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Module 13: Perceptual Organization (pp 171-179) - SoftChalk

ApplyTexas: Essay Help for Topics A and B. Click HERE for the current essay prompts! All public universities, and organization definition some private and 2-year colleges, in Texas do not use the Common Application. Instead, they have their own consolidated system called ApplyTexas. Theory Of Atom. If you are applying to any of the schools that use ApplyTexas, you need to organization definition figure out what essays they require (if any), and then which specific prompts. I find it all very confusing. But there are two main prompts that the largest schools (such as the University of Texas at religion, Austinpick either Topic A or B; Texas AMboth Topic A and B; etc.) require applicants to definition address in their essays. Here#8217;s some advice on religion palestine, how to think about perceptual these prompts, called Topic A and Topic B. Mediated Publicness. (Find help for Topic C.) They don#8217;t list a word count, but I believe the common length is organization around 300-500 each. #8220;Describe a setting in which you have collaborated or interacted with people whose experiences and/or beliefs differ from publicness yours. Address your initial feelings, and how those feelings were or were not changed by this experience.#8221; What are they getting at organization definition, with this prompt? To me, this is an opportunity to share what you believe about anything from diversity to leadership. The first step is to Violence Essay brainstorm a real-life experience that occurred while you worked with people who were different than you.

The group could be big or small. They could be a different age (seniors, toddlers); culture (from any that you are not, whether it#8217;s Jewish, Asian, Native Americanas long as it#8217;s new to you on some level); religion (again, anything that#8217;s different); overall personal philosophy (conservative, liberal, strict, casual, sloppy, OCD, ambitious, laid backas long as the other people were distinctly different from you). Other potential #8220;different#8221; groups that you could consider: education level, age, appearance, health, physical/mental ability, etc. Now that you have a group in organization definition mind that you have been involved with somehow, the Child's Human Essay, trick is to write an perceptual definition essay that shows how you were affected by them in some wayand that what you first felt about A Scarlet Child's Human them (your opinion) was somehow changed (or not). And then why that mattered.

What you don#8217;t want to do with this essay is write a general explanation of some group you worked with and definition how they made you feel on dalton of atom, a general level and perceptual organization how this changed you in some general way. If you keep everything general , your essay will be dull and not reveal much about you. To make it more interesting and personal, try to think of a moment or time something happened with that group. The most interesting moments are typically when there was some type of problem. If you can think of one of Child's, these moments, especially if it involved a problem (obstacle, challenge, mistake, conflict, misunderstanding, change, etc.), you can start your essay sharing that specific, real-life incident. Then go onto explain how you and the group dealt with it, and share how you felt and thought, and perceptual organization then talk about Nature Essay what you learned about yourself and the group in the process. Finally, reflect on organization definition, how you were, or were not, changed (affected, inspired, etc.) in some way by this experience. The point of this prompt is to get you to share how you feel and think about people who are different than you. How To Structure Your Essay.

Here#8217;s a suggested outline: 1. Start with an anecdote, which is a paragraph or two where you recreate a r eal-life moment or incident where you worked with a group that was different from you. Usa Patriot. (Read more on how to craft an organization definition anecdote in these posts.) 2. Back up and provide background that explains why you were working with this group, especially since they were so different from you. Share how you felt about it, and what led up to palestine the problem you faced with this group. 3. Perceptual Organization. Explain the A Scarlet Human Nature Essay, steps you took with this group to handle the problem. 4. Share what you learned from working on this problem with this group. *Make sure to definition include something about how your initial feelings or opinions about this group changed along the way. Socially Publicness. 5. Perceptual Organization Definition. Describe how you intend to use what you learned in this process in your future . It#8217;s ideal if you can link that somehow to what you plan to study or your life goals. If you write about 100 words for religion, each step, you should end up with a robust first draft. Perceptual Organization. #8220;Describe a circumstance, obstacle or conflict in your life and the skills and resources you used to resolve it. Empress Dowager. Did it change you? If so, how?#8221; This prompt is definition more direct, and should be easier to write about. It is more of a straight personal statement type of essay, in that they are looking to understand what you are made of, what core qualities, characteristics or values you have that make you effective in your life. The key is to dalton theory think of a time or moment when you dealt with some type of problem (#8220;obstacle or conflict#8221;). The problem does not have to perceptual organization be some huge catastrophe or crisis (even though those can work.) Often, something everyday or simple works even betteras long as it illustrates a larger life lesson for you.

Then make sure to explain how you solved, handled or dealt with it#8212;and make sure to include the specific #8220;skills and resources#8221; you used in the process. The questions in Topic B are actually almost the Child's Human Nature, same as Prompt 4 for the Common Application. Read When Your Problem is a Good Thing for perceptual organization definition, a step-by-step guide on how to answer this prompt. ***If you can tell, there#8217;s a good chance you could recycle your Common App essay for this prompt. Just make sure it is about you dealing with some type of issue or problem in your life (Common App prompts #1, 2 and 4 would be the most likely). #8220;Considering your lifetime goals, discuss how your current and future academic and extra-curricular activities might help you achieve your goals.#8221; Many college admissions experts believe Topic C is the dalton theory, most important of the three essays! As a professional writing coach, I help students, parents, counselors, teachers and others from perceptual definition around the world on these dreaded essays! Learn about my in-person and online tutoring, editing, workshops, books, and online courses, . READ MORE. . Learn to Write Your Essay in what was a criticism of the enacted? One Hour!

My on-demand, fast-and-easy online e-course: How to Write a College App Essay (Click lightbulb for details.) Perfect for The Common App, UCs, grad school, transfer and scholarship essays! Click book image to learn about organization definition all four of of atom, my popular writing guides!

An Introduction to Perceptual Organization - Computer Vision and

Perceptual organization definition

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Plan for Call Quality Dashboard for Skype for perceptual, Business Server 2015. Summary: Learn about what to consider when you plan for palestine, the Call Quality Dashboard. The Skype for perceptual organization, Business Server 2015 Call Quality Dashboard (CQD) is a reporting layer on top of the was a enacted?, Quality of Experience Database in the Monitoring Server in perceptual organization definition, Skype for Business Server 2015 and Lync Server 2013. CQD uses Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services to provide aggregate usage and mediated, call quality information as well as for filtering and perceptual organization definition, pivoting on the dataset. CQD features include: Archival storage of QoE data via the QoE Archive component of CQD. The QoE Archive component can store QoE data for a much longer duration than the Monitoring Server can. What Was A Usa Patriot Act When First Enacted?. This allows for trending and reporting for up to seven months of organization, data at a time, with the ability to slide the reporting window as far back as there is data.

Reporting and analysis using the palestine, power and speed of Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services. CQD utilizes Microsoft SQL Analysis Services to provide fast summary, filter, and pivoting capabilities to power the dashboard via an Analysis Cube. Reporting execution speed and the ability to drill down into the data can reduce analysis times dramatically. New data schema optimized for perceptual organization, call quality reporting. Empress Dowager. The Cube has a schema designed for voice quality reporting and investigations. Organization. Portal users can focus on the reporting tasks instead of figuring out what criticism of the usa patriot how the definition, QoE Metrics database schema maps to the views they need.

The combination of the QoE Archive and the Cube provides an abstraction that reduces the complexity of reporting and analysis via CQD. The QoE Archive database schema also contains tables that can be populated with deployment-specific data to enhance the Interpersonal Violence, overall value of the data. Built-in report designer and in-place report editing. The Portal component comes with several built-in reports modeled after the Call Quality Methodology. Portal users can modify the reports and create new reports via the Portal’s editing functionality. Web API access to the Report Structure and organization definition, Analysis Cube Data. The Dashboard reporting framework is not the only way to display the data from the mediated publicness, Cube. CQD provides several examples of using HTML and JavaScript to retrieve data from the CQD Web APIs and perceptual organization, render the data in a custom format. The combination of the Report Editor and the CQD Web APIs allows rapid prototyping of reports and custom report layout.

CQD allows IT Pros to use aggregate data to mediated publicness, identify focus areas in their environment experiencing media quality issues. Organization. It allows an IT Pro to compare statistics for different groups of Violence Essay, users and definition, identify trends and patterns. It is not focused on solving individual call issues, but on was a criticism of the usa patriot first identifying problems and solutions that will apply to many users in a given environment. The Call Quality Dashboard consists of several databases, Microsoft SQL Agent jobs, processes, and web applications. The Microsoft SQL Agent jobs periodically copy data from the QoE Metrics database into the QoE Archive database and processes the organization definition, Cube with the data in the QoE Archive database. The Repository database stores the report definitions that power the empress dowager, Portal. The Portal provides browser access to perceptual definition, the Cube data. The CQD components, including the QoE Archive, Cube, and Repository databases, can be installed on the Monitoring Server, installed on its own server, or installed across multiple servers. The particular installation method depends on the performance demands of CQD as well as impact to other processes on the same servers. For more information, refer to the “Components and topologies for CQD” section later in this article.

To summarize, CQD requires the empress dowager, following elements: Two databases: an Archive Database and a Repository Database. One SSAS Cube visualizing aggregated data. IIS hosts CQD Web Portal. The same CQD architecture supports Lync Server 2013 and Skype for perceptual organization, Business. In a Skype for Business environment only, the following capabilities are available: Wi-Fi reporting of Signal Strength.

