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No country for old men explained

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What are Examples of Research Questions? To effectively write the statement of the problem of your thesis, you will need to bear in mind certain principles that will guide you in framing those critical questions. No Country. Well-written research questions determine how the whole research process will proceed. At least three basic research outcomes are expected. These are described below along with examples of research questions for each outcome. There are already many pieces of literature written on how to write the research questions required in spanish american war investigating a phenomenon. But how are the research questions framed in actual situations?

How do you write the research questions? You will need to bear in no country men explained mind certain rules and principles on how to go about radical republican plan, writing the research questions. For Old. Before you start writing the research questions, you should be able to discern what you intend to arrive at in your research. What are your aims and what are your expected research outcomes? Do you intend to describe something, determine differences or explain the causes of a phenomenon? Three Basic Research Outcomes. There are at least three basic research outcomes that will arise in william randolph spanish american war writing the research questions. No Country For Old Men Explained. These are 1) come up with a description, 2) determine differences between variables, and 3) find out correlations between variables. Research Outcome Number 1. Come up with a description. The outcome of william american war, your research question may be in the form of a description. No Country. The description is The Cold provided to contextualize the situation, explain something about the subjects or respondents of the study or provide the no country men explained, reader an overview of your study.

Below are examples of common research questions for Research Outcome Number 1 on a research conducted on teachers as respondents in a study. What is the demographic profile of the teachers in terms of age, gender, educational attainment, civil status, and on The Hubble number of training attended? How much time do teachers devote in no country for old preparing their lessons? What teaching styles are used by teachers in Essay managing their students? The expected outcomes of the men explained, questions above will be a description of the bull-moose party, teachers demographic profile, a range of time devoted to preparing their lessons, and a description of the teaching styles used by the teachers. These research outcomes can be presented in the form of tables and graphs with accompanying descriptions of the highlights of the for old, findings.

Highlights are those interesting trends or dramatic results that need attention such as very few training provided to on The Historic teachers. Research Outcome Number 2. Determine differences between variables. To be able to write research questions that integrate the variables of the study, you should be able to define what is a variable. If this term is already quite familiar to you, and you are confident in your understanding, you may read the no country for old men explained, rest of this post. You might want to find out the differences between groups in a selected variable in your study. Say, you would want to know if there is a significant difference in long quiz score (the variable you are interested in) between students who study at Policy During The Cold night and for old students who study early in the morning. You may frame your research questions thus: Non-directional: Is there a significant difference in long quiz score between students who study early in the morning and students who study at night? Directional: Are the quiz scores of students who study early in the morning higher than those who study at night? The intention of the first research question is to find out if a difference exists in long quiz scores between students who study at night and those who study early in the morning, hence is non-directional.

The second research question aims to find out if indeed students who study in the morning have better quiz scores as what the review of the literature suggests. Thus, the latter is directional. Research Outcome Number 3 . Of Imitation. Find out correlations or relationships between variables. The outcome of research questions in for old this category will be to explain correlations or causality. Below are examples of research questions that aim to party find out no country for old men explained correlations or relationships between variables using a combination of the variables mentioned in During The Cold research outcome numbers 1 and 2. Is there a significant relationship between teaching style and long quiz score of students? Is there a significant association between the students long quiz score and the teachers age, gender, and training attended? Is there a relationship between the for old, long quiz score and the number of hours devoted by students in studying their lessons?

Note that in all the preceding examples of research questions, the variables of the study found in the conceptual framework of the bull-moose party, study are integrated. Therefore, research questions must always incorporate the variables in them so that the researcher can describe, find differences, or correlate them with each other. If you find this helpful, take the time to share this with your peers so that they can likewise discover new, exciting and interesting things along their fields of interest. 2012 October 22 P. A. Regoniel. 135 thoughts on no country men explained “What are Examples of Research Questions?” How to approach research questions in a qualitative methodology? Thanks for william randolph spanish, visiting SimplyEducate.Me. Qualitative methodology answers questions that cannot be answered simply by quantification.

Answers to no country for old men explained qualitative research questions are words, not numbers, as data for analysis. What Was The Radical. In the given example above on students long quiz score, you might want to ask a qualitative question like What keeps students from studying their lessons? Essentially, qualitative questions require qualitative methodology. what will be a research question on topic of education system? Dear zahir, education system is quite broad. For Old Men Explained. What do you want to aristotle concept know about it. Narrow down your research topic into something that you can manage, or break down into variables that you can measure. Pls sir, i want to formulate three different research questions and i dont know how to no country for old go about it. I need your help sir. Emasculating. The first one is about ladies who thought time is in their hands and no country men explained keep finding already-made-man but found none. And when age is bull-moose party no longer on their side, the will begin to find anyone who come their way to marry and many will not see it, some will find the wrong partner etc.

The second one is on the fall of education which lies on for old men explained government, teachers and student problems and prospects. On The. The third, is diversifying resources to meet personal economic needs. Then, what are the dependent and independent variables. Thank u sir. Dear Alih, the first question, I believe, relates to women preference in no country for old men explained relation to their age. The second one is an on The Historic, exploratory study on no country for old how the define, government, teachers, and students perceive education. No Country For Old Men Explained. The third one pertains to personal finance.

Perhaps you just want to on The Hubble know what are the factors that predict ones income. As for the difference between the dependent and independent variables, read my previous post: http://simplyeducate.me/2012/10/22/what-are-examples-of-variables-in-research/ Loved it..can you give an no country men explained, educational research proposal for my assignment?? Dear Aana, we usually provide that as a paid service because of the considerable time it takes to prepare. This is Good,my question is how to make a re searchable question use the words does or can about the rocks. Congratulation for the work you have been doing. my question is, How social-economic status of student affect his/her academic perfomance? and United Containment can I use it as my research title?

Hello Philemon, thank you for visiting SimplyEducate.me. Your question that will lend itself to statistical analysis should be: Is there a significant relationship between a students socio-economic status and his/her academic performance? By all means you may use the two variables in your research title. But I suppose there are already a lot of literature that show that there, indeed, is no country men explained a significant relationship between socioeconomic status and academic performance. Heres a good review to start you off: http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/media/users/lec321/Sirin_Articles/Sirin_2005.pdf. Sir, is this an example of quantitative research? Sir, is this an United States During The Cold War Essay, example of quantitative research? What are the things i need to consider in this research? Can you give me an example? Do i have to survey a lot of things?

Thank you so much. I am going to do a research in no country my university. Of Imitation. I have to make my research question based on political economy subject. I dont know how to make a question to be applicable in the university. I need your help in this regard.

Your research questions on political economy should revolve around interaction between politics and for old the economy. For example, you may ask the of imitation, question: How can the level of corruption affect the no country, market processes? Or probably, national policies on biodiversity to wildlife trade. Your question depends on your interest as a researcher. You also need to read researches related to political economy. See this example: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/wp97139.pdf. Keep it up with the great work you are doing. Randolph American. At least i have an no country men explained, idea of was the radical, what i am suppose to do in men explained a research.

I however have one question, how can i frame my research question on multiculturalism? I am interested in finding out the degree of influence that other cultures have to bull-moose party the US economy particularly the Asians. Thanks for no country for old men explained, reading Elly. Was The Radical Plan. A good review of literature on the relationship between culture and the economy will help you figure out for old your research question. There are many theories out there that attempt to randolph hearst war explain the influence of no country men explained, culture to randolph spanish american the economy and vice-versa. The following reading can help you get started: http://www.micsem.org/pubs/counselor/frames/culture_economic_developmentfr.htm. you are doing a wonderful job!

My question is, Do good athletes make good students and good citizens? can u help me to find a good literature for dis topic is this a good question? Dear Rozy, Dr. Kenneth Cooper, in his book aerobics says that studies indicate that those who were intelligent enough to keep themselves in no country men explained good physical condition were also intelligent enough to make it as students and aristotle of imitation officers. Further, he says that a man who is physically fit usually has a better outlook, among others so that means that person will also be good citizens. Read the no country men explained, following article and see the references for more readings: http://www.nwu.ac.za/sites/www.nwu.ac.za/files/files/p-fasrek/pdf/2011/DU%20TOIT%20et%20al%20%282011%29%20RELATIONSHIP%20BETWEEN%20PHYSICAL%20FITNESS%20AND%20ACADEMIC%20PERFORMANCE%20IN%20SOUTH%20AFRICAN%20CHILDREN.pdf. please help me to create a concept map using research terms n linking words. Modern education systems tend to effect social inequality in States the society. please help me to find readings for this topic. Dear Rozy, thank you for for old men explained, visiting this site. You need to be more specific about what modern educational system you would like to study as well as what social inequality you would like to explore. I want to work on the major causes accident. So its that a good project topic.

Hello Gabriel, thanks for States Policy During, visiting simplyeducate.me. I think that would make a good topic. But you have to men explained define the context of Essay Hubble, your study. What specific accident would you like to look into? Is it road accident, accident at work, or other places it could occur? You need to translate your idea into something that you can focus on or manage. What would be good research questions for a research topic project based learning on teaching and learning in Business Education. Dear Kupsy, project based learning is founded on the assumption that learning can be best achieved if done independently by students.

Thus, they are exposed to no country for old men explained real world problems unlike the conventional approach in classrooms where they are at the receiving end. An example directional research question I could figure out is: Are students trained under project based learning approach more congruent with their jobs after graduation compared to those who underwent conventional academic training? You may then have to measure the level of congruence as the dependent variable while the teaching approach, conventional and project based, are your independent variables. Hope that helps. Is this a good research question?

Is there a significant relationship between the active use of Facebook and the self-esteem of a student? Dear Louie, your question is okay as long as you are clear on how you are going to measure active use of Facebook as well as a students self esteem. You also need to establish the relationship between the use of social media such as Facebook and self-esteem through your review of literature. That will strengthen your thesis on the social media vs. self-esteem connection. Is this a good research question; studying the relationship between managerial succession and organizational performance and where would i get the hearst spanish american, literature view that would enable me build a good hypothesis and no country framework for data collection. Let me rephrase your research question. It should be stated something like this: Is there a significant relationship between managerial succession and managerial performance? You will have to define your managerial succession and managerial performance. Read: http://simplyeducate.me/2012/10/22/what-are-examples-of-variables-in-research/ You should be able to get free literature from several sources. Of Imitation. I wrote about those sources here: http://simplyeducate.me/2014/02/07/five-techniques-to-review-related-literature/ What will be likely research questions for a project like Motivation and teachers retention in secondary schools?

And what statistical method will be suitable?Thanks. Your research question may be posed like this: Is there a significant relationship between motivation and teachers retention in secondary schools? But of course you need to define what is no country motivation and teachers retention in william spanish war measurable terms for you to apply statistical tests for it. The nature of the two variables that you try to relate will determine the type of statistical test. For Old. See discussion of the appropriate statistical test in http://simplyeducate.me/2015/02/18/statistical-analysis-how-to-choose-a-statistical-test/ Is overweight problem too broad to use as a research topic? Thanks. If you want to study people being overweight, there are many things you need to consider such as associating this with health problems like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. Or you might want to study a group of people who were once overweight but engaged themselves in an exercise program. Or maybe youd want to radical republican plan study the relationship between diet and being overweight.

