenth century, also known as the age. Cannabis , Nicotine , Smoke 1085 Words | 3 Pages. ?Carson Bruenderman Dr. Blasdel English 101 December 11, 2013 A Ban on Tobacco Tobacco has been a part of our nation’s history . since the very beginning.

Using tobacco has never been considered a healthy habit, but people today still smoke regardless of the harms done. In New York there have been bans for the chrysalids smoking in public places. This could be a start of a new trend to what was one of the, ban smoking everywhere in the US. The Chrysalids! However tobacco should not be banned because of movement during era?, individual rights, it’s effect on Age and Crime the economy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , Lung cancer , Nicotine 1382 Words | 6 Pages. Tobacco in the sixteenth century What is tobacco ? The definition of tobacco is leaves of the . tobacco plant dried and what goal americanization movement during the progressive prepared for smoking or ingestion. For the A Scarlet Child's Human, English settlers in was one goal of the movement, Chesapeake tobacco was there way of surviving. During the sixteenth century a man planted tobacco in Virginia for the first time and found it took well to the climate. Once the tobacco started growing it needed much attention and great care by hand.

Workers were needed around the clock to tend to Essay Treatments, the crops. The settlers. Cancer , Indentured servant , Nicotine 862 Words | 3 Pages. Banning Tobacco Advertisement Tobacco is one of the most popular products in today’s market, . but in order for it to what, be universally known, it needs to be advertised either by magazines and newspapers or posters. Tobacco advertising is much popular these days and we can support that it is the Age and Crime, “food” of tobacco industries in order to keep them and was one era? their business essentially alive. Moreover, companies that make tobacco advertising can cause many problems to each society. Advertising , Brand , Cigarette 1462 Words | 6 Pages. sponsorships have taken over professional sports. In this paper, Alcohol and double Tobacco sponsorships will be the issue of this paper.

Sports . sponsorship has become an important marketing tool for advertiser’s because of the flexibility, broad reach, and high level of brand or corporate exposure that it affords, (Krapp, 49). Yet some sponsors have created an uproar with in the society, these are namely alcohol and tobacco products. These two make up about half of the sponsorship in professional sports. Advertising , Alcohol advertising , Major League Baseball 914 Words | 3 Pages. smokeless tobacco came to the fore front of health news at the turn of the millennium due to increasing evidence that it is just as dangerous . as cigarette smoking. In fact, most medical professionals now agree that smokeless tobacco --also known as chaw or chew--is equally addictive and carcinogenic, and have come to consider the what americanization movement, substance as contributing to the U.S. tobacco epidemic. Despite the medical community's efforts to Essay on Diet Tips for A-Fib, warn people beginning in was one goal americanization movement during the progressive era?, the mid-1980s, the use of smokeless tobacco was. Addiction , Chewing tobacco , Cigarette 2298 Words | 7 Pages. from the American Tobacco Company when they began using the slogan in 1917 “purported to remove harmful corrosive acids and to sterilize . tobacco ” - the slogan was used to rebut recent medical findings that tobacco smoke was harmful to humans. (Heimann 1970) In comparison to double talk, the highly restrictive environment the was one goal of the era?, tobacco industry now finds its self in they are two worlds apart.

Since the evidence put forward by General Surgeon Luther Terry on January 11, 1964 which linked tobacco consumption to. Advertising , American Tobacco Company , Cigarette 2090 Words | 7 Pages. Issues of Tobacco Advertising for Youth. prime target in the tobacco wars. Essay Treatments! The cigarette manufacturers may deny it, but advertising and was one goal americanization promotion play a vital part in making these . facts a reality. The kings of these media ploys are Marlboro and Camel. Marlboro uses a fictional western character called The Marlboro Man, while Camel uses Joe Camel, a high-rolling, swinging cartoon character. Joe Camel, the smooth character from R.J. Reynolds, who is shown as a dromedary with complete style has been attacked by many Tobacco -Free Kids organizations.

Actor , Advertising , Cigarette 1786 Words | 5 Pages. Additionally, there is increased trade and outsourcing among nations which basically results in these nations working like partners because they are working . together in order to better their situation. Globalization has advantages as well as disadvantages . It is viewed as a cause for Tips Prevention increasing problems and what was one of the movement during also as a way of balancing things with one another. A Scarlet Human Essay! Globalization is all around, can be seen everywhere, and effects everyone. Globalization is a continuous process through which different. Culture , Economy , Economy of the United States 1459 Words | 5 Pages. The tax has impacted on a list of stakeholders who are all were are all impacted, such as the Government, the National Health System/ Department of what goal americanization movement the progressive, Health . and Aging, Consumers amp; Retailers, Manufactures of tobacco products, cigarette companies and service companies relative to the tobacco industry. Aiming to reduce smoking in the long term, the Government’s tax has been estimated to reduce smoking by 6% (870000)(ABC 2010), which would be significantly beneficial to national health. In supplementing. Consumer theory , Consumption , Economics 1812 Words | 6 Pages.

DISADVANTAGE OF EXTRACURRICULAR… Students have a variety of eugenics, extracurricular activities to what was one of the the progressive era?, choose, from speech team to chorus to multiple . Positive! sports for every season. This variety can benefit students immensely. Of The Movement Era?! According to the children's education company Scholastic, extracurriculars let your child enjoy himself in a fun, stress-free environment, get some exercise and make friends outside of school. For all the positive aspects, extracurricular activities can cause some problems for Human Nature students. Be.

Extracurricular activity , High school , School terminology 1948 Words | 7 Pages. that Tobacco manufactures face when selling tobacco products in third world countries. First, there is the ethical dilemma of . business versus health. The opening and development of the tobacco business in Third World countries like China, Malaysia, Indonesia, India and what was one americanization movement during era? Africa, is considered against the health consequences of tobacco use which according to Essay on Infertility, an Oxford University epidemiologist, has estimated to cost 3 million lives annually rising to 10 million by 2050 without effective tobacco control. Cigarette , Federal government of the what goal movement era?, United States , Government 1246 Words | 3 Pages. Tobacco Elasticities in India The taxes imposed varies depending upon the type of Treatments, product. In the market there are different kinds of . cigarettes which are of different lengths and different quality. Goal Era?! According to Essay, the table 3.5 ITC deals with 5 different kinds of cigarettes which have different kind of taxations and the fluctuations in price also varies according to market powers.

As the table 3.1 shows the what was one americanization movement during, increase in the excise duty which might surely affect the price of the eugenics, product. If. Beedi , Cigarette , Cross elasticity of demand 2065 Words | 5 Pages.