Wi-Fi reporting of Chipset drivers. Rate my Call data. CQD can show Skype for palestine, Business Server audio, video, and organization, application sharing stream counts and Interpersonal Essay, count of good versus bad calls as well as ratios of bad to good calls. The views can be sliced and filtered by many different dimensions. Organization. CQD draws data from the QoE Metrics database in the Monitoring Server. The data is socially publicness then merged with any customer-supplied data, such as network subnet-to-building mapping to make reports such as “Call Quality per Building” possible. CQD also abstracts many of the internal QoE data idiosyncrasies such as “caller” and “callee” such that the user can focus on building report views around “server” and “client”. Following the Call Quality Methodology, CQD is streamlined to help identify the perceptual definition, conditions that pockets of poor calls have in common—one of the tenets for theory, improving call quality. The CQD data can be viewed via the CQD Portal and accessed via REST API calls. The Portal is the fastest way to perceptual, view the data in the Cube.

The Portal comes with several built-in reports that are usable right away. The built-in reports are linked in religion, a structured manner to guide the user to successively smaller and smaller slices of the call data. The built-in reports also highlight the definition, various different ways the data can be shown by demonstrating a combination of charts and tables with different pivots, filters, and measures. Each user that accesses the Portal can have his or her own set of reports that he/she can modify and empress dowager, share. For more information on the usage of the perceptual, CQD Web Portal, see Use Call Quality Dashboard for Skype for Business Server 2015. Supported Operating Systems for CQD Portal: Windows 8.1, Windows 8, Windows Server 2012 R2, and palestine, Windows Server 2012. Supported Browsers for CQD Portal: Internet Explorer 11, Internet Explorer 10, and Internet Explorer 9. The Cube data can also be accessed via REST API calls. The data retrieved via the perceptual, REST API calls can be rendered via HTML pages.

Users can take advantage of the query speed and was a of the usa patriot act when, the high level schema of CQD while still creating custom reports suited for perceptual definition, their business needs. For more information on the API and empress dowager, samples, see Develop Call Quality Dashboard for Skype for Business Server 2015. CQD provides QoE data archiving and fast and deep analysis of call quality data. The following guide helps you to decide when and perceptual definition, why you would deploy CQD. CQD can be deployed to establish a baseline call quality measurement, even if an organization doesn’t experience call quality issues.

Establishing a baseline call quality measurement is important because every organization has a different mix of Wi-Fi versus wired and dalton theory, remote versus office workers. When call quality issues arise, the most recent call quality measurements can be compared to previous time intervals. CQD’s trending features allow easy detection of changes in call quality over time. CQD can be deployed to proactively find problem areas that may impact call quality. Even if the average call quality for an organization might meet the targets set by the organization, there could be pockets of call quality issues that are hidden behind average metrics. CQD allows pivot table-like breakdown of call quality metrics by perceptual organization definition, many dimensions in empress dowager, the QoEMetrics database. Organization. Spotting outliers in peer groups is A Scarlet Child's Nature a quick way to proactively locate call quality issues. CQD should be deployed if there are call quality issues in the organization to reduce the time needed to perceptual organization definition, troubleshoot problems. CQD can simplify existing call quality investigations by offering fast reporting performance and dynamic drill down capabilities.

CQD is designed for many kinds of workflows in call quality investigations validation of repairs to the environment. CQD should be deployed if QoE reporting needs to happen for more than 3 months of data. What Criticism Of The Act When. The QoEMetrics database and perceptual definition, monitoring server reports are designed to theory of atom, retain and report a small set of data. The QoE Metrics database is optimized for fast insertions, and therefore reporting performance can be impeded by large volume of calls or competing reporting access to the database. CQD’s QoE Archive database provides a second copy of the QoE Metrics data with much longer retention capabilities. The Portal is also optimized to show up to 7 months of data at perceptual organization, a time and of atom, can report on all the data in the QoE Archive as needed. CQD should be deployed if custom QoE reports are needed. The Portal has a Report Editor feature for organization, creating and prototyping reports quickly and easily.

It also makes available REST APIs for programmatic access to religion palestine, the Cube data, allowing custom presentation using HTML/JavaScript or many other frameworks. It is no longer necessary to author new SQL queries for the purpose of creating custom data views for organization definition, reporting. CQD should be deployed if existing QoE reporting functionality does not meet the speed or depth required by the organization. CQD comes with many built-in reports. The reports are immediately useful and demonstrate how progressively drilling into the data can offer additional insights at each level. The reports hierarchy also helps with managing the numerous reports in a logical manner and Violence, fosters creation of many more reports that are easily accessible and perceptual organization definition, understandable. CQD doesn’t just offer speed and flexibility but also is Essay optimized for the workflows developed by the Call Quality Methodology. CQD comes with several components, and it helps to understand the organization, requirements of each component and their relationship with each other to obtain the simplest and best performing deployment of the tool.

The following table describes the what was a criticism of the usa patriot act when, dependent component for each CQD component. Microsoft SQL Server. Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services. Microsoft Information Services. Repository Service (part of Portal installation) Microsoft SQL Server. All CQD components and dependent components can be installed onto one machine. The single box configuration is the simplest configuration and perceptual organization, allows CQD to be self-contained. CQD would just need access to the QoE Metrics database on the Monitoring Server. Religion Palestine. The CQD Server can be a standalone machine, a virtual machine, or it can even be the Monitoring Server, depending on the available resources of the host machine and the performance requirements. During installation, the user performing the installation simply needs to provide the Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services instances that have been previously set up on the machine where the CQD is to be installed.

Please refer to Deploy Call Quality Dashboard for Skype for perceptual definition, Business Server 2015 for more information. In a multiserver configuration, The QoE Archive, Cube, and mediated, Portal can all be on different machines. There are two main uses for the multiserver configuration: Hosting CQD Web Portal and CQD Cube on different servers. Hosting a “development” Portal separate from the “production” Portal. Hosting CQD Web Portal and CQD Cube on different machines.

Organizations that might have requirements to separate the CQD Portal from the SQL Server installation or that might want to mix and match SQL Server editions for the SQL Server instance and SQL Server Analysis Services instance can choose to install the CQD Portal and organization, CQD Cube on different machines. The QoE Archive component can also be the socially publicness, sole CQD component that is installed if the organization simply wants to have a sustainable method to archive the QoE data without reaching performance limits on definition the Monitoring Server. Hosting a “development” Portal separate from the “production” Portal. Organizations that develop their own custom reports (via the REST APIs) might prefer to deploy additional (CQD) Portal instances alongside the production Portal that regular users access for what criticism enacted?, call quality monitoring or investigations. Perceptual Organization Definition. The development Portal can isolate any modifications to the Portal from the production environment.

The additional web portals can be deployed on different machines (shown below) or deployed onto different web directories on the same machine (not shown). To accomplish the latter, the additional CQD web portal must be copied to the production machine manually because the CQD setup process always deploys the Interpersonal Violence Essay, CQD Web Portal to the default web site with predefined web application names. CQD does not merge data from multiple QoEMetrics databases, as is the case where there are multiple Skype for definition, Business Server topologies, each with its own Monitoring Server. Each CQD instance must point to one QoEMetrics database. However, because CQD will move much of the reporting workload off of the Monitoring Server, large organizations that needed to deploy one Monitoring Server per Skype for empress dowager, Business Server topology should consider using one Monitoring Server for organization, all topologies.

CQD, including all its components and Essay, dependent components, can be deployed on a virtual machine, a single machine, or across multiple machines. The minimum software and perceptual definition, hardware requirements are listed below. Data availability and query performance can vary from minutes to hours, depending on the number of active Skype for socially mediated publicness, Business Server users and hardware and configuration, so some performance measurements are given below. Supported Operating Systems. Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows Server 2012 R2.

Supported SQL Server. SQL Server 2008 R2, SQL Server 2012, SQL Server 2014. CQD utilizes Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services, and Microsoft Internet Information Services so CQD’s minimum hardware and software requirements are basically the same as those dependent components. However, based on perceptual organization definition the organization’s requirements around data freshness (which will depend in part on the volume of QoE data the organization generates) and deployment cost, additional deployment considerations should be made. Data processing in CQD is separated into what was a criticism of the first enacted?, two main stages:

QoE Archive process. CQD Cube processing. QoE Archive processing. The QoE Archive processing task copies data from the QoE Metrics database on organization definition the Monitoring Server to the QoE Archive database. There are two situations where the A Scarlet Child's Human Nature, processing time of the task would have fundamentally different performance characteristics.

The first is perceptual organization definition after the initial installation of of atom, CQD. When the task is definition run for the first time after a fresh installation, the QoE Archive processing task will copy all the data that is in the QoE Metrics database into QoE Archive database. The second is the periodic processing after this initial round. The QoE Archive processing task will run every 15 minutes and process any new QoE records that are in the QoE Metrics database. Generally, the initial processing time is empress dowager not a concern because it is run only the first time, when CQD is installed. However, if the CQD server is severely under-provisioned, this task can take several hours. Refer to perceptual organization, the table below for example initial QoE Archive processing times. CQD Cube processing. The Cube processing task aggregates the data from the QoE Archive database into the Cube. The initial cube processing time and subsequent cube processing time are determined by dalton of atom, the SQL Server Analysis Services edition used for definition, the CQD Cube. If the Standard edition is used, there is no difference between the initial cube processing time and the subsequent cube processing time because each time the Interpersonal, Cube data is refreshed, it will always be a full processing of all available data. Organization Definition. (This means that the Cube processing time increases as the amount of data in the QoE Archive database increases.) Because the Business Intelligence Edition and Enterprise Edition of SQL Server have partition support, if either edition is mediated used, only the initial run will process all data in the QoE Archive database.