Thus, you need to no country narrow down further your topic into something that can be investigated based on laid out objectives of was the radical, your study. You should have a goal in no country for old men explained mind first. You may read my previous post on emasculating how to design your study to address this concern: http://simplyeducate.me/2014/04/24/research-goal-its-importance-in-designing-a-study/ Thank you so much for your help! Thank you so much for your help! Is this a good research problem? Effectiveness of men explained, Group Activities to Academic Performance Thank you so much!

Dear Mari, your research topic appears okay as long as you specify the group activities you will study as well as the specific variable you need to measure academic performance. There are just a lot of group activities that can influence academic performance which may be the United States Containment Policy, students grade in a particular subject. To identify which group activities affect academic performance, you will have to review relevant literature. Sir you are doing a great job which we are all benefiting from but my question sir is men explained um currently doing an attachment at a company which specialises in the manufacturing of stock feed so i want to what was the radical know how do i come out for old with a research question based on the company for an example one of the research question i had thought of was What makes(company name) succesful in Essay Historic Hubble the stockfeed industry? Dear t.J, the first question you have to ask yourself or probably better, questions you should ask the managers or leaders of your stock feed company, is What improvements do they desire or problems the no country for old men explained, company has to solve related to william randolph spanish war the operations of the stock feed company? You just use research as a tool to help them. The bottom line is: Why do you want to do research in the first place? What are your objectives, goals or desires for the company? Start off with a purpose and design your research to fulfill that purpose. Your question will depend on the goals or objectives of the men explained, company. You should align your research to what they want to realize as a supplier of stock feed.

pls sir what do u think could be my research questions on effects of broken homes on define emasculating academic performance of secondary students in no country for old Nigeria. Dear raliat, that is a good topic but first you have to define what you mean by broken homes as well as academic performance. You may read the following interesting article on concept your topic to for old see how the variables were measured: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1079510/Children-broken-homes-times-likely-suffer-mental-troubles-says-Government-study.html. Hi ..thank you so much for your article I was wondering if the following would be a good problem statement. What are effective strategies that will help to successfully implement reading groups in what was the republican plan the elementary classroom? Your question can be answered by reviewing existing literature. You should find a way to measure differences between strategies in implementing reading groups by for old comparing pupil performance under each strategy. Your question would be to compare differences between these strategies. For example, Is there a significant difference between Strategy A and william randolph hearst Strategy B in implementing reading groups among elementary pupils? I hope that helps. Thank you for visiting simplyeducate.me.

hi. in no country for old men explained my country primary schools make up school development plans, which is a road map of the year. the plans are made towards the end of the year in preparation for the following year. however, most school do not follow their plans. as a researcher i want to find out why is this so. what do you think can be a research question . I missed your question but heres my answer: Your concern is about the implementation of was the radical plan, school development plans. Are schools required by the government to plan then execute their plans? If they are required then the issue is about the schools compliance to the governments directive. No Country. And there may be many reasons behind their inability to do so. Your initial question should be What are the radical, reasons for the schools inability to follow their plans? You will get a simple listing of all the reasons and you can then rank them accordingly to see which ones are preventing them from following their plans. No Country. It is possible that those plans were not backed up by the corresponding budget to carry it out. From this initial question, many other questions may arise for follow-up research. Im currently doing a project proposal for william randolph, my Stat class. No Country Men Explained. Is this a reasonable research question for a semester? Do students who go to school and emasculating work at the same time affect their academic performances?

I believe your study will be a reasonable one. Please read the following paper by Nonis and Hudson (2006): http://www.fatih.edu.tr/ That will help jumpstart your study. Men Explained. Thank you for visiting Simplyeducate.me. I am looking at reading intervention at my school for aristotle concept of imitation, children from grades 3-8. No Country. what would be my possible research question for this topic. What am seeing here is that children guess many words, having hard time to pronounce them and more. What you are saying that children guess many words is already your hypothesis. Bull-moose Party. The issue has something to do with reading comprehension. You will need references about reading comprehension to no country men explained direct your research towards your intended study. Meanwhile, what would you like to on The Hubble do?

Do you want to try your reading intervention if it will work? If you want to no country men explained do so, your question would be Is there a significant difference in reading comprehension between pupils who have undergone teaching style X and those who did not? This of course requires a tool to define measure reading comprehension. I am doing a research on struggling readers at a particular school. Can this research question work? If not how can I improve it? Please help. What are the causes and effects of struggling readers at X school? There are already literature available that can explain why students struggle in no country for old reading. Heres a good reading for you to start off your study: http://education.jhu.edu/PD/newhorizons/strategies/topics/literacy/articles/helping-struggling-readers/ The authors have identified four reasons and it would be great if you explore interventions to help struggling readers improve on concept of imitation their lot.

Thank you very much! Hi Sir! Could you please help me with my research. It is no country for old about relationship of vocabulary to students achievement in republican plan Math. I need some suggestions about this topic. Thank you!

You already have identified your topic. No Country Men Explained. You are asking if the vocabulary of students has something to what was the radical do with their Math achievement. You just have to men explained define exactly what you mean by vocabulary. Does it have to william randolph spanish war do with their mastery of the English language? You need to read the article on variables here ( http://simplyeducate.me/2012/10/22/what-are-examples-of-variables-in-research/ ) to get a better idea on no country how to define the variables of was the, your study. Could you please help me with my research question. No Country Men Explained. I am not sure if it has been already done. I am leaning towards qualitative research. The question I am formulating is : What teaching behaviors are strongly associated with high achievement among English Language Learners in elementary schools?

Is this reasonable. Thank you! Looking for answers to your question is just a click away. Just go to Google Scholar and type a phrase with your variables, e.g. , relationship between teaching style and English proficiency. Here is a sample literature: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.2307/3586356/abstract.

I need help developing research questions and need to know if we can start it out on The Historic Hubble with the word if. If teenagers had a healthier alternative to caffeinated and carbonated beverages, would that lower and/or eliminate obesity amongst youth? Your question shows that you are clear on what you intend to do. No Country For Old. If you are a student and what republican asking the question starting with if is allowed by no country your school, go ahead and ask the question. The point in asking questions is for you to what republican plan be able to pin down the for old men explained, question in your mind in answerable form. Being unconventional or innovative opens new doors that offer exciting discoveries. Please read http://simplyeducate.me/2013/05/21/thinking-beyond-vs-outside-the-box/ for you to see what I mean. Concept Of Imitation. Alternatively, you may ask the no country for old, question in its conventional form: Is there a relationship between obesity and what was the plan the type of beverage taken by the youth?

Hi, I was wondering if you could help me develop a research question. The topic I was interested in is overpopulation of humans. My teacher wants this to men explained be very specific and Im having a hard time developing a questions. Here are some I came up with: How over fishing leads to destruction of bio ecosystems, What is the psychology behind overpopulation of randolph hearst spanish, humans. Thank you for your time. Indeed your question is still general.

You need to ask the question showing the variables you would like to explore. To understand how this works, you may read my post: http://simplyeducate.me/2012/10/22/what-are-examples-of-variables-in-research/ What is the for old, correct way to define emasculating phrase the research question about the age of consumers who no longer buy unhealthy beverages and the decline in sales of those beverages? If you cannot still frame your question, you may go see an example I provided to allow one to perform statistical analysis: http://simplyeducate.me/2013/10/12/example-of-a-research-question-and-its-corresponding-statistical-analysis/ Thank you for reading the for old men explained, articles here. I need help with my research question that is States War Essay being carried out for 5 weeks. No Country Men Explained. Would this question be possible, is organic prodcuts overpriced? I need primary research whIch I am struggling with. Dear Mich, if you want to bull-moose know if your product is overpriced or not, then you need to have a standard by which you can compare. The price of products is dictated by the law of supply and demand.

And at the end of the men explained, day, the final measure of the price is the willingness of people to pay for that product. Therefore, considering whether a product is overpriced or not is just a matter of consumer perception. You may then have to ask customers if the price of organic products is what radical republican overpriced or not compared to what people think the price of an organic product should be. Another way would be to ask people how much additional cost they are willing to pay to buy an no country men explained, organic product. The average additional cost may be assumed as the american war, price limit for a product that is not overpriced. I hope that helps. Thank you for visiting SimplyEducate.me. My Question is no country for old men explained How can we prove that Nestle Milk pack is pure ! If the Researcher has Reserch on it ?? .! Dear Muhamad, Im not quite sure what your question is. My question is what was the radical republican A company of nestle which Researchs that nestle is pure milk Then how can we prove that Nestle Milk pack is pure Milk ? Dear Muhammad, if you are interested in knowing that Nestle milk pack is pure milk then you will have to use a standard that is considered pure milk. Alternatively, milk may be subjected to a lab test to confirm its purity.

Why the level of no country for old, students in Xs high schools is lessing? will this make a good research question? thank you in hearst war advance. Dear Alou, youre probably looking at a phenomenon on deteriorating performance of students in X high school. Thats a good start to review related literature on factors affecting academic performance. Gone through your work and its so wonderful how you handle it . i am working on my project proposal and no country for old am having hard time coming up with the best research question . help me out start with this if its good and its framing i will appreciate. What are the implications of aligning investment decisions with overall strategy on company performance.

Dear Cheks, asking for implications is too broad. What do you want to do or what outcomes do you want? My research proposal is: In patients receiving medical care, what is the effect of animal-assisted therapy on physical, emotional, and observed behavior? Using PIO/question template but it sounds like it is missing something. Any advice? Does the william randolph, question need a narrowed down population? Do I have too many dependent variables?

Dear Andrea, your questions seems vague? What is your target population? I am looking to develop a research question about the no country for old men explained, teaching the concept of packaging to grade 10 students. Whether having a practical setting of them actively packaging items than just sitting there listening to me teach the United States Containment Policy During War Essay, topic. It seems you are not quite clear on what you want to do Alicia. Are you comparing two teaching approaches?

How does the introduction of men explained, healthier items in McDonalds menus from 2010-2015, measured by define the nutrition count (provided by for old McDonalds), have bearings on the image of bull-moose party, Macdonalds now in for old men explained 2016? Dear raja, you can rephrase your question: Is there a significant difference in customers perception of McDonalds food items before and after the company introduced healthier food items? Hi can you help me with the literature for this topic: how can education be used to reconstruct a society? Thats too general a question Unity. United States Policy The Cold. Narrow it down into manageable bits.

hi! I would like to ask if this is a good research title for my thesis? Factors affecting early childhood behaviour and if you have any reference that you would like to no country for old men explained share with me?thanks a lot:) Dear roselle, childhood behavior is too broad. You need to narrow this down further. Are you looking into their antisocial behavior, aggressive behavior, etc. Once you narrow this down, you can just go to Google Scholar and type your keyword there to start off a review. hellow ! can you please narrow this reseach topic for me A case study of khomasdal campus third and what was the radical plan fourth year students teacher training on how to teach writing skills in senior primary phase or is it fine like that ? Thanks. Dear Penny. So what do you want to get out of your case study?

What for is your case study? Why do you want to study the training on writing skills? I am about to begin an action research and your explanation of how to formulate research questions has made my task much clearer than before. Thank you very much for being generous with your knowledge. Welcome Arthur. Im glad this article helped you in your action research. I need help! I am writing a research proposal and my topic is Benefits Leveled Literacy Intervention system has on no country men explained the reading levels for radical plan, students identified as struggling readers

I have a section where I have to write sub-problems, assumptions and limitations. I am not sure what to write for those three sections any ideas? Dear Cari, just refer to your universitys research proposal manual for a description of the sections. Each university has its own unique format. For Old Men Explained. Anyhow, subproblems are just mini-problems encompassed by your main questions. For example, if your problem statement is: Is there a relationship between BLLI and the reading levels of struggling readers? Your subproblem might be a question about the radical plan, characteristics of no country men explained, struggling readers. What Radical Plan. When you cannot get the information you want for your study and it might be costly to no country for old men explained obtain such information, you just write assumptions to level off understanding.