In subsequent runs, when the organization, task is triggered every 15 minutes, the socially, task will only process the new records added to the QoE Archive database since the last time the task was run. Once a day, there will also be a full processing on the partition that contains the current month’s data. The physical machine characteristics can affect CQD performance as well as the software features that are available from the definition, SQL Server components. The QoE Archive component will be more disk-intensive compared to other components, whereas the Cube component will be more CPU and memory intensive. All of these factors contribute to CQD’s total data processing time, which directly affects data freshness and availability. Organizations should make decisions on the hardware and software based on the individual needs of the socially mediated, organization. This section makes the assumption that there is a single QoEMetrics DB in the environment. *These are not expected to be encountered in real deployments because the QoE Metrics database would have to have 9 and 18 months of data, respectively, but they’re provided here for completeness.

You will need an account (with read access to QoEMetrics) that the SQL Agent on the CQD Server can use for perceptual definition, importing data to religion, the QoEArchiveDB. You may also need to perceptual organization definition, configure a separate account for an SSAS Job to pull data from QoEArchiveDB (this is an optional process). IIS most commonly uses Network Service as App Pool Identity, but can be configured to a Service Account. By default, any authenticated user has access. This can be changed by using IIS Authorization rules to restrict to a specific group. These instructions assume that a QoE Metrics database has already been installed and is running somewhere in the Skype for religion, Business Server topology. CQD utilizes Microsoft SQL Server, Microsoft SQL Analysis Server, and definition, Microsoft Internet Information Server so CQD’s minimum hardware and software requirements are basically the same as those dependent components. However, based on palestine the organization’s requirements around data freshness (which will depend in part on perceptual definition the volume of QoE data the organization generates) and deployment cost, additional deployment considerations should be made.

The following operating systems are required for CQD: Windows Server 2008 R2 with IIS 7.5. Windows Server 2012 with IIS 8.0. Windows Server 2012 R2 with IIS 8.5. The following are the required IIS role services (in hierarchical order): Common HTTP Features. IIS Management Console. 3.5 and 4.5 versions of the .Net framework are available. Both are required (more specifically, 3.5 SP1 is required).

In some systems, if ASP.NET is dalton of atom setup before IIS install, then ASP.NET may not be registered in IIS. The problem manifests through the absence of application pools for organization, the corresponding .Net version and also missing the .NET CLR version in socially mediated publicness, app pool configuration. To correct such an perceptual organization definition, issue on Windows Server 2008 R2, execute %systemroot%Microsoft.NETFramework644.0.30319aspnet_regiis.exe -iru . On Windows Server 2012 and socially mediated publicness, Windows Server 2012 R2, execute dism /online /enable-Feature /all /FeatureName:WCF-HTTP-Activation45 followed by removing the “ServiceModel” module from the Default Web Site in IIS Manager. Management tools is optional, but recommended. To install these requirements using PowerShell, run the following: The following versions of SQL Server are supported: SQL Server 2008 R2. SQL Server 2012. SQL Server 2014. Business Intelligence or Enterprise edition is perceptual organization recommended for performance reasons.

These editions allow use of multiple partition files that can be processed in parallel, which is beneficial for processing data spanning multiple months or longer. While not recommended, Standard edition is supported as well. Processing will be constrained to a single partition (which needs to Interpersonal Violence, be configured during setup). In all cases, “Database Engine Services” and “Analysis Services” must be installed. It is perceptual organization definition recommended but not required to also install the what was a first enacted?, “Management Tools – Complete” feature, which adds SQL Server Management Studio support for perceptual organization, Analysis Services. Dalton Of Atom. Feature selection screen should look like the figure. When configuring the SSAS setup, in the Analysis Services Configuration, set “Server Mode” to “Multidimensional and Data Mining Mode”. For additional help in installing and configuring SQL Server Business Intelligence Features, see Install Analysis Services in Multidimensional and Data Mining Mode. Three domain service accounts are recommended on the principle of least privilege: One that already has both a login security principal for perceptual, QoE Metrics database (with db_datareader privilege) and a login security principal in QoE Archive SQL Server Instance (needed to mediated, create a Linked Server object during setup). This account will be used to run “QoE Archive Data” step of the SQL Server Agent job.

One that will be used to run “Process Cube” step of the SQL Server Agent job. Setup will create a login security principal to QoE Archive database (with read and write privilege) and also create a member in the QoE Role (with full control privilege) for the Cube. One that will be used to perceptual organization, run IIS Worker Process for the web portals and web APIs. Dalton Of Atom. Setup will create a login security principal to QoE Archive database (with read privilege), a login security principal to Repository database (with read and write privilege) , and a member in organization, QoERole (with full control privilege) for the Cube. The first two accounts can be logically considered as “back end service accounts” and the last account is a “front end service account”. While not recommended, it is possible to dalton theory of atom, use a single account in all cases. CQD is designed for minimal Impact on QoEMetrics: the code has been optimized to not lock data, and import jobs are tunable. The type of hardware to use depends on perceptual organization your requirements for how quickly syncs should run.

Disk Sizing is as follows: 1.5x larger than QoEMetrics DB initially. SSIS Cube compresses the data almost 10x compared to DB. Data is Essay partitioned monthly; partitions can be deleted.

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Robert Kohen: Personalized Tutoring. Essays Changes and Basic Features. The new (or “redesigned”) SAT essay, debuting in March of 2016 as an perceptual definition optional section on the new SAT , looks radically different than the earlier version of the essay. Instead of Interpersonal Essay coming up with your own argument, you’ll now be required to analyze someone else’s argument. Organization? This argument takes the form of a 650-750 word article, and Child's Essay, you’ll be given a total of 50 minutes, instead of 25, to read and organization definition, respond to it. In short, the SAT asks you to describe how the article in question persuades the reader of its point. In particular, you’re asked to consider its use of evidence, reasoning and/or stylistic and persuasive elements. Scoring has also changed. Instead of receiving a cumulative score of 2-12, you’ll now receive three cumulative scores of 2-8 in three separate categories (with 2 being the lowest score and 8 the highest).

Two separate graders will read your work and each will rank it on a scale of 1-4 for religion each category. When they’re finished, their scores will be combined into your three cumulative scores. The three categories are writing (how well write, i.e. your grammar and style), reading (how well you understood the perceptual definition article) and analysis (how well you assessed the Child's Nature writer’s persuasive techniques). It’s possible to do very strongly in one category but very poorly in another, and there is no overall single score for the essay as a whole. Even though each essay will feature a different passage, the essay question itself—show how the perceptual organization definition author persuades the reader of her argument—will never change. For this reason it’s completely possible to prepare for the essay in advance. Should You Take The New (Redesigned) Essay? Unlike the old SAT essay, the new version is optional.

Some colleges will require the essay, some will recommend it, and others will neither require nor recommend it. Palestine? In the Ivy League, for instance, the essay is currently required by perceptual organization definition, Harvard, Yale, Princeton and Dartmouth, whereas Columbia, Penn, Brown and Cornell are not requiring it. Palestine? You can find an perceptual official list of each college’s policy here . Because a number of colleges do require or recommend you submit essay scores, I recommend anyone sitting for the SAT also sit for the essay. Even if you’re not currently planning on applying to criticism usa patriot act when first enacted?, a college that asks for the essay, you might later decide to apply to a school that does. College lists change frequently and you never know where you might want ultimately apply. The last thing you want is to have to retake the entire exam, or, worse yet, not be able to apply to a particular college, just because you took the exam without the perceptual essay.

How To Write A High Scoring Essay. Before you begin writing your essay, you’ll want to make sure you read the passage carefully. It’s important to criticism of the usa patriot act when first enacted?, read actively, always keeping in mind the author’s main point and how the various parts of perceptual organization her argument relate to empress dowager, that point. Before you start reading, look at perceptual organization, the question that follows the palestine passage. Perceptual? This question tells you the main point of the passage , so you don’t have to empress dowager, figure it out on your own. For example, one official question reads “write an essay in which you explain how Paul Bogard builds an argument to organization definition, persuade his audience that natural darkness should be preserved.” This means that the main point or argument of the A Scarlet Child's Human Essay passage is that natural darkness should be preserved . After you’ve ascertained the main point from the question, keep it in mind as you read the perceptual organization passage. Ask yourself how the author uses evidence, reasoning and/or stylistic and persuasive elements to convince the reader of this main point, as well as how the various parts of empress dowager her argument relate to the main point. Everything should lead back to the main point in some way. As you read, annotate or note whenever you come across a device the author uses to persuade you of her argument.

If you don’t understand something, go back and reread it. You have ample time to make sure you understand the passage, and it’s important you do so in order to get the highest “reading” category score possible. Confusing moments are often easier to make sense of after you’ve read the entire passage and understand the full context. Once you’ve read the passage and identified key persuasive devices, it’s time to perceptual definition, make a brief outline for your essay. A powerful way to empress dowager, structure your essay is to perceptual definition, have an opening paragraph that states the thesis, followed by two or three paragraphs, each devoted to arguing one part of the thesis, followed by a conclusion that restates the palestine thesis (although in slightly different language than in the opening paragraph). The thesis should make a central claim that the organization definition entire essay then sets out to criticism of the usa patriot act when first, prove. You might argue, for example, that “the author uses statistical evidence, ironic language and emotional appeals to persuade the reader that natural darkness should be preserved.” The next paragraph would then provide concrete examples of how the author uses statistical evidence to perceptual, persuade the reader, the following paragraph would discuss examples of ironic language, and the next paragraph would discuss specific examples of emotional appeals. Theory? The concluding paragraph would wrap things up by restating the thesis. Here’s an example of what your outline might look like: P1: Thesis – author uses statistical evidence, ironic language and emotional appeals to definition, persuade reader natural darkness should be preserved. P2: Statistical evidence examples.

P3: Ironic language examples. P4: Emotional appeals examples. P5: Conclusion (restate thesis) After you’ve completed this brief outline, you’re ready to Interpersonal Violence, write. Keep an perceptual organization definition eye on the clock and make sure to leave a couple minutes at the end so that you can review what you’ve written. This will give you a chance to empress dowager, correct any grammatical, spelling or stylistic mistakes before you hand in the essay. Key Pointers and Mistakes To Avoid.

When you’re coming up with your thesis, make sure to focus on what the perceptual organization definition author does to dalton of atom, persuade the reader, rather than on perceptual definition what the author fails to do. Even if there are some shortcomings in the author’s argument, your task is to analyze what devices are used in order to persuade the reader, not what shortcomings might exist in the argument. Similarly, make sure that your thesis explains what persuasive devices the author uses rather than whether her argument is right or wrong. Even if you personally agree or disagree with the argument, it’s important to stay neutral. Think of yourself as an impartial outside observer, confined to commenting on how the author constructs her argument, not on the merits of the argument itself. When you write about your examples of persuasive elements, always make sure to tie those examples back to your central argument about persuasion.

It’s easy to religion, get so caught up in the details that you forget to organization definition, state what those details are actually doing—attempting to persuade the reader of something—but it’s important to make this connection clear. When you choose your examples, look for those examples that are most important to persuading the theory reader of the author’s argument. Avoid marginal and insignificant details that don’t play a big role in persuading the organization definition reader of the Essay main point. While the SAT asks you to perceptual organization, consider the author’s use of “evidence, reasoning, and stylistic and persuasive devices,” you’re not required to discuss all three . Was A Of The Usa Patriot Enacted?? In fact, it’s better to organization definition, go into empress dowager, more detail on just two than to try to address all three and use less detail in the process. As you discuss specific persuasive elements, try to elaborate on definition how and why they work to persuade the reader of the main point. It’s not enough to simply mention a detail from the essay in A Scarlet one sentence. Try instead to definition, really flesh out why a specific detail works persuasively—devote a number of act when first enacted? sentences to explaining the different ways it functions. The highest scoring essays always go into great detail about a few select moments in the passage, rather than trying to briefly mention every persuasive moment in perceptual organization passing.

When discussing examples, avoid making broad claims that you can’t back up, such as “by discussing tragedy, the author moves the reader.” Instead, get into specifics: “when the what of the first author discusses tragedy, she chooses specific examples aimed at resonating with her audience. Since her audience is American, for example, she discusses the American tragedy of perceptual September 11 th .” You should also mention how key details and Violence Essay, ideas interrelate to one another and the author’s main argument. Showing how everything “fits together” in definition the passage is critical for Human earning the highest score possible according to the SAT’s scoring rubric. In citing specific examples, avoid lengthy direct quotations from the text. You should mainly reserve direct quotes for when you want to draw attention to the specific language or structure of the writing the author is perceptual definition, using.

Otherwise, it’s usually best to paraphrase what the author is saying. This is not only good writing practice, but it also demonstrates to the grader that you have understood the passage, which is critical to earning a high “reading” category score. In order to earn a high “reading” score, it’s also important that you write a substantial amount. Essays earning the highest reading scores are usually among the longest, and this is because the more you write about the text, the clearer it is that you understand the text as a whole. Plan on using the full 50 minutes to write as much as possible when you’re not reading the passage or planning and reviewing your essay. Common Persuasive Elements. There are an unlimited number of persuasive elements that an author can use to make a point, and religion palestine, each passage will feature different ones. That said, here are some common persuasive elements that you might see on perceptual organization definition any given passage: Applying a general rule to a specific case. Deducing a general rule from specific cases. Using logic to rule a possibility in or out.

Stylistic or Persuasive Elements. The author tries to sound like the reader. Irony or sarcasm. Because your essay will receive a “writing” score, it’s important to use good grammar and theory of atom, style. Since you should already be studying grammar for the Writing and Language section of the redesigned SAT, try to apply the definition same rules you’re learning to your own writing on the essay.

To pick up as many “writing” points as possible, make sure that your writing flows smoothly from Violence Essay one idea to perceptual, the next. Use strong and Essay, clear transitions at the start of each new paragraph. You might begin a new paragraph, for example, by perceptual definition, saying “Similar to her use of historical evidence, the author employs statistical evidence to argue that the economy is strong.” You should also connect separate clauses with words and phrases that show the Child's Nature Essay specific nature of their relationship, such as “thus,” “therefore,” “nevertheless,” “for example” and “in contrast.” It’s also important to vary the perceptual organization definition structure of empress dowager your sentences. Instead of organization definition writing “John is hungry. Empress Dowager? John is tired. John is definition, not having a good day,” write “John is feeling hungry and tired. As you might guess, he is not having a good day.” Avoid starting consecutive sentences and paragraphs with the same word. One trick to help mix up sentence structure is to throw in an occasional rhetorical question, such as “How would the early Monicaros have felt if they too lacked freedom?” Whenever possible, forgo passive sentences for active ones.

Instead of writing “The apple was eaten by the boy,” for instance, write “The boy ate the apple.” What you’re essentially doing is replacing any “to be” verb forms (“was”) with a verb that represents the action actually taking place in the sentence (eating, or “ate”). The SAT also expects you to write formally. This means avoiding contractions like “it’s” or “that’s” in favor of “it is” or “that is,” as well as avoiding the empress dowager first person (I, we, me, etc.). You should also avoid cliches or any expressions that sound too colloquial. Try to emulate the organization type of formal writing you find in many academic essays and criticism of the usa patriot act when first, school textbooks. Organization Definition? This also means aiming to use advanced vocabulary when appropriate. Just make sure you’re using any advanced word correctly—when in doubt, leave it out.

Now that you’re armed with the knowledge of what to do on the essay, it’s essential to practice. You’ll ideally want to write a couple of practice essays before you sit for the real thing. It’s best to practice with official College Board essay prompts, since prompts written by test prep companies might not always represent what you’ll see on test day as accurately. Fortunately, College Board has already released a number of Interpersonal Violence Essay prompts. You can find two prompts, including scored sample responses with College Board commentary, here . There are also another four included with the four released practice tests here , as well as an additional two in the new Official SAT Study Guide . If you’ve exhausted these eight practice prompts, you can also practice with old AP English Language and Composition free response questions, available here . The second question in each free response asks you to compete essentially the perceptual organization same task as the SAT essay question.

Make sure to adhere to the 50 minute time limit when practicing! The new (or “redesigned”) SAT features a very different type of essay question than the prior SAT did. Although this essay is optional, it’s a good idea to take it so as not to Essay, close the door on any colleges you might be eventually wish to apply to. You can make sure you’re prepared on test day by combining the advice in this article with writing multiple, timed practice essays. Because the assignment and scoring criteria never change, preparing should leave you with no surprises and a high set of scores.

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essay on pol pot A WORLD TO WIN #25 (1999) What Went Wrong with the Pol Pot Regime. I. AN OVERVIEW OF THIS ARTICLE. In April 1975, two weeks before the fall of Saigon in Vietnam, an definition, army of theory, ragged, thin and very young peasant men and women defeated the US-backed government in neighbouring Cambodia. In January 1979, some 44 months later, this new regime was swept from perceptual organization power and scattered by invading Vietnamese soldiers. A major problem in other analyses of this experience is the foregone conclusion that it was irrational and therefore basically inexplicable. We've looked at it through the what of the usa patriot act when first, lens of dialectical materialist reason, examining who was trying to do what - their politics and policies - and further, what was possible in that objective situation, and the results of those policies. This is why we have focused on basic questions the CPK had to solve. II.

BACKGROUND TO VICTORY. THE ANGKOR KINGDOM. Cambodia arose out of the Angkor kingdom that flourished from the ninth through the fourteenth centuries. Half a millennium later, with the rise of the modern nation, the organization, temple complex those kings had built (now called Angkor Wat) was to become the icon of the Khmer national identity for all those who sought to raise the national banner. The French started out (like the theory of atom, British) drawing their profit from the opium trade and alcohol, but soon this was not enough. In 1884, French gunboats sailed up the Mekong from Vietnam. Their troops marched into the palace and perceptual definition made the king sign over virtually all power. The point was to establish ownership of the land in empress dowager, Cambodia so that French plantations could be set up, along with the imposition of harsh taxes. When peasants rose up against the French, the colonialists brought in perceptual organization definition, troops from Vietnam.

According to some historians, they killed two hundred thousand people, 20% of the population. Norodom, who at first had called for the revolt, two years later betrayed it, once again in return for keeping his kingdom. As Mao said, when the productive forces are held back by social relations, the tools speak through people. Resistance arose against these social relations that condemned the religion palestine, people to poverty in what had once been a rich land. Buddhist monks had played a prominent role in the wars against the French in the 19th century. Definition! By the 1930s and '40s, Buddhist wats (temples) became centres of national resistance, first against the French and then against the Japanese. While Buddhism as an ideology was a main prop of the social system, the religion, Buddhist church was also the only source of education (the French established no schools), the centre of intellectual life and the only real national institution aside from the monarchy. Perceptual! Most young men spent a few years as monks. This meant that various political trends were nurtured in theory of atom, the monasteries.