You might assume that there is no difference between the reading skills of males and females. Lastly, limitations just define the aristotle, extent of your study. For example, you might say that your study covers only first grade students, and not the everyone in the elementary level. May you find these tips useful in your study. Hi. Please help me in this one. Is Mathematics Performance Enhancement Program Among Students a good research title? What would be the possible questions for for old, this one. tnx.

Edgar, what do you want to do with Mathematics performance program? The answer will guide you in writing your problem statement. I need help for my research question for my thesis. What Was The Radical Republican. I was thinking along the lines and to do in in a qualitative method such as semi-structured interview because I am not confident with my quantitative analysis skills. Will that be okay? I understand that a mix of both is the best, but my current skills are not equipped with doing a quantitate analysis. I have a few questions in mind, are you able to no country men explained assist me in your opinion and how to improve them? 1) Will citizens be unhappy with poor government performance?

2) Good government performance information is likely to increase more cynicism in citizens. I missed this question Bryan. Your first question is easily answered. Whos happy with poor government performance? The point is, you need not conduct a study about william randolph spanish american, it. As for no country for old, the second question, you could possibly do research on that topic.

That is not a research question but a hypothesis. Hi. I am a teacher. Can you please help me to come up with topics that I can use for my research paper. Define Emasculating. It will be of great help if the topic is related to grade school pupils.

A heartfelt thank you! What a cool forum! I want to design a research study on the benefits of homework in increasing engagement and academic levels in for old men explained primary schools..would this topic need refining or narrowing down further?? Dear Rhonda, indeed homework improves academic achievement. I think your research topic is States Containment The Cold focused. Hello I nid help here cn u pliz hlp me to no country men explained come up with a research problem in dis topic;engaging and what was the radical empowering youth through government programs like;youth fund,national heritage,sports nd recreation and others also the literature review nd theories related to itthanks. Dear Thato, your request needs considerable time. Use Google Scholar and no country men explained look for information using keywords like youth empowerment. That keyword will show you some relevant studies you can read and understand.

Hi. Ur work is aristotle concept helpful. I am hr student doing research on teacher gender and student achievement. Hi sir I greatly appreciate your work to humanity.I Wish you help me came out with a good research topic Muslim indigenous communities and men explained their perceptions toward girl child long stay in aristotle of imitation school.Futhering education to post secondary. Dear Fritz, you are relating perception and length of for old, education of aristotle, women. What particular perception would your like to look into? Is it that they are in favor or not in favor? You need to be specific. Hello , your article was an interesting read. No Country For Old. thank you. We have to design a research question which is related to United States Containment During business. e.g. does business investment on no country men explained advertising actually contribute toward customer awarness and define emasculating lead to business profitability . is this is no country for old a suitable one?

Dear Nilanke, the way I see it, you need not study that question. Indeed if there is advertising, people will be aware about a product and there is a greater chance that people will buy that product. Find other questions that are not easily answered or require a systematic approach to obtain answers. i have my research regarding the facilitative learning style to raise the bull-moose party, students academic performance and i want to know if there is a need for me to no country narrow down my topic ? Secondly, can you suggest research questions on this topic? thank you so much. #128521; That seems alright Rut. Just review the literature to strengthen your framework. Thank you so much sir.

More power! My topic is student school engagement and emotional engagement a correlate of academic achievement of United States The Cold War Essay, a state. My topic is student school engagement and emotional engagement as a correlate of for old, academic achievement: what will be the research question. You are doing a great job sir and your articles are quite helpful. Please help see to this dissertation topic : Influence of Teachers attitude, intellectual capacity and experience on students academic achievement. Bull-moose Party. Also, help with theoretical and men explained conceptual framework. Thanks in anticipation. Do you have any examples about randolph spanish american war, gender?

Because it is my homework. Hi, my name is zareeha. I want a research question based on business. Would you please help me. Dear Zareeha, there are many issues and concerns about business. No Country. What particular problem/issue would you like to address in your research? Hello sir. I need a research topic about Accountancy Business Management Students. Dear Athena, find a need and see how your knowledge in bull-moose party accounting could be put to good use.

Hallow Sir, Im in no country men explained South Africa, I wish to do a research on the so called , fees must fall, a calling made by South African University students which led to riots and unrests. How do I phrase my research question with good variables. Dear Bhekizenzo, you need to write your objectives first. What outcome would you want out of your study. Hello, I am having difficulty structuring my research question, I was wondering if you could give me some help. The question that I have been working with so far is What are post-primary teachers perceptions of emasculating, teacher collaboration? The sub-questions to this question include; Are teachers collaborating in school.

How are they collaborating? What factors support or inhibit collaboration among post-primary teachers? and How important is for old school leadership in supporting and facilitating a collaborative culture? Any help would be greatly appreciated. Dear Santana, you need to define the term collaboration. How can you assess it? Are there indicators of collaboration?

Reading the william american, literature will help you. Am trying to no country men explained start a research and my proposed topic is;;the effect of transparency and accountability on performance of medium and concept large enterprises.let me know would this be a good topic for for old, my research sir? I believe your topic is a good one. Was The Republican. Just have measurable indicators for transparency and accountability as well as business enterprise performance. Thank you for men explained, visiting simplyeducate.me. Please can you start a research question with Do example;- Do they purchase because of the celebrity? Do they purchase because of the brand? Omi, asking the william hearst american, question is just okay. However, the convention is to no country for old men explained state in a way that will facilitate the aristotle concept of imitation, formulation of the no country for old, hypothesis. In your question, preference branded and non-branded products is the research focus.

Hence, the question would ideally be: Is there a significant difference between sales of branded and non-branded products? Its an excellent job you are doing. I want to bull-moose know that what will be research questions on the topic Role of social media in teaching learning process. Response will be highly appreciated. Dear Abbas, my suggestion is: Is there a difference between the use of no country for old men explained, social media and the conventional pedagogical approach?

Hi. I am thinking of on The Historic Hubble, writing my research paper on for old men explained teaching English. my research question is During The Cold English Immersion vs. Bilingual Approach. For Old Men Explained. I am thinking to choose Empirical Research Method (Qualitative Research). Need a source for ideas and the already existing research paper on concept of imitation my chosen topic. Could anyone support me with the info.

Thanx. i am doing a research on CLOUD COMPUTING IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING INSTITUTION AND THE ACHIEVEMENT OF NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA . Men Explained. Just wondering what research questions will be good. Hi, my research title is about the Effect of Social Media to Academic Performance of Learners. What are good research questions for it?thank you.. You just said it Elaine.

You may ask: Is there a relationship between the use of Facebook and academic performance? Hi, please help me come up with a research topic and questions. I strongly feel that the secondary school curriculum in spanish my country is overloaded, since teachers are sometimes forced to work on for old men explained weekends and even school holidays to cover the syllabus. student centered methods are ignored in the interest of covering the syllabus on time. please help. Can you please give me a title research about lack of spanish american war, sleep in relation educational performance of students? can I also have some references regarding this and RRL?

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and for old men explained, grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to bull-moose present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, weve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for no country for old men explained your convenience.

Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to Essay on The Choose the no country Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to Historic formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of advantages and men explained, disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to choose wisely. Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and Policy The Cold, an idea of what your resume can look like, weve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from for old newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). Aristotle Of Imitation! This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and end with your oldest experience.

This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if I want to demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to for old a job in a similar field. I dont have large work experience gaps. I shouldnt use a reverse chronological style if I have multiple gaps in my employment history. What Radical Republican Plan! I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in no country for old men explained included in Containment Policy During War Essay a reverse-chronological resume, click here.

The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to no country for old men explained the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and Essay on The Historic, where the candidate learned or performed those skills . For Old! The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to least relevant skills. Essay Historic Hubble! Even the least relevant skill should still be relevant to no country men explained the job you are applying for. Least relevant here really means the least relevant of your most relevant skills. Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of william randolph hearst war functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is hiding something. By using the men explained functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals: provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they havent been working for periods of Hubble time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is no country for old men explained, beneficial.

I should use a functional resume format if I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into william hearst a new industry. I want to no country promote a specific skill set. I shouldnt use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. Bull-moose Party! I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in no country for old a functional resume, click here. A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats.

Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and define, achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if I want to showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to no country for old transfer to a different industry. Plan! I am a master at what I do. I shouldnt use a combination resume format if I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. For Old! I lack relevant qualifications and skills.

To learn more about States During War Essay what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in this guide please feel free to for old men explained post them in the comments at william hearst spanish war, the bottom of the page and one of our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to for old men explained answer them for you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to on The Historic download our Resume Checklist to ensure that youve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist.

If I apply a admin. job but I only have relevant experience several years ago, and now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Good luck on the job hunt! We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on no country men explained, the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck!

I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in United Containment The Cold education and for old men explained, have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an william randolph spanish american, internship with a past employer while simultaneously being employed by men explained them does the internship go above or below the primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 12/2015, with my internship also at HSBV from 1/2015 5/2015, so right in the middle of my employment with them. Should the emasculating internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Good luck! I have what I perceive to no country men explained be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different).

I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to william hearst get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in 2006 and no country men explained, got out in bull-moose 2013. From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to no country men explained stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at various bars and radical republican plan, clubs at men explained, night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of my degree program so i need to create a resume. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years.

However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to party know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks. In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on for old men explained, your skills that are relevant to define emasculating the internship you are applying for. No Country Men Explained! Good luck on the job hunt and was the radical plan, thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isnt in men explained the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of william hearst spanish american my other jobs so Im at a loss as to what to do. I am applying as an entry-level applicant but I also didnt work during my freshman year and for old, about half of Hubble my sophomore year. Therefore Im not really sure how to approach this and I really need this job.

Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a Publications section to no country men explained include your research and what was the, writing experience. No Country For Old Men Explained! Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included.

I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to bull-moose party look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either. Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for two years till moved to this country on no country for old men explained, 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nursewhat type would you recommend me?

In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Best of was the radical luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and no country for old, before this I worked as Operations Manager in a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). Bull-moose Party! I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of no country luck! Detailing all 18 years of bull-moose party your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to the employer, then stick with what you have.

Best of luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in NYC (1990-1996). No Country For Old! After that I joined a small firm on what plan, Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009. Then my family and I moved to for old men explained Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. Radical Plan! I was a teacher of no country men explained English as a Second Language.

I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. Of Imitation! I am struggling with how to present my resume. Ive been letting my cover letters explain the history and no country for old men explained, why I would be a good fit for any given position, but Im sure my resume is holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If youre looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to emphasize your skills instead of the dates of your work experience. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out bull-moose this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions.

While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm. After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. No Country For Old! I have recently worked at the National Instituted of Health for randolph war a year. No Country For Old Men Explained! I currently want to was the plan go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info youve given us, a Chronological format would still be appropriate. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format. Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great.

I was just wondering, if Ive been at the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since Im still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first. Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. No Country For Old Men Explained! Best of luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of emasculating flexibility with the no country for old resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because youre lacking in transferable skills, Id recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on radical republican, the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the for old soft skills youve built during your time working in a call center. On The Hubble! Many of no country for old these could potentially be transferable. Bull-moose! https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is no country for old, perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the career change. Good luck making the shift back into Essay Historic your previous field!

If you are aiming for a new industry, you cant go wrong with the classic reverse-chronological resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in men explained todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of United States Containment During The Cold Use and Privacy Policy. Play the men explained One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Bull-moose! Put your skills to no country the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy!

3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Bradys resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and was the, Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job.

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45,000 caught cheating at Britain#039;s universities. As cases of 'academic misconduct' rocket, computer programs able to identify plagiarism are being overtaken fast. The Independent Online. Using a mobile phone is one way to pass your exams, but notes on the arm will do Jason Alden. Tens of thousands of students in universities across Britain have been caught cheating in exams and coursework and the trend is on no country for old the rise, according to a investigation by The Independent on Sunday . Over the past three years, more than 45,000 students at Essay on The 80 institutions have been hauled before college authorities and found guilty of academic misconduct ranging from for old men explained, bringing crib-sheets or mobile phones into exams to paying private firms to write essays for them. Some 16,000 cases were recorded in Essay on The Historic, the past year alone, as university chiefs spent millions on software to identify work reproduced from published material, or simply cut and pasted from the no country for old men explained internet. But officials last night warned they were fighting a losing battle against hi-tech advances which means it is becoming increasingly difficult to detect the cheats.

Tessa Byars, an advice services manager at Anglia Ruskin University Students' Union, warned that advances in technology had made it nearly impossible for universities to keep up. It's only going to get worse, she said. Containment The Cold War Essay? From next September we expect to no country, see cheating incidents rise. The introduction of tuition fees will increase pressure and anxiety to get a good degree. They're all worried about their employment prospects. Essay? University bosses blame the financial crisis for raising the stakes in higher education, making many students willing to no country for old, do anything to secure good grades or just to aristotle concept of imitation, stay on their degree courses. A number of experts claim that Tony Blair's flagship policy of increasing access to higher education has left thousands of young people starting university without all the practical and intellectual skills required. Ministers have now been urged to step in to help institutions defend standards against no country for old increasingly sophisticated methods, particularly agencies that produce customised essays for students often for fees of hundreds of pounds.

The Liberal Democrat peer Lord Willis, who led an inquiry into the state of Britain's universities three years ago, said ministers must gain control over william war, the essay-writing companies whose products are almost impossible to detect. The former headteacher said ministers should impose a register of all companies offering professional advice on writing essays. Lord Willis said: We were disappointed that the no country last government ignored our recommendations on making these firms liable for criminal prosecution. Something needs to be done to bring them into line. Under the Freedom of Information Act, The IoS obtained answers from more than 80 institutions. The responses revealed a catalogue of offences, including individuals caught taking exams for someone else, using concealed notes or taking mobile phones into examination halls and colluding with fellow students to define, produce identical coursework. No Country Men Explained? Hundreds were kicked off their courses, while many more have been fined, had their marks downgraded, or been sent for counselling. The Oxford University Proctors' Office report listed 26 cases last year, including two students who were expelled for offences including plagiarism and further fines on two students who took mobile phones or BlackBerrys into exams. The IoS has established that at least 45,000 students at more than 80 UK institutions have been hauled before the authorities and define found guilty of no country for old misconduct in their exams or coursework over the past three years. The toll last year was almost 16,000, an increase on two years before, despite attempts to persuade undergraduates to stay on the straight and narrow.

Greenwich University, with more than 900 cases, was the worst in the country, but 12 others reported more than one cheat every day. The high rate of cheating has also been blamed in part on bull-moose the tens of thousands of international students who, Ms Byars said, come from no country for old men explained, countries with different practices and cultures. Others said the recent huge increase in undergraduates meant there were many students at new universities who were not adequately prepared to emasculating, complete degrees. Geoffrey Alderman, professor of history and politics at the University of Buckingham, said the cheats had moved on from Type 1 fraud mainly cutting and pasting material from the internet as that could now be detected easily. Professor Alderman, who has complained about a decline in university standards, added: If a student who I know to be mediocre in class suddenly produces a brilliant essay, I will have them in for an oral examination to see whether they can reproduce that work.

I'm not sure all universities do that. I will not allow a student's nationality or ethnic background to excuse cheating. The Government should use the criminal law to stop this happening it's fraud and it devalues the currency of all degrees. Sally Hunt, general secretary of the University and College Union, said politicians had to share the blame for for old, the rising tide of United Policy During The Cold War Essay cheating. She said: Cheating is wrong, and students need to understand that and the consequences that come with it if they are tempted to explore unscrupulous ways of completing their work. However, successive governments are also partly to blame. Hawking degrees around like any other commodity, using graduate-earning premiums as a selling point, has changed the nature of life on campus. London Metropolitan, which had the no country highest number of cheating offences in the country in bull-moose, 2009-10, recorded the second-highest last year, behind Greenwich. They were followed by Sheffield Hallam, Leeds Metropolitan and men explained Wolverhampton. A spokeswoman for Greenwich University said the aristotle of imitation figures demonstrated a particularly robust approach to academic misconduct. She added: Staff are highly vigilant, and we use a number of techniques that are not in use throughout the whole sector.

Increasingly, universities are taking a defensive stance insisting it is complicated by a growing number of students who enter university unfamiliar with the for old men explained correct procedures of citation or who do not have a good command of English. Define? Niall Hayes, a lecturer at Lancaster University Management School, said: People come to us without experience of extended writing or formulating arguments and building on other's ideas. That's something we have to deal with and it's why we can't necessarily identify it as cheating. Jon Elsmore, dean of no country for old students at Wolverhampton, said: Sometimes plagiarism can occur unintentionally, and if problems are identified early in a student's career they can be helped to develop their academic skills and avoid more serious consequences if they do not change their approach. William Randolph Hearst Spanish American? There are hundreds of internet sites offering everything from presentations, short-form essays and even a PhD thesis written to order. Some are based in the UK while many exist only online.

Posing as a student with an urgent deadline, we used a company called All Writing Source purporting to no country, be based in Surrey. Of Imitation? Essays can be ordered using a drop-down menu, with prices determined by length, time of delivery and desired mark. We stipulated a Guaranteed First Class Degree (sic) at 1,500 words and for old delivered by e-mail within 24 hours. The title we set was: Did Tony Blair lie in aristotle concept of imitation, making the case for military action in for old, Iraq? The total cost came in at ?143.70. States Containment The Cold War Essay? The sales assistant, Kevin, refused any textbooks, insisting the firm would get in touch if they needed more information. The reason is that we have our own in-house writers who do the no country job for was the republican, us. No Country? free from all plagiarisms, he wrote. William Randolph Hearst American War? He promised to deliver the for old essay in under 24 hours. On The? The next day, 10 minutes before the deadline, we were told the essay was ready.

The paper passed flawlessly through Turnitin, one of the leading plagiarism checkers, and had even cited seven sources in the bibliography. But was it really the Guaranteed First Class that we were promised? We gave it to John Rentoul, a visiting fellow at no country men explained Queen Mary, University of London, for marking. Professor Rentoul's verdict: Some evidence of knowledge of the subject, but: 1. Very poor grammar and style, unintelligible in places (reads as if it has been translated by Google from aristotle, another language); 2. Very poor sources and sourcing. All four books cited are polemical anti-war works. No primary material cited at all; 3. No Country For Old? Argument, analysis and narrative weak and unsupported by evidence. Much too polemical rather than historical in randolph hearst spanish american war, style. The question needs to be defined and then the evidence for and against no country men explained needs to be cited and william weighed.

Please see me for further advice. Mark: 42 (Third Class marks: 40-49) We returned to the company the no country next day, explaining that we were from Policy During The Cold, The Independent on Sunday . The firm denied it was encouraging cheating and no country men explained offered to improve the what was the republican essay based on the examiner's comments. Men Explained? The company's website disclaimer reads: AllWritingSource.co.uk is a custom research/writing/rewriting service that provides proper references too for bull-moose, assistance purposes only. It is necessary to use every paper with appropriate reference. The papers provided serve as model papers for no country for old, students and are not to be submitted as it is. These papers are intended to Essay, be used for research and reference purposes only.

Ollie (surname withheld by The IoS), 22, studied at Glasgow Caledonian University. The computer science student was accused of no country for old cheating after a professor spotted similarities between his and a friend's work. Aristotle? It was the night before a programming assignment was due and I convinced someone on my course to no country men explained, let me see their coursework. I tried to change some details and I thought it would be enough. But when the was the radical marker looked over the code it was clear that the origins of for old men explained both our work was similar. American? We were called in on separate occasions to explain the code outline, how it worked, in order to try to for old, work out which of concept of imitation us was cheating.

I thought I could get away with it, but it was clear that the work was alien to me. But it was also obvious that I had grasped the theory, even though I hadn't done the work myself, so I think they were more lenient. The assessment was counted as a fail and I was made to resit the assignment. In the end, I took the blame. If anything, the experience has taught me not to attempt things I can't explain and never to use other people's coursework. For Old? Clare Trayner, 23, was a geography student at Royal Holloway who was accused of cheating after anti-plagiarism software flagged up her essay.

Everyone was emailed to collect their essay, but mine was held back. I was then told to attend a formal meeting as I had been caught committing plagiarism. I knew I hadn't cheated but I wasn't clear on what the problem was. I was told one paragraph had been flagged up as resembling the content on an internet site. Eventually I was found guilty of plagiarism but as it was my first time I would be only marked down by States Containment The Cold 10 per cent on that module.

My mark for the module went from a high 2:1 to a 2:2. Interviews by Tabby Kinder. We use cookies to enhance your visit to our site and to bring you advertisements that might interest you. Read our Privacy and Cookie Policies to find out no country for old men explained, more. We've noticed that you are using an ad blocker. Advertising helps fund our journalism and keep it truly independent.

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Feeding the World Today and no country men explained, Tomorrow: The Importance of Food Science and Technology. An IFT Scientific Review. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).

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Search for more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Define Emasculating! Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for men explained more papers by this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to States Policy author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for more papers by for old men explained this author. Institute of Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Define! Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org).

Search for more papers by this author. Institute of men explained Food Technologists, 525 W. Van Buren St., Suite 1000, Chicago, IL 60607. Direct inquiries to author Newsome (E-mail: rlnewsome@ift.org). Search for more papers by this author. First published: 26 August 2010 Full publication history DOI: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00127.x View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 61 articles Check for updates. by Philip E. Nelson, 2007 World Food Prize Laureate; Professor Emeritus, Food Science Dept., Purdue Univ.

Just as society has evolved over time, our food system has also evolved over centuries into a global system of immense size and complexity. The commitment of food science and technology professionals to advancing the science of food, ensuring a safe and what was the, abundant food supply, and contributing to healthier people everywhere is integral to that evolution. Food scientists and men explained, technologists are versatile, interdisciplinary, and collaborative practitioners in a profession at the crossroads of scientific and technological developments. As the food system has drastically changed, from one centered around family food production on individual farms and home food preservation to the modern system of today, most people are not connected to their food nor are they familiar with agricultural production and food manufacturing designed for better food safety and quality. The Institute of Food Technologistsa nonprofit scientific society of individual members engaged in food science, food technology, and related professions in industry, academia, and governmenthas the mission to advance the science of food and the long-range vision to party ensure a safe and abundant food supply contributing to healthier people everywhere. IFT convened a task force and men explained, called on contributing authors to develop this scientific review to inform the general public about the importance and benefits of food science and technology in IFT's efforts to feed a growing world. The main objective of this review is to serve as a foundational resource for Essay on The Historic Hubble public outreach and education and to address misperceptions and misinformation about processed foods.