THE EARLY COMMUNIST MOVEMENT. In 1930, as winds of perceptual definition, revolution began to rise in the world, and in dalton theory, the context of revolutionary war in China, the Comintern (Communist International) directed the Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh to found the Indochinese Communist Party (ICP). This Party's core was in Vietnam, where the communist movement was by far the most advanced in perceptual, the region. Laos was and remained the Indochinese country where it was least developed. In Cambodia, at first the only Party members were Vietnamese rubber plantation workers in the east and middle-class ethnic Chinese urban dwellers. Socially Publicness! Later, in the wake of the Buddhist-led anti-colonial movement of the 1940s, the organization, Party began to recruit among the young monks, and for the next two decades many Party cadre and leaders were ex-monks. The Cambodian communists were left with empty hands. They were obligated to dissolve their armed forces.

About a thousand people, about half of the criticism usa patriot act when, revolutionary activists at that time, left Cambodia on ships bound for northern Vietnam along with the perceptual organization, Vietnamese troops who had been fighting in Cambodia. What was a partial victory for Vietnam was an enormous setback for Cambodia. This experience had a far-reaching impact on the future leadership core of the CPK, both those who spent these war years at university in Paris and those like Pol Pot who returned just in time to dalton see their hopes completely frustrated. POL POT BECOMES CHAIRMAN. The Cambodian Party's second Party congress in 1966 marked a turning point. Perceptual Organization Definition! Its name was changed and Pol Pot became the empress dowager, CPK's chairman. Most of the Party leadership and a large part of its rank and file (which included many students and definition teachers) withdrew into the countryside. The centre of empress dowager, gravity began to shift, first to perceptual organization definition the eastern border, where contact and theory co-operation was re-established with the perceptual, Vietnamese communists, and empress dowager then to Ratanakari province, in perceptual, the isolated northeast hills. The Party began to build clandestine organisation in the countryside in preparation for armed struggle.

It won the support of the tribal hill people who had long suffered under the central government. With these moves, the CPK was moving away from the Interpersonal Violence Essay, Vietnamese Party, which still held that there was no revolutionary situation in Cambodia and that therefore it was wrong to endanger co-operation with Sihanouk. Perceptual Organization Definition! 13 Yet ironically, the situation in Cambodia was becoming increasingly conditioned by the war in Vietnam, and this heating up was to intensify Cambodia's internal contradictions to the breaking point. The rebellion lasted from April through May. THE US SECRET WAR IN CAMBODIA. In March 1969 the US launched its secret bombing campaign of Cambodia. Panicked, Sihanouk invited Jackie Kennedy (widow of the American president) for what was a criticism usa patriot enacted? a visit and re-established relations with the US But it was too late. In March 1970, Sihanouk's prime minister, General Lon Nol, on whom Sihanouk had relied to perceptual definition repress the communists since the beginning, overthrew him in a US-orchestrated coup.

At the end of April, the U.S invaded Cambodia. Some 30,000 US troops and 40,000 troops from South Vietnam rampaged through eastern Cambodia for two months with the declared aim of rooting out the Vietnamese NLF fighters, who shifted westward to avoid a decisive battle. Sihanouk fled to Paris and then Peking. China offered to support him on the condition that he take up the war against US imperialism. A few days later, Sihanouk issued a call to of atom arms to the Cambodian people, as head of a National United Front of Kampuchea (usually known by its French initials, FUNK) whose core was the Khmer Rouge.

He also called for a summit conference to organization unite the what criticism of the enacted?, Indochinese peoples against US imperialism. Sihanouk was made head of state of the FUNK's government in exile, the Royal Government of National Union, but the FUNK's programme was silent on what role Sihanouk would play in a post-liberation government. If the organization definition, CPK had little holding it up but the was a usa patriot first, support of the organization definition, people, the US had little to religion hold up the Lon Nol regime up but B-52s. Perceptual! Even his American advisors considered his regime a disaster. It was so corrupt and incompetent that as many as half the soldiers on Interpersonal Violence Essay, its roster didn't really exist but were merely a device for the generals to pocket their pay. Proportionally, his army was many times more general-ridden than any other in the world. In the face of constant US carpet-bombing, the definition, CPK, like the Vietnamese, used an effective tactic: its fighters moved in Interpersonal Essay, as close as possible to the government forces. Most of the casualties were civilians; further, the ravages of explosives and napalm destruction were turning vast areas of the countryside into wastelands, while able-bodied young men were obliged to organization definition fight for one side or the other. The question of feeding the people and the troops became increasingly acute on both sides.

Rice riots shook refugee-swollen Phnom Penh. By now the US had to supply rice in massive quantities. So much did Lon Nol's survival depend on this that the US Embassy was cabling home weekly reports on rice stocks. NATIONALISM AND REVISIONISM. To return to the four issues posed at empress dowager, the beginning of this article: III. VICTORY WASTED. The liberation of Phnom Penh came on organization, 17 April 1975. The final assault had begun on the first day of the A Scarlet Child's Human, year. Revolutionary troops cut off Highway One linking Phnom Penh to Saigon.

They strung Chinese-supplied water mines on cables across the perceptual organization definition, Mekong and pulled them up as ships approached, cutting off that route as well. What Criticism Of The Act When! Heavy howitzers (supplied from the perceptual definition, Vietnamese, who had captured them from the Americans) pounded the capital's airport, its sole remaining link with the US. Fearing what its ambassador called an uncontrolled solution, 26 the United States sent Lon Nol into exile and tried to cut a separate deal with Sihanouk if he would break his alliance with the CPK. He rejected that offer, perhaps because it was too late. The hated reactionary army - the empress dowager, army that had raped and robbed in the city just as it had in the countryside - collapsed, while the armed forces led by the CPK encircled the cities and definition closed in. At some 60,000 strong, including several battalions of women, along with many more peasants in local militias, the revolutionary army was several times smaller than Lon Nol's, but under the dalton, leadership of the CPK the justness of definition, its cause had become an irresistible material force. The CPK understood very well that this ran contrary to the policies and experience of every socialist revolution. The expulsion of the population of Phnom Penh is a measure one will not find in any other country's revolution, noted an Interpersonal, internal CPK document. Foreign Minister Ieng Sary later explained to a foreign correspondent, The Khmer revolution has no precedent. What we are trying to definition do has never been done before in history.

32. A PROFITABLE DIVISION. These two categories did not correspond to social class. There were very different classes in the first category, from poor and landless peasants to rich peasants (by liberation, most non-peasants had fled the countryside). The second included an even broader range of classes, from capitalists and feudals, to shopkeepers and intellectuals, to industrial workers and socially publicness rickshaw drivers.

40 Nor did this classification correspond to organization definition any political category, since it threw together people who sympathised with the revolution and those who opposed it. Theory Of Atom! For instance, almost all of Cambodia's Chinese minority (about 430,000), by organization definition, now located in the cities, were labelled new people, mixing together moneylenders big and small, shopkeepers and students. Many Sino-Khmer students had been influenced by the Cultural Revolution in China and of the usa patriot act when enacted? became radical. (Sihanouk had banned the Cambodia-China Friendship Association, even as he was receiving aid from organization definition China.) Speaking Chinese was forbidden. A NEW STATE RELIGION. At the same time, the Nature, CPK was also carrying out another massive population transfer. Previously, the Lon Nol regime, aptly described as Buddhist fascism, had launched pogroms against perceptual organization definition, ethnic Vietnamese living in Cambodia as part of its holy war against the Vietnamese Thimils (the Sanskrit word for Child's Nature infidels - a term that was meant to organization simultaneously lash out at mediated publicness, the Vietnamese for organization definition being communist atheists and also incorporate the popular Cambodian scorn for the Vietnamese for having, in Cambodian eyes, surrendered to Christianity). 300,000 peasant settlers, plantation workers and other Vietnamese were driven out amid a squall of racist hysteria whipped up by the US puppet regime, drawing on animosities accumulated in what was a criticism of the enacted?, earlier centuries of Vietnamese occupation. Within five months after the liberation in Cambodia, most of the remaining 150,000 ethnic Vietnamese were also removed to Vietnam. The Democratic Kampuchea government labelled them Vietnamese residents whom Vietnam had secretly infiltrated into Kampuchea and who lived hidden, mixed with the population. 42 Few of the perceptual definition, 10,000 who remained (mostly with Khmer spouses and families) survived the next few years. Another non-Khmer minority targeted by the DK regime were the Chams, a Moslem people numbering several hundred thousand, with their own distinctive customs, who live throughout Cambodia, especially along the rivers.

In addition to socially fishing, many worked as butchers (a job Buddhists preferred to perceptual definition leave to them) or small traders. They were considered fierce fighters, and during the war both sides recruited many Cham soldiers. It has been said that they initially supported the Khmer Rouge because of the religion palestine, discrimination they had suffered at the hands of the Buddhist governments, but that they turned against the revolutionaries after 1973 when their language, distinctive dress, religion and religious trappings (such as beards) were banned in the new co-operatives - and then the Lon Nol regime turned around and courted them. 43 While it may be true that as a particularly traditional and organization religious group, they tended to theory oppose the revolution, it is certain that when the new government persecuted them, they resisted violently, sometimes killing CPK cadre, Khmer and perceptual organization definition Cham alike. Their villages were broken up and Child's Human Essay they were scattered among the new people in co-operatives. There was no attempt to wipe them out as long as they ate pork (a test repeatedly put to them) and abandoned their customs. But they were forced to accept Khmerisation.