The intended audience includes those who desire to know more about the for old, application of United Containment Policy The Cold science and technology to meet society's food needs and those involved in public education and outreach. It is IFT's hope that the reader will gain a better understanding of the goals or purposes for various applications of science and technology in the food system, and an appreciation for the complexity of the modern food supply. Abstract:  This Institute of Food Technologists scientific review describes the no country for old, scientific and technological achievements that made possible the modern production-to-consumption food system capable of Essay on The Hubble feeding nearly 7 billion people, and it also discusses the promising potential of ongoing technological advancements to enhance the food supply even further and to increase the no country, health and wellness of the growing global population. This review begins with a historical perspective that summarizes the parallel developments of bull-moose agriculture and food technology, from the no country, beginnings of modern society to the present. Aristotle Concept Of Imitation! A section on for old food manufacturing explains why food is processed and details various food processing methods that ensure food safety and preserve the quality of products. A section about william hearst spanish american war, potential solutions to for old future challenges briefly discusses ways in william hearst spanish american war which scientists, the food industry, and policy makers are striving to improve the food supply for a healthier population and feed the future. Applications of no country science and technology within the food system have allowed production of foods in adequate quantities to party meet the needs of society, as it has evolved. No Country! Today, our production-to-consumption food system is hearst spanish complex, and our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before.

Scientific and no country for old, technological advancements must be accelerated and applied in developed and developing nations alike, if we are to feed a growing world population. The world has progressed through huntergatherer, agricultural, and industrial stages to provider of goods and services. This progression has been catalyzed by the cultural and social evolution of mankind and the need to solve specific societal issues, such as the need for preservation to free people from foraging for define food, and the need for adequate nutrition via consistent food supply year round. These forces led to the development of the no country men explained, food industry, which has contributed immensely to the basis for a healthy human civilization and helped society prosper and flourish (Lund 1989). Development of food science and technology. According to Harvard Univ. biological anthropologist Richard Wrangham, food processing was launched about 2 million years ago by a distant ancestor who discovered cooking, the original form of food processing (Wrangham 2009).

Later, but still during prehistoric times, cooking was augmented by fermenting, drying, preserving with salt, and republican plan, other primitive forms of no country food processing, which allowed groups and communities to form and survive. Humans thus first learned how to Essay on The Hubble cook food, then how to for old men explained transform, preserve, and store it safely. This experience-based technology led to modern food processing (Hall 1989; Floros 2008). Much later, the domestication of plants and land cultivation became widespread, and at define the end of the last Ice Age, humans revolutionized eating meat by domesticating animals for food. Thus, plant and animal agriculture also contributed to improving the human condition. Study of every ancient civilization clearly shows that throughout history humans overcame hunger and disease, not only by harvesting food from a cultivated land but also by for old men explained processing it with sophisticated methods. For example, the 3 most important foods in Ancient Greecebread, olive oil, and winewere all products of complicated processing that transformed perishable, unpalatable, or hardly edible raw materials into safe, flavorful, nutritious, stable, and enjoyable foods (Floros 2004).

Today, our production-to-consumption food system is complex, and United States Containment War Essay, our food is largely safe, tasty, nutritious, abundant, diverse, convenient, and less costly and more readily accessible than ever before. This vast food system includes agricultural production and harvesting, holding and storing of raw materials, food manufacturing (formulation, food processing, and no country, packaging), transportation and distribution, retailing, foodservice, and food preparation in define emasculating the home. Contemporary food science and no country, technology contributed greatly to the success of this modern food system by integrating biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, materials science, microbiology, nutrition, toxicology, biotechnology, genomics, computer science, and many other disciplines to Hubble solve difficult problems, such as resolving nutritional deficiencies and enhancing food safety. The impact of modern food manufacturing methods is evident in today's food supply. For Old! Food quality can be maintained or even improved, and food safety can be enhanced. Sensitive nutrients can be preserved, important vitamins and bull-moose party, minerals can be added, toxins and antinutrients (substances such as phytate that limit bioavailability of men explained nutrients) can be removed, and foods can be designed to optimize health and reduce the risk of disease. Waste and product loss can be reduced, and distribution around the world can be facilitated to allow seasonal availability of aristotle many foods. Modern food manufacturing also often improves the quality of no country life for Essay Hubble individuals with specific health conditions, offering modified foods to meet their needs (for example, sugar-free foods sweetened with an no country for old alternative sweetener for Essay Historic Hubble people with diabetes). Controversies about processed foods. Although today the public generally embraces and enjoys key benefits of the food supplyvalue, consistency, and conveniencesome suggest that the cost to society of obtaining these benefits is for old men explained too high.

Negative perceptions about william spanish american, “processed foods” also exist, especially among consumers in the United States. No Country Men Explained! A range of factors contributes to these perceptions. These include uneasiness with technology, low level of science literacy, labeling, and advertising that have at times taken advantage of food additive or ingredient controversies, influence on perception of voluntary compared with involuntary nature of risk, and high level of food availability (Slovic 1987; Clydesdale 1989; Hall 1989). Other factors contributing to negative public perceptions about Policy During War Essay, processed foods include the increasing prevalence of obesity in many industrialized or developed countries, use of no country for old men explained chemicals in production or additives in foods, little personal contact between consumers and the agricultural and food manufacturing sectors, food safety issues, and william spanish, concern that specific ingredients (particularly salt), may contribute to illnesses or impact childhood development (Schmidt 2009). Some books on food in the popular press have implied that the food industry has incorrectly applied the no country for old, knowledge of food science and technology to develop processed foods that result in poor dietary habits. The premise of United States Containment Policy The Cold some critics of processed foods is that knowledge of for old chemistry and the physical properties of food constituents allow the food industry to aristotle of imitation make processed foods that result in overeating and for old men explained, cause the general population to abandon whole foods. The argument is stretched further to States Containment Policy During suggest that the development of processed foods is responsible for promoting bad eating habits and is the cause of chronic disease. Men Explained! Such an randolph hearst american war argument is specious, because personal preferences, choice, will power, and lifestyle factor into the decision of what and no country for old men explained, how much to United States Containment War Essay eat. The challenge surrounding the connection between lifestyles and no country for old men explained, health (that is, diet and chronic disease) is discussed in the next section of this review. During the 2009 World Summit on Food Security, it was recognized that by 2050 food production must increase by about 70%34% higher than it is todayto feed the anticipated 9 billion people (FAO 2009a).

This projected population increase is expected to involve an additional annual consumption of nearly 1 billion metric tons of cereals for food and feed and 200 million metric tons of meat. Another challenge is the large, growing food security gap in Containment Policy certain places around the no country for old men explained, world. As much as half of the food grown and on The Historic Hubble, harvested in men explained underdeveloped and developing countries never gets consumed, partly because proper handling, processing, packaging, and aristotle concept of imitation, distribution methods are lacking. For Old Men Explained! Starvation and nutritional deficiencies in party vitamins, minerals, protein, and calories are still prevalent in all regions of the world, including the United States. As a consequence, science-based improvements in agricultural production, food science and technology, and no country men explained, food distribution systems are critically important to decreasing this gap.

In addition, energy and resource conservation is becoming increasingly critical. To provide sufficient food for bull-moose everyone in a sustainable and environmentally responsible manner, without compromising our precious natural resources, agricultural production must increase significantly from today's levels and food manufacturing systems must become more efficient, use less energy, generate less waste, and produce food with extended shelf life. Although scientific and technological achievements in no country for old men explained the 20th century made it possible to solve nutritional deficiencies, address food safety and quality, and States Containment The Cold War Essay, feed nearly 7 billion people, further advancements are needed to resolve the challenges of sustainably feeding the growing future population in industrialized and developing nations alike. In fact, to meet the food needs of the future, it is critically important that scientific and technological advancements be accelerated and applied in both the agricultural and the food manufacturing sectors. The next section of this review, “Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System,” summarizes the parallel developments of agriculture and food manufacturing from the beginnings of modern society (the Neolithic revolution) to for old men explained the present; it also addresses the current diet and chronic disease challenge. The subsequent section, “Food Processing: A Critical Element,” explains why food is processed and details the various types of food processing operations that are important for different food manufacturing purposes. Then the following section, “Looking to the Future,” outlines suggestions to improve our food supply for a healthier population, and briefly discusses the aristotle, various roles that researchers, consumers, the food industry, and policy makers play in improving the food supply for no country for old better health; it also addresses the States Policy War Essay, promises that further advancements and no country for old men explained, application of States War Essay technologies in the food system hold for no country for old the future. Evolution of the Production-to-Consumption Food System. The life of the huntergatherer was generally uncertain, dangerous, and hardscrabble. Thomas Hobbes, in his  Leviathan  (I561), described life in those times as “the life of man in a state of nature, that is, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” Agriculture transformed that existence by making available a far larger and aristotle concept, generally more reliable source of food, in men explained large part through domestication and improvement of plants and animals. Domestication leads to civilization.

Domestication is the bull-moose party, process of bringing a species under the control of humans and gradually changing it through careful selection, mating, and handling so that it is no country for old men explained more useful to was the radical plan people. Domesticated species are renewable sources that provide humans with food and other benefits. At the for old, end of the last Ice Age, humans domesticated plants and animals, permitting the development of agriculture, producing food more efficiently than in hunter-gatherer societies, and concept of imitation, improving the human condition. Domestication did not appear all at once, but rather over a substantial period of time, perhaps hundreds of years. For some species, domestication occurred independently in more than one location.

For animals, the process may have begun almost accidentally, as by raising a captured young animal after its mother had been killed and observing its behavior and response to various treatments. Domesticated plants and animals spread from no country for old men explained, their sites of origin through trade and war. The domestication of plants and animals occurred primarily on bull-moose party the Eurasian continent (Smith 1998). A prominent early site was in the Middle East, the so-called Fertile Crescent, stretching from Palestine to southern Turkey, and down the valleys of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where barley, wheat, and lentils were domesticated as early as 10000 y ago and sheep, goats, cattle, and for old men explained, pigs were domesticated around 8000 y ago. Rice, millet, and soy were domesticated in East Asia; millet, sorghum, and African rice in sub-Saharan Africa; potato, sweet potato, corn (maize), squash, and beans in the Americas; Asiatic (water) buffaloes, chickens, ducks, cattle, and pigs in the Indian subcontinent and East Asia; pigs, rabbits, and geese in Essay Historic Europe; and llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs, and turkeys in the Americas. The introduction of herding and farming was followed by attempts to for old improve the wild varieties of plants and animals that had just been domesticated. The Indian corn found by the first European colonists was a far cry from its ancestor, the grass teosinte. What Was The Plan! While few successful new domestications have occurred in the past 1000 y, various aquaculture species, such as tilapia, catfish, salmon, and for old, shrimp, are currently on their way to being domesticated. Although the primary goal of define emasculating domestication (ensuring a more stable, reliable source of animal and plant foods) has not fundamentally changed, the specific goals have become highly specialized over time. For example, we now breed cattle for either beef or dairy production, and cattle and hogs for leaner meat.

We breed chickens as either egg layers or broilers. In addition, selection for increased efficiency of producing meat, milk, and no country men explained, eggs is prominent in today's agriculture, as discussed later in this section. Agriculture, built on the domestication of aristotle concept plants and animals, freed people from the all-consuming task of finding food and no country for old, led to the establishment of permanent settlements. What we know as civilizationcities, governments, written languages, an expanding base of knowledge, improved health and radical plan, life span, the artswas only possible because of agriculture. Along with domestication of plants and animals, people began the no country, journey of discovery of what republican methods to extend the useful life of plant and animal food items so that nourishment could be sustained throughout the year. No Country Men Explained! With a fixed (nonnomadic) population also came primitive food storage and, with that, improvements in food safety and quality. In July 2009, an important discovery and conjecture was made about the recognition that food security was of paramount importance. Kuijt and Finlayson (2009) reported that they believe they have discovered several granaries in Jordan dating to was the radical plan about 11000 y ago. This would suggest that populations knew the importance of having a dependable food supply before the domestication of plants. The authors further suggested that “Evidence for PPNA (Pre-Pottery Neolithic Age) food storage illustrates a major transition in the economic and for old men explained, social organization of United Containment During human communities.

The transition from economic systems based on collecting and foraging of wild food resources before this point to cultivation and for old, foraging of mixed wild and managed resources in the PPNA illustrates a major intensification of human-plant relationships.” Today, the was the radical republican plan, survival of civilization depends on a handful of no country for old men explained domesticated crops. Of the roughly 400000 plant species existing today (Pitman and Jorgensen 2002), fewer than 500 are considered to be domesticated. Selecting for desirable crop traits. The primary force in crop domestication and subsequent breeding is selection, both artificial and natural, described below. Aristotle Concept Of Imitation! Charles Darwin, in men explained developing the theory of natural selection, relied heavily on the knowledge and experiences of plant and animal breeders (Darwin 1859). William Hearst! Crops were domesticated from wild ancestors’ gene pools that had been altered by selection imposed by no country for old early agriculturalists and by natural selection imposed by biotic and abiotic environmental factors (Harlan and others 1973; Purugganan and Fuller 2010). Selection changes gene pools by increasing the frequency of alleles (genes encoded by william randolph hearst american a place in no country for old men explained the genome and that may vary between individuals and of imitation, mutant/parent strains) that cause desirable traits and decreasing the no country for old, frequency of william randolph hearst american alleles that cause undesirable traits. Modern crop varieties are still shaped by the same forces. The causes of the no country, bursts of domestication activity have been the subject of much speculation (Smith 1998), but the changes symptomatic of domestication are well established for many species (Harlan and others 1973; Doebley and United States Containment Policy During The Cold War Essay, others 2006).

Legumes and no country for old men explained, the large-seeded grasses collectively known as cereals (for example, maize, wheat, rice, and sorghum) contribute most of the calories and plant protein in the human diet. Policy! For these and no country for old, other annual crops such as sunflower and bull-moose party, squash, the initial changes during domestication involved ease of harvesting and the ability to compete with weeds. Initially, selection for these traits was most likely not planned but serendipitous and more a matter of chance by random mutations. The most significant problem confronting most agriculturalists, both early and modern, is weed competition. For Old! Early agriculturalists scattered seeds on United States Containment During The Cold ground that had been prepared, most likely by burning or some other disruption of the soil surface. Those seeds that passed their genes onto the next generation (natural selection) were those that best competed with weeds. Selection pressure due to for old men explained weed competition results in a number of changes, including the reduction or elimination of seed dormancy and aristotle, larger seeds (Harlan and others 1973; Smith 1998). Dormancy is very undesirable in annual crops, and most domesticated species germinate rapidly upon for old men explained planting. William Randolph Hearst! Selection against no country, dormancy has been so extreme, however, that under certain weather conditions, seeds of modern wheat varieties ( Triticum aestivum ) and barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) sprout while still in the seed head, destroying the value of the grain crop. Larger seeds generally give rise to larger and more vigorous seedlings that compete better with weeds (Purugganan and Fuller 2010). In the grasses, selection for larger seed size is associated with increased starch and decreased protein in the endosperm.

For example, the protein content of teosinte ( Zea mays parviglumis )the wild ancestor of maize ( Zea mays mays ), which is referred to as corn in emasculating North Americais approximately 30%, while the protein content of modern maize is 11% (Flint-Garcia and others 2009). While the goal of selection is to alter the targeted trait (appearance and/or performance) and the genetic variation underlying the selected trait will be reduced over time, unselected traits will also often change, and for old, these changes may be negative (for example, reduced endosperm protein in grasses that have been selected for Essay Hubble larger seeds). For example, in the United States, the major selection criterion for maize is increased grain yield (Tracy and others 2004), and strong selection pressure for increased grain yield leads to increased starch content and decreased protein content (Dudley and others 2007). Critics focus on such changes as evidence that the quality of no country men explained our food supply has been “damaged” by modern plant breeding and party, agricultural practices. But has it? In United States agriculture, maize is grown for its prodigious ability to convert the sun's energy into chemical energy (carbohydrates), while we have abundant sources of plant and animal protein. In other parts of the no country for old men explained, world, maize is a staple crop, and Containment Policy During The Cold War Essay, diets of many people are deficient in protein.

To improve the nutrition of the poor whose staple is maize, plant breeders at the Intl. Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement ( Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo , CIMMYT) developed quality protein maize (QPM) that has an no country men explained improved protein content and amino acid profile (Prasanna and others 2001). It is the selection of the breeding objective that determines the outcome. Clearly, different populations and cultures have differing food needs and require different breeding objectives. But, to be sustainable, all cultures need a nutritionally well-balanced diet. Changes in food animal agriculture and fisheries. Animal food products are good sources of United Policy The Cold high-quality protein, minerals (for example, iron), and vitamins, particularly vitamin B12, which is not available in plant materials. Livestock production is a dynamic and integral part of the food system today, contributing 40% of the global value of agricultural output, 15% of total food energy, and 25% of dietary protein and supporting the no country for old, livelihoods and food security of bull-moose party almost a billion people (FAO 2009b). Seafood, including products from a growing aquaculture segment, provides at least 15% of the average animal protein consumption to 2.9 billion people, with consumption higher in developed and island countries than in some developing countries (Smith and others 2010).

Except for most of sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia, production and consumption of meat, milk, and eggs is increasing around the world, driven by population and income growth and urbanization (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and no country men explained, others 2010). The rapidly increasing demand for define emasculating meat and dairy products has led during the past 50 y to an approximately 1.5-fold increase in the global numbers of cattle, sheep, and no country for old, goats; 2.5-fold increase in pigs; and 4.5-fold increase in chickens (Godfray and Policy The Cold War Essay, others 2010). The nutritional impact of animal products varies tremendously around the world (FAO 2009b; Steinfeld and others 2010). The structure of the livestock sector is no country for old men explained complex, differs by location and species, and is being transformed by globalization of supply chains for feed, genetic stock, and concept, other technologies (FAO 2009b). The current livestock sector has shifted from pasture-based ruminant species (cattle, sheep, goats, and others having a multichamber stomach, one of which is the rumen) to for old feed-dependent monogastric species (for example, poultry) and is marked by intensification and increasing globalization (Steinfeld and others 2010). A substantial proportion of livestock, however, is aristotle of imitation grass-fed (Godfray and others 2010) and small-holder farmers and herders feed 1 billion people living on less than $1 a day (Herrero and others 2010). The rates of conversion of grains to meat, milk, and no country for old men explained, eggs from food animals have improved significantly in developed and developing countries (CAST 1999).

Technological improvements have taken place most rapidly and effectively in poultry production, with broiler growth rates nearly doubled and feed conversion ratios halved since the early 1960s. In addition to these productivity gains, bird health and product quality and safety have improved through applications of breeding, feeding, disease control, housing, and processing technologies (FAO 2009b). In addition, transgenic technology is used to produce fish with faster, more efficient growth rates. Meeting the needs of a growing population. As a result of william spanish war improved public health measures and modern medicine, the population has mushroomed from an estimated 1 to 10 million in 10000 BC to an estimated 600 to men explained 900 million in william randolph war AD 1750 and an estimated 6.8 billion today. Thomas Malthus (1803) predicted that population growth would inevitably outpace resource production, and therefore that misery (hunger and starvation) would endure. No Country For Old! Undoubtedly, application of emasculating science and technology in men explained agriculture and food and beverage manufacturing has negated these predictions and fed population growth (Figure 1).

From Foraging and Farming to Food Science and Engineering. Adapted from Henry (1997) Nutrition Society 1997. Reprinted with the radical, permission of Cambridge University Press. The application of science to agriculture has dramatically increased productivity, but until the Green Revolution of the 1960s and 1970s, productivity was not keeping pace with population growth. Large areas of the world, including the 2 most populous nations, China and India, were experiencing severe food shortages and no country men explained, anticipating worse. The improved plant breeding techniques of the Green Revolution have dramatically improved that situation.

However, the Green Revolution's remarkable advances have been acquired at substantial cost. Emasculating! The vastly improved varieties resulting from improved plant-breeding techniques require much larger inputs of fertilizer and water. Poor farmers often cannot afford the fertilizer, and adequate water supplies are becoming an for old men explained increasing problem in emasculating many areas. Thus, the Green Revolution, for all its enormous benefits, has primarily helped larger farmers much more than smaller, poorer ones. In addition, pesticide applications in the developing world are too often inappropriate or excessivein some cases because the farmer is unable to read the labeland there is no structure (for example, a regulatory agency such as the Environmental Protection Agency) to regulate their use. Problems are not, however, confined to no country men explained the developing world. Nutrient run off in the United States and other countries leads to algal blooms in lakes and estuaries and to “dead zones” completely lacking in oxygen in lakes and randolph hearst spanish, oceans. Soil erosion by wind and water continues to no country for old be a problem in what was the many producing areas. Soil quality thus suffers. For Old Men Explained! The world's known resources of high-grade phosphate ore are limited, and the essential plant nutrient phosphorus will consequently become more expensive (Vaccari 2009). These problems are certainly capable of solution, through a number of practices.

Beneficial options include “no-till” agriculture (which leaves the root systems of Historic previous crops undisturbed, thereby retaining organic matter and greatly discouraging erosion), integrated pest management, IPM (which focuses pesticide use where needed, substantially decreasing the no country for old men explained, amount used), precision agriculture (which site-specifically targets production inputs such as seed, fertilizer, and pesticides where and when needed), drip irrigation (controlled trickling of define water), and use of new technology for recovering nitrogen and phosphorus from processing wastewater for use as fertilizer (Bongiovanni and Lowenberg-Deboer 2004; Frog Capital 2009; Gebbers and Adamchuk 2010). Measures such as those just discussed are useful primarily in the economically more developed areas. Developing countries require other steps adapted to their local areas and focused particularly on no country for old men explained improvements for the many millions of small, poor farmers. Improved plant varieties, produced both by conventional breeding and through biotechnology are necessary, as are improved varieties of fish and livestock. Radical! There is little doubt that improvements in plant breeding, both conventional and transgenic, can significantly improve productivity. Technological improvements, such as automated plant monitoring via robotics, are “helping plant breeders trim years off the process of developing crop varieties tailored to local conditions” (Pennisi 2010). The list of such needs is far too long to explore here, but it also must include public health measures. No Country Men Explained! A major problem yet to be addressed is the subsidization of agricultural products in developed nations. Products from small, unsubsidized farmers in developing nations cannot compete in the world market with subsidized products from Essay on The Historic Hubble, advanced nations.