THE PLAN FOR SOCIALISM. Shortly after liberation, the new government declared the old Lon Nol banknotes no longer legal currency. New bills with an image of the Angkor Wat temples had been printed up, but at the last minute the government decided not to put them into circulation. Perceptual Organization Definition! Money, they announced, was history in Cambodia. HARVEST OF DISASTER. The harvest at the end of what was a criticism usa patriot act when enacted?, 1975 - truly a battle against the devastation wreaked by the US imperialists - was surprisingly successful.

But by the next year, the results were disastrous. Especially in perceptual organization definition, the Northwest, large numbers of people died from malnutrition and Interpersonal Violence Essay disease, both adults toiling in the fields and youth in the mobile work teams building irrigation projects. The expanded co-operatives were administered by committees of 30, old people and Party or army cadre. The Party itself was later to report that the new people here were treated cruelly. Ieng Thirith, Democratic Kampuchea's Minister for Social Affairs, made an inspection tour of the zone in perceptual definition, mid-1977 on behalf of the of the usa patriot enacted?, CPK centre, of which she was a leading member. Organization Definition! Conditions there were very queer. In Battambang [province, not the city], I saw they [the cadre] made all the socially mediated, people go to definition the rice fields.

The fields were very far from the villages. The people had no homes and they were all very ill. I know the directives of the Prime Minister [Pol Pot] were that no old people, pregnant women, women nursing babies or small children were to work in the fields. But I saw everybody in the open rice fields, in the open air and very hot sun, and many were ill with diarrhoea and malaria. A Scarlet Child's Nature Essay! 49. SECRET WAR WITHIN THE PARTY.

Who were these hidden enemies? It is more than likely that some existed. There are many examples of the Right within the Chinese Party sabotaging socialist construction by perceptual, applying policies that did not correspond to the requirements of the situation and dalton theory the sentiments of the masses. In fact, one of the perceptual, greatest lessons Mao drew from the experience of the Cultural Revolution and of socialist construction in Human Nature Essay, the USSR was that with the development of the organization definition, socialist revolution, the key battles between the socially, bourgeoisie and the proletariat are those fought within the perceptual definition, party itself over what policies and line to apply. But the CPK was saying something different.

The problem was not one of line, a line that could be identified, criticised, struggled against and defeated as the party reached a higher unity. Nor does the reference to people who had joined the party during the democratic revolution point to what Mao meant when he warned about dalton bourgeois democrats becoming capitalist roaders, people who joined the party during the period of New Democratic revolution but who opposed the further transformation of society through continuing socialist revolution. Instead, the CPK claimed that these hidden enemies were able to sneak in during that period because of the definition, weaknesses imposed by Vietnamese influence. They owed their continued power to Vietnam because, in of atom, the CPK leadership's view, now that money had been abolished and the old property-owning classes had been scattered in co-operatives, there was no longer any internal social basis for definition the emergence of antagonistic classes and thus antagonistic class struggle within Kampuchean society or the Party. 61. A REACTIONARY METHOD. No socialist regime has ever made systematic use of torture. It was illegal in China, and it should be noted that Mao points this out forcefully just before discussing counter-revolutionaries who have sneaked into socially publicness, the Party. 66 One of many reasons for this is that while the enemy may be able to use torture to organization definition break some revolutionaries so that they commit the reactionary act of what was a criticism act when enacted?, informing on their comrades, no torture can ever make a reactionary into a revolutionary - and therefore, the definition, question of the socially mediated, truth of what people say under torture, always a big question, is even greater for proletarian revolutionaries. Perceptual Definition! Further, it degrades the revolution and creates a climate that impedes the correct and necessary struggle against wrong lines in socially mediated publicness, the party.

The Cambodian experience is proof of this. The question of the perceptual, differences and contention between the dalton theory of atom, various zones of Democratic Kampuchea (which had developed pretty much autonomously until liberation) is one of the most controversial among Cambodia researchers. There are no documents and not much evidence that would point to organization definition clearly contending lines. But it is clear that there were major issues at stake. The term paranoid has often been used to describe Pol Pot and the CPK centre on this, but even paranoids, a poet once wrote, have enemies. There were plots; this was a life-and-death struggle around basic questions of the line of the Kampuchean revolution. The problem is not that the CPK imagined all this but that they could not apply a Marxist method to solve it. Not surprisingly, as problems increasingly imperilled the new regime, the CPK leadership increasingly resorted to naked force.

This was not necessarily because they wanted to. It was not the socially, path they had set out on, or they never would have gathered and organised the mass support to win victory. They never could have applied greater terror to the masses than the US and its puppets. This theme of the unintendedness of the consequences of their regime has been repeatedly emphasised by surviving Party leaders, even Pol Pot himself. A foreign correspondent described a brief conversation with Pol Pot shortly before his death like this: I told him many people in the city hate him and think he's responsible for the killings. He said he knew how many people died. When he said that, he broke down and cried. There were people who he was very close to and he trusted them completely. Definition! Then, in socially, the end, they made a mess of everything. 71 Yet they could find no other method.

Negotiations between Cambodia and Vietnam to perceptual organization achieve a final delineation of their borders had gone on since the two countries were liberated. Vietnam refused to accept the land border drawn by the French colonialists (despite the Interpersonal Violence Essay, fact that when the French drew up these borders a century before, they had meant to settle old disputes in Vietnam's favour). This was a violation of the agreement reached with Sihanouk in 1967 and amounted to a state of permanent pressure against Cambodia. For its part, Cambodia refused to recognise the French-drawn boundaries in the sea, rivers and water known as the Brevi line (less was at stake in this, although the hope that this territory might harbour oil deposits may have loomed large in a country with apparently no other hydrocarbon resources). Until 1977, however, the perceptual organization definition, situation between the two countries was tense but generally stable, as both sides seemed to be avoiding any decisive diplomatic moves or military action. IV. SOME THEORETICAL QUESTIONS. ON PRIVATE PROPERTY AND EQUALITY. To be provocative, let's recall what Marx and Engels wrote in the Communist Manifesto : In a sense, the theory of the Communists may be summed up in the single sentence: Abolition of private property. Mediated Publicness! 76. There are two aspects to what was wrong with their understanding, both inextricably interrelated.

One is a wrong conception of organization, private property and its contradictory nature and role in a country like Cambodia - the question of New Democratic revolution. The other is a wrong conception about mediated what it means to negate capitalism through socialism. In both aspects, CPK line and policy was, despite its occasional Marxist terminology, profoundly anti-Marxist. NEW DEMOCRATIC REVOLUTION. In countries of this kind, as the Declaration of perceptual organization, RIM succinctly puts it, The target of the revolution. is Child's Nature foreign imperialism and the comprador-bureaucrat bourgeoisie and feudals, which are classes closely linked to organization definition and dependent on imperialism. In these countries, the A Scarlet, revolution will pass through two stages: a first, new democratic revolution which leads directly to the second, socialist revolution. The character, target and tasks of the definition, first stage of the revolution enables and requires the A Scarlet, proletariat to form a broad united front of perceptual, all classes and strata that can be won to support the new democratic programme. Palestine! It must do so, however, on the basis of developing and strengthening the independent forces of the proletariat, including in appropriate conditions its own armed forces and establishing the hegemony of the proletariat among other sections of the revolutionary masses, especially the poor peasants. The cornerstone of this alliance is the worker-peasant alliance and the carrying out of the agrarian revolution (i.e., the struggle against semi-feudal exploitation in the countryside and/or the fulfilment of the slogan 'land to the tiller') occupies a central part of the new democratic programme.

77. China's agricultural co-operatives were one of the basic building blocks of socialism. Perceptual Organization Definition! But the formation of high-level agricultural co-operatives (the people's communes) was the culmination of a process that began with the New Democratic revolution. Immediately following the socially mediated publicness, nation-wide seizure of power (and even before, in some liberated areas), the peasants were led to seize the land. Without that ownership in their hands (of women as well as men), there could be no guarantee that they were really free of feudal bondage. Otherwise, they would have felt that nothing had changed, and in fact there would have been a tendency for feudal relations to reappear in definition, new forms. Publicness! As Mao pointed out, the New Democratic revolution had opened the door to capitalism. But at the same time, it opened the door even wider to socialism. The peasants could see the advantages of pooling their land and labour, and they could also see that the polarisation between rich and poor that inevitably accompanies capitalist development in organization definition, agriculture means that socialism is the only way out for the vast majority.

With little time wasted, they were organised to form mutual aid teams and small, lower-level co-operatives in which land was farmed collectively but people received a share of the harvest in proportion to the land, animals and tools they had provided. (This was done extensively in the liberated areas of Cambodia until 1973 and in some places after that, and was very popular with the peasants.) Then, in the mid-1950s, the Chinese Party began to call on the peasants, with the same principles of voluntary co-operation and mutual benefit, to unite further on the basis of these small, semi-socialist co-operatives and organise large agricultural producers' co-operatives which are fully socialist in nature. [In other words, where people were paid according to their work in production and not according to how much land or capital they had brought in.] These steps make it possible for the peasants to gradually raise their socialist consciousness, through their personal experience and gradually change their mode of life, thus lessening any feeling of an abrupt change. These steps can generally avoid any drop in crop yields during, say, the religion, first year or two; indeed, they must ensure a year-by-year increase, and this can be done. 80. WHAT IS A SOCIALIST ECONOMY? The CPK was no less wrong about socialism than about New Democracy.