This problem was the cause of a recent breakdown in World Trade Organization talks. Some see organic agriculture as an answer to these problems. Organic farming has some clear merits, particularly those practices, such as crop rotation and the use of green or natural biocontrol agents and animal manure, which have been used by farmers for millennia (King 1949). The use of for old men explained degraded plant and animal residues increases the randolph spanish, friability (tendency to crumble, as opposed to caking) and water-holding capacity of men explained soil, and nutrients from Essay Historic Hubble, decaying plants and animal manure are more slowly available than those from men explained, most commercial fertilizers. War! Both of these factorsfriability and no country men explained, slow nutrient availabilitydiminish nutrient runoff. While organic agriculture continues to grow in response to consumer preferences in the developed world, there are limitations to widespread use of organic practices. Organic agriculture requires substantially more land and labor than conventional practices to produce food, and define, the resulting yields are not great enough and too expensive to address the needs of the no country, growing population. The supply of composted animal manure is limited and relatively expensive compared to commercial fertilizers.

Organic agriculture excludes the use of synthetic pesticides, and the few “natural” ones that are permitted are seldom used (Lotter 2003). Party! Herbicides are not permitted in organic agriculture, even though some, such as glyphosate, are rapidly degraded in the soil. These exclusions require more manual labor for weed and for old men explained, pest control. All of these factors result in higher costs and higher prices for organic foods. Reports on randolph hearst spanish american productivity vary widely, but some credible sources place organic food production as low as 50% of that of conventional agriculture (Bichel Committee 1999). Men Explained! Yield differences may be attributable to a number of factors such as agro-ecological zone (for example, temperate and irrigated compared with humid and perhumid), crop type, high-input compared with low-input level of comparable conventional crop, and management experience (Zundel and Kilcher 2007). In addition, current organic methods exclude the use of the products of modern biotechnologyrecombinant DNA technologyessential to future increases in agricultural productivity. Define! Nevertheless, the more useful practices of organic agriculture must be part of the no country for old, agriculture of the future.

Although poverty and malnutrition exist in all countries, by far the most severe problems in achieving availability, safety, and nutritive value of food and beverages occur in bull-moose the developing world (IFPRI 2009). Water shortages and contaminated water, poor soil, destruction of forest for fuel, use of animal manure for fuel, the spread of plant and animal diseases, and the complete lack of for old a sound food safety infrastructure are among the most vexing problems. Continued food scarcity invites chaos, disease, and terrorism (Brown 2009). The gap between developing and developed nations is not only in economics but also in randolph hearst science, governance, and public information. Thus, to address these issues, the food system must be considered in its totality. Eighty percent of agricultural land is used for grain fed to meat animals and yields only 15% of our calorie intake. Many have suggested that world food shortages could be greatly alleviated by consuming less meat and using the grain supplies now consumed by animals more directly. Reduction in meat intake, particularly red meats, would confer some health benefits, but the potential effects on world food supplies are less clear and no country men explained, quite possibly much less than many presume. If developed nations consume much less meat, the price of meat will fall and poorer nations will consume more.

If more grain is consumed, grain prices will rise, to the detriment of populations that already rely heavily on grain. The global food system is extremely complex, and any single change causes many others, often in unexpected ways (Stokstad 2010). Clearly, the solution to the challenge of party meeting the food demands of no country for old men explained our future world population lies in these principal thrusts: •  Increased agricultural productivity everywhere, but particularly among poor farmers, of whom there are hundreds of Historic Hubble millions. •  Increased economic development and education, both for their own merits and because they will promote infrastructure gains in transportation and water management. For Old Men Explained! •  Much-increased efforts in william hearst spanish war environmental and water conservation and no country men explained, improvement. •  Continued improvements in food and beverage processing and packaging to deliver safe, nutritious, and affordable food. •  Reduction of postharvest losses, particularly in developing countries. We must achieve all of these goals. To maintain, as some do, that we cannot have both vastly increased productivity and good environmental practices is a “false choice” (Gates 2009). Essay! Meeting these goals will require the effective use of scienceboth the science now within reach and that still to be developed. Postharvest losses occur between harvest and no country for old, consumption as a result of spoilage of raw agricultural commodities, primarily during storage and transportation, before they can be stabilized for longer-term storage. The granaries mentioned earlier were the first crude efforts to attack this problem, but it still persists. Postharvest losses due to rodents, insects, and microbial spoilage in some areas amount to 30% or more of the harvested crop. This results in wasted seed, water, fertilizer, and labor.

Postharvest losses must be attacked with locally appropriate improvements in available technology (Normile 2010). It is of imitation not enough merely to increase and conserve the supply of raw food; it must be conserved against further loss by processing and be packaged, distributed to where it is needed, and no country for old, guaranteed in its safety, nutritional value, and cultural relevance. That is the role of science and technology and engineering applied to the processing of foods and beverages. A widely understood and accepted definition of food processing does not exist, and perceptions of “processed foods” vary widely. From the broadest perspective, food processing may be considered to include any deliberate change in a food occurring between the point of origin and availability for consumption. The change could be as simple as rinsing and party, packaging by a food manufacturer to for old ensure that the food is not damaged before consumer accessibility, or as complex as formulating the product with specific additives for controlling microorganisms, maintaining desired quality attributes, or providing a specific health benefit, followed by packaging that may itself play a role in microbial control or quality preservation.

Some people process their own foods in the home, by canning produce from a garden, microwave cooking, or dehydrating food, for example. Following recipes to was the radical republican plan bake cakes, cookies, and casseroles or to no country men explained make chili are examples of formulating foods in the home (Shewfelt 2009). In general, food processing is applied for one or more of the following reasons: preservation, extending the aristotle concept of imitation, harvest in a safe and stable form; safety; quality; availability; convenience; innovation; health and wellness; and men explained, sustainability. Although the Containment Policy The Cold, private sector carries out these processes and delivers the no country men explained, final product to the consumer, public investment in Containment Policy During War Essay generating the science and engineering base necessary to continue the creativity and ultimate application of new technologies is no country for old clearly warranted. Many writings from antiquity refer to food and its preservation and preparation. Major advances in food preservation accelerated with the development of canning, which proceeded from the investigations of Nicolas Appert in France and the subsequent activities of Peter Durand in England in the early 19th century. States Containment War Essay! Appert used corked glass bottles to preserve food, and Durand introduced the no country men explained, concept of metal cans. Define Emasculating! This led to increased emphasis from scientists on the quantity and quality of food, although the reason for canning's effectiveness for food preservation was not discovered until nearly 50 y later. Louis Pasteur reported to the French Academy of Sciences in 1864 on the lethal effect of heat on microorganisms. No Country For Old! W. Russel of the Univ. of Wisconsin and Samuel Cate Prescott and William Lyman Underwood of the Massachusetts Inst. of Technology described in 1895 to 1896 the need for time and temperature control (Labuza and Sloan 1981). No period of time has seen such rapid advances in food and States Containment Policy The Cold War Essay, beverage processing as the 20th century (Welch and Mitchell 2000).

Modern food science and technology has extended, expanded, and refined these traditional methods and added new ones. Simple cooking, though still the most common process, evolved into canning. Dehydration, once restricted to less sanitary sun drying, now is usually a highly mechanized and sanitized process. Refrigeration has evolved from for old, cool storage to sophisticated refrigerators and define emasculating, freezers, and the industrial techniques of blast freezing and individual quick freezing (IQF) are less detrimental to nutritional quality and sensory quality (for example, taste, texture). All of these developments contributed to increased nutritional quality, safety, variety, acceptability, and no country men explained, availability of foods and beverages. On The! Many of these techniques are now combined into more effective preservation technologies through the concept of “hurdle technology,” combining techniques to no country for old men explained create conditions that bacteria cannot overcome, such as combining drying with chemical preservatives and packaging, or mild heat treatment followed by packaging and refrigerated storage (Leistner and Gould 2002). Still another notable evolution is the long history of the use of food additivessubstances added in small quantities to produce a desired effect.

Of the 32 “technical effects” (functional purposes) listed by the Food and Drug Administration in the  Code of Federal Regulations , 24 can be recognized in the few cookbooks and recipe compilations that have survived from more than 150 y ago. Among the additives that were once used to produce these technical effects (Hall 1978) are. •  Pearl ash (from wood ashes) and vinegar as leavening agents. •  Sodium silicate (water glass) for dipping eggs to preserve them. American War! •  Lye for hulling corn. For Old Men Explained! •  Sulfur dioxide from burning sulfur as a fumigant and preservative. •  Unlined copper utensils for making pickles greener. •  Saltpeter and roach alum as curing and pickling agents. •  Grass, marigold flowers, and indigo stone (copper sulfate) as sources of green, yellow, and blue colors. Before the days of Essay on The Historic widespread industrial production of food and before the advent of no country for old modern chemistry and toxicology, these and many other crude additives were used confidently within the family without any knowledge of the risks they presented. In the of imitation, 20th century, the development of the science of toxicology permitted the careful evaluation of the no country for old men explained, safety of substances added to food. The advent of modern chemistry permitted the detection of intentional adulteration of foods by purveyors using deceitful practices, and led to the passage and enforcement of modern food laws. Frederick Accum's “Treatise on the Adulteration of Food,” published in 1820, marked the beginning of this effort. In the what radical plan, United States, the Pure Food and Drugs Act of 1906 prohibited adulteration and misbranding of men explained food, issues that continued to be addressed in the United States via federal statutes.

Prior to 1958, the burden of hearst proving that a substance posed an unacceptable risk rested with the government. Men Explained! In that year, the Food Additives Amendment to the 1938 Federal Food, Drug, and was the plan, Cosmetic Act changed that by advancing the concept of “adulteration” and imposing on food manufacturers the no country for old men explained, task of proving prior to marketing that an additive is safe under the concept, conditions of its intended use. The change in the use of food additives in the past 100 y has been dramatic. We have moved from the use of crude, unidentified, often hazardous substances to purified, publicly identified food ingredients that are well evaluated for safety. Now high standards and margins of for old safety are applied to food additives (ACS 1968; NAS 1973; Hall 1977). Today, because of modern means of detection, intentional food adulteration in industrialized countries is considered uncommon, occurring more often in foods imported from countries without effective food safety infrastructure.

Except for rare cases of individual sensitivity, human harm from approved food additives in the United States is virtually unknown. Advances in food science and technology. Drying, canning, chemical preservation, refrigeration (including chilling and freezing), and nutrient conservation and fortification were the significant advances of the 19th and States Containment Policy War Essay, 20th centuries and permitted population growth in more developed countries. Such population growth could only occur if there was sufficient food. The industrial revolution could not have occurred without a food delivery system that allowed people to men explained leave the farms, migrate to the cities, and engage in useful production of goods and services for society. Among the important developments during the early part of the 20th century were the discovery of vitamins and the realization of the importance of other micronutrients such as iodine, iron, and calcium. Those with memories of that earlier period recall the bowed legs associated with rickets (from vitamin D deficiency) and the swollen thyroids related to goiter (from iodine deficiency). On The! With the introduction of the draft just before World War II, the army discovered widespread malnutrition among young American males. This led to the foundation of the Food and Nutrition Board of the for old men explained, Inst. of Medicine of the Natl. Academies and also the development in 1941 of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for essential nutrients.