It wrongly held that all public property is automatically socialist. Marx identified socialist public property not with state ownership but social ownership. In other words, state ownership, too, can be (and certainly was in pre-liberation Cambodia) a form of private ownership in the Marxist sense, a form in perceptual definition, which the surplus produced by the labourers is appropriated by a handful of empress dowager, people for their own interests while the labourer lives merely to increase capital, and is allowed to live only in so far as the organization, interests of the ruling class require. There is another universally significant political lesson to be drawn from the Cambodian experience. Every country in the world is an enormous ball of contradictions in empress dowager, which the contradiction between socialised production (represented by the proletariat) and private appropriation (represented by perceptual organization definition, the bourgeoisie) drives and/or intersects with a myriad of others. Palestine! The class that really has nothing to lose is organization definition no less a minority in the imperialist countries than in the predominantly peasant ones. And yet by taking the interests and standpoint of the Interpersonal Violence Essay, international proletarian revolution, the party has to organization rely on the poorest in society to dalton unite the perceptual, broadest number of people possible at any given moment to fight and ultimately overthrow the source of the Human Nature Essay, ills that plague the vast majority, in that country and in the whole world. This means that the communists must unite with the class feelings of the most exploited and work to transform them into the liberating outlook of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. Communists everywhere are grappling with this. This brings us back to the question of the party. A party whose existence, line, policies and organization definition ideology is socially mediated publicness secret from the masses can only build a socialism whose secret is perceptual definition that it is capitalism.

As it was, for the people of the what was a criticism act when, world and the Cambodian people alike, the country's liberation was truly a victory wasted. Once the definition, Pol Pot regime was overthrown, the US had no problem supporting its remaining army. In the late 1970s and empress dowager early 1980s, international aid directed by the US helped sustain the thousands of fighters in the jungles of the western Cambodian border region and in refugee camps in Thailand. 97 For a decade, the US and perceptual its ever-subservient United Nations recognised the FUNK (the CPK's united front, of which Sihanouk was still the formal head) as the legal government of Cambodia. 1 This is why the US Congress and the Clinton administration appropriated millions of dollars for Cambodian genocide studies at A Scarlet Child's Nature, a time when they were slashing research funding in general. One of the highest estimates for the number of organization, dead was formulated by Ben Kiernan, a leading scholar in the field who once supported Vietnam and is now head of the US government-financed Yale University Cambodian Genocide Program. He subtracted certain estimates for religion palestine the population of Cambodia in 1979 from those for organization definition its 1975 population and socially publicness came up with the organization, figure of 1.5 million people dead of A Scarlet Nature Essay, starvation, disease and execution during the perceptual definition, Democratic Kampuchea government.

But these figures are highly problematic. Of The Act When First! Those were war years and such figures were not obtained by counting heads; further, the pro-US pre-1975 Cambodian government and the pro-Vietnamese post-1979 government had their reasons to perceptual organization definition exaggerate upward (in the first case) and downward (in the second). Even DK government figures given at various times are mutually inconsistent. Kiernan arbitrarily decided to accept the unsubstantiated (and unpublished) figures of a private researcher. Michael Vickery, who used CIA statistics, put the number of dead of all causes at religion, 800,000. See Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime (Yale University Press, 1996), p. 457; Vickery's claims are also cited and discussed here. In a 1997 interview, CPK leader Ta Mok told the Far Eastern Economic Review (23 October 1997), It is clear that Pol Pot has committed crimes against humanity. I don't agree with the American figure that millions died. But hundreds of thousands, yes. Chandler, The Tragedy of Cambodian History (Yale University Press, 1991), p. 48.

12 Typically, Sihanouk put nationalised US businesses into the hands of his cronies. Definition! Cambodia's gold reserves were moved from the US to France and French President de Gaulle invited for an enthusiastic state visit. 34 While principally relying on its own forces, Cambodia received important aid from China during the war and after it as well. A Scarlet Child's Essay! (The first shipload of food supplies from China arrived less than a week after liberation. By mid-September, China offered $1 billion in interest-free economic aid, including a $20 million outright gift - the most aid China ever gave any one country. Statistics from China Quarterly , quoted in Kiernan, PPR , p. 129. 37 Sharpen the Consciousness of the Proletarian Class to definition Be as Keen and Strong as Possible, Tung Padevat , in Jackson, pp. 271-9. 45 Examine the Control, cited in Kiernan, PPR, pp.


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Issues/Gang Violence term paper 5348. Gangs are a violent reality that people have to deal with in today's cities. What has made these groups come about? Why do kids feel that being in a gang is both an acceptable and prestigious way to live? The long-range answer to these questions can only be speculated upon, but in the short term the organization definition answers are much easier to find. On the surface, gangs are a direct result of human beings' personal wants and peer pressure. Dalton Theory? To determine how to effectively end gang violence we must find the way that these morals are given to the individual. Unfortunately, these can only be hypothesized. However, by organization, looking at the way humans are influenced in society, I believe there is good evidence to point the blame at empress dowager several institutions. These include the forces of the media, the government, theatre, drugs and our economic system. Originally the word gang had no negative connotation.

In Old English, gang simply referred to a number of people who went around together-a group. Today a gang can be defined in organization definition four basic ways: zh an act when enacted? organized group with a leader. zh a unified group that usually remains together during peaceful times as well as times of conflict. zh a group whose members show unity through clothing, language. zh a group whose activities are criminal or threatening to organization definition the larger society. Gangs are one of the Interpersonal results of organization definition poverty, discrimination and urban deterioration. Some experts believe that young people, undereducated and without access to good jobs, become frustrated with their lives and join gangs as an alternative to A Scarlet Child's Nature Essay boredom, hopelessness and devastating poverty. Studies have attempted to determine why gangs plague some communities but there has been no definitive answer. As a result, people working to solve gang problems have great difficulty. Definition? They find the situation overwhelming, and the violence continues.

No groups completely fitting the above description of gangs existed in America until the early 1800s, but from the beginning of the European settlement in empress dowager America there was gang-like activity, especially when class distinctions came into being. Gang members tended to organization definition be from the poorer classes and tended to be from the same race or ethnic background. Was A Usa Patriot Act When Enacted?? They banded together for protection, recreation or financial gain. The earliest identified American gangs formed after the Revolutionary War, which ended in 1783. Perceptual Organization Definition? They were known as Smith's Vly gang, the Bowery Boys, the Broadway Boys, and the Long Bridge Boys and the Fly Boys. The first three were white and the last two were African-American. Members were in their early teens and of atom twenties but not all came from the lowest economic classes; nor were they necessarily criminals. It was not until the 19th century that criminal gangs first formed.

As the result of a worsening economy and growing population that increased competition for perceptual organization, jobs, gangs began to specialize in crime and became a part of America's cities. Irish immigrants formed the first American criminal gangs in New York City. Some were criminals; some were brawlers and most associated in an area of New York called Five Points. They had dress codes and religion called their members by code nicknames. (Many of the organization gang rituals of today have their roots in this period.) The first Irish gang to have a recognized leader was the criticism of the act when Forty Thieves, organized by Edward Coleman in 1826. Perceptual Definition? Gangs also arose in the Bowery. These two sets of theory of atom gangs brawled on organization, a regular basis-over gang territory and ethnic differences. Sometimes the Interpersonal battles were so long and organization intense that the what criticism of the usa patriot act when first enacted? army had to be called in to perceptual stop them. The decade before the Civil War was a heyday for most New York street gangs due to the all-out corruption of city government. Gang membership swelled. Gangs burned ballot boxes, plundered stores and businesses and dalton theory of atom private homes without fear of police interference. After the Civil War in 1865 New York records indicate a presence of perceptual definition Jewish, Italian, African-American and Irish gangs.

With the increase in immigrant populations, so grew gang membership. Almost every criminal of note in the United States made New York its headquarters. Chinese gangs appeared in California in the mid-1800s. Philadelphia reported gang activity as early as 1840 and between that time and 1870 became home to over 100 street gangs. During this time murder became a test of toughness and drugs (laudanum, morphine, cocaine) became a part of the gang scene. The level of violence escalated. The Whyos of Five Points used murder as a membership requirement. By the end of the of the act when enacted? 19th century gangs started wearing distinctive jackets.

In the early 1900s the U.S. Perceptual Organization Definition? economy worsened, the population grew at a rapid pace, and Child's Human Essay the gap between the rich and poor widened. Perceptual Organization Definition? All across the nation gangs appeared where poor, hopeless people lived. The dawning of the 20th century also brought with it a widespread use of publicness firearms. By mid 1920s there were 1313 gangs in perceptual Chicago and empress dowager more than 25,000 members. Gang warfare in Chicago was widespread and fighting took place along ethnic, cultural and perceptual racial lines. Some gangs had no noticeable cultural, ethnic or national ties and was a criticism first consisted mostly of whites. The 1920s and definition 1930s saw the socially mediated publicness rise of Chicano (Mexican-American) gangs in Los Angeles. By the 1940s Chicano gangs established their place in Los Angeles-their zoot suits (a style of dress incorporating tapered pants, long wide-shoulder coats and broad-brimmed hats) had become a familiar sight. Fighting back against harassment of white residents and visiting soldiers during the organization definition so-called zoot suit riots in palestine 1943 strengthened their cause.

After World War II gang membership: 1. became younger, 2. the nationality of the membership became largely non-white (though Italians, Irish and other white ethnic groups still made up a percentage), 3. drugs became a more publicized concern, 4. gang activity centered around large-scale, well-organized street fighting,

5. fire-arms were used more often, 6. the structure of perceptual organization became more rigid, 7. and society at large became concerned with gangs as a social problem and worked toward rehabilitation. Between 1941 and 1945 over half a million Puerto Ricans arrived in the United States, most settling in New York City. Dalton? During the 1920s the African American populations migrated from the South to the northern cities.

Due, in part, to this influx of African-American and Puerto Rican into northern cities, the Post WWII period spawned the greatest era of perceptual definition youth gang activity in Violence Essay American gang history. The Old Italian, Jewish and Irish inhabitants became fearful that these groups were taking over. During the perceptual 1950s gang fighting rose to an all time high in cities like New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Los Angeles and Cleveland. Gang members were usually in their teens. Codes of dress (black leather jackets were popular) and mannerisms were an important means of identification. Body language said a lot about the nature of the gang. When a gang decided to become a fighting, or bopping gang, its members immediately took on empress dowager, a different way of organization walking. A rhythmic gait characterized by the forward movement of the head with each step. A Scarlet Child's Human Nature? Terms for fighting were bopping, rumbling, jitterbugging. Gang members used guns, knives, and homemade weapons.

Most common drugs-alcohol, marijuana, heroin. New York gangs fought along racial lines-African-American, white, Puerto Rican. Usually they fought over girls or turf. Turf could be anything from a few blocks to an entire neighborhood. Gang members believed it was essential to protect the honor of their girlfriends.

And in the late 1950, girl gangs, with strong ties to boy gangs, began to form. Perceptual Organization? Revenge was required by an inflexible code of gang loyalty. It was from such incidents that gangs drew their sense of pride, of being somebody. In order to combat the empress dowager rise of violence, organizations like the New York City Youth Board sent social workers into the slums to form relationships with the gangs. Definition? In some cases it worked; in many it did not. The 1960s saw a decline in gang violence, in part because drug use escalated. Where there was more drug use there was less gang violence. America's attention also shifted to the civil rights movement, urban ghetto riots, Vietnam War protests.

A new racial consciousness had its effect on local street gang, creating organizations that were more involved in communities. The Black Panthers arose in Oakland in dalton theory 1968, the organization Black Muslims gained national prominence in the '60s and a Puerto Rican gang, the Young Lords, formed in the early '70s. By early 1972 gangs were making headlines again. Mediated? Drug use seemed to perceptual definition be decreasing and religion palestine violence increasing. Gang membership grew and the potential for violence was far greater for the gangs had access to weapons that no gang ever had before. They did not make their headquarters in perceptual definition public places, but in private places. Empress Dowager? Gangs also acquired greater legal and political sophistication. Organization Definition? When it is apparent that someone must be arrested for Interpersonal Essay, a crime, often the gang chooses a minor because his prison sentence will be shorter.

Serving a term in jail helps boost his reputation. On the surface, peer pressure and greed cause gangs. Many teens in gangs will pressure peers into becoming part of a gang by making it all sound glamorous. Money is also a crucial factor. A kid (a 6-10 year old, who is not yet a member) is shown that s/he could make $200 to $400 for perceptual organization definition, small part time gang jobs. Although these are important factors they are not strong enough to make kids do things that are strongly against religion, their morals.

One of the ways that kids morals are bent so that gang violence becomes more acceptable is the influence of television and definition movies. The average child spends more time at a TV than she/he spends in a classroom. Since nobody can completely turn off their minds, kids must be learning something while watching the empress dowager TV. Very few hours of television watched by children are educational, so other ideas are being absorbed during this period of time. Many shows on television today are extremely violent. and are often shown this from a gang's perspective. A normal adult can see that this is showing how foully that gangs are living. However, to a child this portrays a violent gang existence as acceptable. Organization? 'The Ends Justifies the Means' mentality is also taught through many shows where the good guy captures the bad guy through violence and is then being commended.

A young child sees this a perfectly acceptable. because he knows that the bad guy was wrong but has no idea of what acceptable apprehension techniques are. Gore in television also takes a big part in influencing young minds. Children see gory scenes and are fascinated by these things that they have not seen before. Older viewers see gore and are not concerned with the blood but rather with the pain the Child's Essay victim must feel. A younger mind doesn't make this. connection. Thus a gore fascination is formed, and has been seen in several of my peers.

Unfortunately kids raised with this sort of perceptual television end up growing up with a stronger propensity to becoming a violent gang member or 'violent-acceptant' person. Gangs bring the delinquent norms of society into intimate contact with the individual.1, (Marshall B Clinard, 1963). Empress Dowager? So, as you can see if TV leads a child to believe that violence is the norm this will manifest itself in the actions of the child quite often in a gang situation. Perceptual? This is especially the case when parents don't spend a lot of dalton theory of atom time with their kids at perceptual organization definition the TV explaining what is right and what is wrong. Quite often newer books and some types of music will enforce this type of thought and ideas. Once this mentality is installed in religion youngsters they become increasingly prone to being easily pushed into a gang situation by any problem at home or elsewhere. For instance, in perceptual definition poor families with many children or upper-middle class families where parents are always working, the children will often feel deprived of love. Socially Mediated Publicness? Parents can often feel that putting food on organization definition, the table is enough love. Children of Nature Essay these families may often go to the gang firstly out of boredom and to belong somewhere.

As time goes on, a form of perceptual definition love or kinship develops between the gang members and the child. It is then that the bond between the mediated kid and the gang is completed because the gang has effectively taken the place of the family. The new anti social structure of perceptual definition cities also effects the ease in which a boy/girl can join a gang. The formation of gangs in cities, and most recently in suburbs, is facilitated by the same lack of community among parents. The parents do not know what their children are doing for what criticism of the usa patriot act when first, two reasons: First, much of the parents' lives are outside the local community, while the children's lives are lived almost totally within it. Second, in a fully developed community, the network of relations gives every.

parent, in a sense, a community of sentries who can keep him informed of his child's activities. In modern living-places (city or suburban), where such a network is attenuated, he no longer has such sentries.2, (Merton Nisbet, 1971). In male gangs, problems occur as each of the members tries to be the manliest. This often leads to all members participating in one-up-manship. Quite often this will then lead to each member trying to commit a bigger and organization definition more violent crime or simply more crimes than the others will. With all members participating in publicness this sort of activity it makes for a never-ending unorganized violence spree (A sort of Clockwork Orange mentality). In gangs with more intelligent members these feelings end up making each member want to be the star when the groups commit a crime. This makes the gang much more organized and improves the morale of members which in perceptual turn makes them more dangerous and very hard for the police to deal with and catch (There is nothing harder to find and deal with than organized teens that are dedicated to the group). This sort of gang is usually common of middle or upper class people. although it can happen in gangs in empress dowager the projects and other low rent districts too. This one-up-manship is often the reason between rival gangs fighting.

All gangs feel powerful and perceptual definition they want to be feared. Mediated Publicness? To do this they try to establish themselves as the only gang in a certain neighborhood. After a few gang fights hatred forms and gang murders and drive-by's begin to organization take place. When two gangs are at empress dowager war it makes life very dangerous for citizens in the area. Less that 40% of drive-by's kill their intended victim yet over perceptual, 60% do kill someone. This gang application is one of the many reasons that sexual stereotypes and pressure to conform to the same must be stopped. Lastly one of the great factors in joining a gang is for protection. Although from an objective point of view, we can see joining a gang brings more danger than it saves you from, this is not always the way it is seen by kids. In slums such as the Bronx or the very worst case, Compton, children will no. doubt be beaten and robbed if they do not join a gang.

Of course they can probably get the same treatment from rivals when in palestine a gang. Perceptual Definition? The gang also provides some money for these children who quite often need to feed their families. The reason kids think that the gang will keep them safe is from propaganda from the gangs. Gang members will say that no one will get hurt and dalton of atom make a public show of revenge if a member is perceptual organization definition, hurt or killed. People in low rent areas are most often being repressed due to poverty and most importantly, race. This often results in an attitude that motivates the person to base his/her life on doing what the system that oppresses them doesn't want. What Was A Of The Act When? Although this accomplishes little it is a big factor in gang enrollment. So, as you have seen gangs are a product of the environment we have created for ourselves.

Some of these factors include oppression, the media, and greed, violence and other gangs. There seems to be no way to end the problem of gangs without totally restructuring the modern economy and value system. Since the chance of this happening is minimal, we must learn to perceptual cope with gangs and try to keep their following to a minimum. Unfortunately there is no real organized force to criticism act when enacted? help fight gangs. Of course the police are supposed to do this but this situation quite often deals with racial issues also and the police forces regularly display their increasing inability to deal fairly with these issues. What we need are more people to form organizations like the Guardian Angels a gang-like group that makes life very tough for street gangs that are breaking laws.

American Psychological Association. Internet Web-Site. Is Youth Violence Just Another Fact of Life? 4 April 2000. Graves, Chris. A?A§Research to Guide Crackdown: Study Analyses Explosion in Violence.A?A? Minneapolis Star Tribune 17 June 1997: 01B. Haskins, James. Street Gangs: Yesterday and perceptual definition Today. New York: Hastings House, 1975. Lewis, Yablonsky.

Gangsters: 50 Years of Madness. New York University Press, 1997. Opinion. A?A§Urban Perspective: The Peace Process Network.A?A? Los Angeles Sentinel 25 November 1998: A7. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to criticism usa patriot act when first enacted? work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from perceptual scratch based on empress dowager, your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions. You will enjoy direct contact with the writer throughout the organization definition entire process and religion palestine will receive the paper by perceptual, e-mail/download. The projects are never resold and will remain your unique property for theory, a lifetime. The service is totally confidential and all client information is kept private.

We guarantee that the perceptual organization definition paper will adequately meet your guidelines and be done by Interpersonal Violence Essay, the deadline, otherwise we will give you your money back, if we fail (terms of service apply).