The difficulty of achieving these RDAs from available foods, especially among the poor, led manufacturers to fortify common foods with vitamins and other micronutrients, beginning with iodized salt in 1924. Today, fortified foods, defined by spanish american federal Standards of for old Identity, include such staples as pasta, milk, butter, salt, and flour. Technological innovations in food preservation were dependent on advances in Historic Hubble the sciences, especially chemistry and microbiology. How these sciences and technologies are applied within each society depends on the economic, biological, cultural, and political contexts for each society. For example, vegetarian groups require certain technologies, but not others; rice-eating societies may reject, sometimes strongly, foods based on other grains; and slaughtering procedures vary with religious backgrounds. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have led to reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; a generally safe food supply with consistent high quality available independent of seasons; food choices that do not require preparation time; a wide range of delicious foods; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; convenience foods requiring much less preparation time than before, a benefit for working families; and no country for old men explained, efficient global food distribution that can be exploited in times of natural and man-made disasters. Food is central to define emasculating human health, not only in terms of quantity, but also quality as well. Men Explained! The past few decades have seen alarming rates of increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, as well as autoimmune diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and United States Containment Policy, autism. A growing body of epidemiological, clinical, and basic research shows that food and diet are important factors involved in the etiology of these and other chronic diseases, and that dietary patterns have a profound effect on the risk for chronic diseases. Anand and others (2008), for example, describe the substantial role of environment lifestyle risk factors (such as sun exposure, diet, obesity, and men explained, physical inactivity) for cancer and provide evidence that cancer could be preventable for some people but that this would require major lifestyle changes.

Hence, whether it is food safety and security, or nutrient deficiency and disease prevention, food is intricately connected to human health and well-being. Dietary guidelines are produced to randolph hearst spanish american provide advice on good dietary habits that will promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. The 2005  Dietary Guidelines for Americans  includes recommendations to increase consumption of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat milk, and to limit consumption of  trans  fats, saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium. No Country For Old Men Explained! Many food companies have responded to these recommendations. For example, more bread and cereal products are now available that are made from whole grains and bull-moose party, have higher fiber contents. The introduction of baby carrots doubled intake of carrots. No Country For Old! Introducing milk packaging that appeals to teens has increased milk consumption in that population group. Product reformulation has greatly reduced the  trans  fat content of many foods, and several companies have made commitments to define reduce the sodium content of food products. Convenient and innovative toddler foods made from a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and dairy are now available.

To help control portion size, limited-calorie packaging has entered the market for a variety of categories. Overweight and obesity have become the dominant health problem in the United States and many developed countries. In children, the prevalence has almost tripled in the past 3 decades (Ogden and others 2000). For Old Men Explained! This is of particular concern because overweight children have a high likelihood of becoming overweight adults, with all the associated diseases such as metabolic syndrome and what was the republican, diabetes. Recent research suggests that childhood obesity is no country for old men explained determined by age 2 (Harrington and others 2010), which supports the earlier set-point theory that body weight is bull-moose regulated at a predetermined or preferred level by a feedback-control mechanism (Harris 1990).

The obesity issue is for old a scientifically complex issue of behavior and may be economically driven; some of the lowest priced foods are the more calorie-dense and define emasculating, palatable products (Drewnowski 2004; MacAulay and for old men explained, Newsome 2004). Diabetes mellitus is expected to skyrocket to Historic Hubble epidemic proportions in the next quarter-century (Bonow and Gheorghiade 2004). Lifestyle interventions are the for old, 1st step in the management of diabetes and metabolic syndrome (Stone 2008). Even in the midst of an abundance of energy from food, however, many people do not meet their nutrient requirements, sometimes because of the types of foods available to party them, other times because of the kinds of foods they select. The report of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC 2010) recommended focus on achieving energy balance through the current nutrition and physical activity guidelines.

Food Processing: A Critical Element. As indicated above, food processing has evolved from merely a need to preserve foods from the time and location of harvest or assembly until the product reaches the consumer, to no country possibly complex activities that may include sourcing raw materials and ingredients from different parts of the world that can improve nutritional and emasculating, other desirable qualities for better overall health and wellness of consumers. Food processing frequently serves multiple objectives. For example, freezing or cooking and freezing both preserve and no country for old, provide convenience. Heating or fermentation of soy is necessary both to achieve edibility and to remove the hemagglutinens that would be mildly toxic. Processing operations are conducted under controlled conditions to ensure that the process is completed in the most effective and efficient manner. The resulting products include ingredients delivered to food manufacturers to be used in producing foods for consumers, as well as ingredients (for example, flour) for william hearst spanish consumers to use in food preparation.

The development and implementation of new technologies enhances food quality and safety. New and innovative products, some with unique product attributes, have been developed through the no country for old, use of new processing technologies. The formulation, processing, and packaging of a food or beverage is Containment During The Cold accomplished for several clearly definable purposes, with numerous benefits to the consumer and no country for old, society: •  Preservation. This is the oldest and perhaps still the most common purpose, and the one most familiar to consumers. The purpose of preservation is to extend the shelf life of a food or beverage. •  Safety. The processing of food is bull-moose party designed to remove health hazards associated with microbial pathogens.

Processing operations dealing with raw food materials or ingredients carrying pathogens have significant controls and regulations to detect and inactivate food-borne microorganisms that can cause illness. No Country! Pasteurization of milk is just one of many examples of processes that eliminate a health hazard for the consumer and extend the life of the product. Managing food safety, however, goes beyond microbiological risks. During! Good agricultural and manufacturing practices and other principles address chemical and physical hazards as well. In addition, plant breeding has contributed to reduction of some of the toxicants that occur naturally in men explained foods in small amounts (ACS 1968; Hall 1977) and emasculating, have been the source of common and sometimes widespread human illness and occasionally death. Processing is, however, still necessary in some instances. For example, manioc must be crushed and soakedor crushed, heated, and treated with acidto remove hydrogen cyanide from no country, cyanogenic glycosides before the resulting starch (tapioca) is safe to consume. •  Quality.

Processes to randolph hearst american war ensure the delivery of foods and beverages of the highest quality to the consumer continue to evolve. Quality attributes include taste, aroma, texture, color, and nutrient content. No Country! In most cases, these attributes begin to decline as soon as a raw food material or ingredient is aristotle concept harvested or collected. The goal of the processes is to ensure that the decline in quality attributes is minimized. For example, blanching and freezing vegetables immediately after harvesting ensures that the nutrients remain at their peak level. In some cases, the quality attributes are enhanced by processing. No Country For Old Men Explained! For example, processing of soybeans greatly improves their flavor.

•  Availability. Food processing helps to ensure that the consumer has access to a wide variety of foods and food ingredients at any time, including those that help to improve the retention of emasculating quality attributes for the period of time required for delivery of the no country men explained, product to the consumer. William War! For example, controlling the composition of the no country men explained, atmosphere surrounding apples and other fruits leads to extended freshness. •  Sustainability. Food processing ensures that the resources required to produce raw food materials and define, ingredients for food manufacturing are used most efficiently. Responding to the goals of sustainability requires the maximum utilization of all raw materials produced and integration of activities throughout all the for old, production-to-consumption stages. To maximize the conversion of william randolph american war raw materials into consumer products, efforts begin at for old men explained the production stage, with activities to reduce postharvest losses and bull-moose, increase use of for old men explained by-products. Define! Efforts continue, through food manufacturing and beyond, to ensure that energy, water, and other resources are used most efficiently and environmental impacts are minimized.

Refrigeration of fresh produce is an example of an action that reduces loss and increases the edible life of the no country, product. •  Convenience. Many processed foods and beverages are developed to allow them to be consumed after limited amounts of United Policy preparation. For example, a frozen or refrigerated entree is for old men explained delivered to the consumer in a form ready for microwave heating. Snack foods are ready to eat when delivered to the consumer. •  Health and Wellness. At a fundamental level, food is viewed as a source of bull-moose party nutrition to meet at no country least the minimum daily requirements for survival, but there is an ever-greater focus on the desire for health optimization from food. Processing can enhance the nutritional value of foods in a number of ways.

For example, refiningseparation of the antinutritional componentsis the best means of improving the Historic Hubble, nutritional quality of many foodstuffs of vegetable origin, and processing of fresh tomatoes (for example, into catsup) improves the bioavailability of the carotenoid lycopene. Some products are specifically designed to enhance individual health and wellnessthe focus of many current trendsrequiring specific unique ingredients and an array of processes to ensure desired product attributes. Many products are fortified or enriched with vitamins and men explained, minerals (for example, orange juice fortified with calcium for bone health) and other nutrients (for example, margarine enriched with plant stanols and sterols for heart health) in response to defined nutritional needs of consumers. The success of these productsoften referred to as “functional foods”requires that flavor and texture also meet consumer expectations. Typical technologies, processes, and operations. The mechanical operations, processes, and technologies typically used to concept of imitation achieve these benefits in preparing and no country for old men explained, using raw materials in manufacturing foods and beverages (Potter and Hotchkiss 1995) are briefly described below: •  Mechanical Operations. There are many mechanical operations used throughout the food system, including simple conveying of raw materials from one location to define emasculating another, as well as more intense operations to change the physical structure of the material.

All or most of these operations are larger scale versions of operations that have been used to no country for old men explained prepare foods for centuries. The cracking and grinding of cereal grains to manufacture the flour used in bakery products is a very visible example. Most often these operations are designed to produce one or more of the ingredients to be used in consumer food products. The extraction of oil from soybeans and other oilseeds requires a mechanical operation before efficient separation of the oil can be accomplished. Essay On The! In most cases, these operations are a component of series of steps needed to ensure the most efficient use of the men explained, raw material, often including the manufacturing of an array of by-products for consumers to utilize. Another typical mechanical operation is dry mixing, involving the blending of william randolph hearst american war various ingredients to ensure homogeneous and uniform distribution of the various ingredients before a final stage of manufacturing. •  Heating . The use of thermal energy to increase the temperature of no country a raw food or ingredient is the most recognized and widely used approach to preservation of food. United During The Cold War Essay! By increasing the temperature to appropriate levels and holding for for old an appropriate time that is dependent on both the radical plan, nature of the no country for old, food and the objective of the process, pathogenic or spoilage microorganisms are significantly decreased in number or eliminated. Thermal processes applied to foods in food manufacturing are based on the same principles as those governing traditional cooking of foods during preparation. The impact of heatingthermal processingon components of the food is the same as that during cooking and randolph hearst war, often results in no country for old the enhancement of flavors and texture, as well as some modest losses of hearst spanish american war heat-sensitive nutrients. Many shelf-stable foods are available to consumers as a result of thermal processing.

Less-intense thermal processes, such as pasteurization, also ensure that dairy products and fruit juices are safe. Heating food to extend its shelf life probably dates back to antiquity, when people observed that food that had been cooked kept longer without spoiling. However, it was not until Appert and others investigated heating foods in men explained containers that it was discovered that immediate recontamination of United Policy During heated food from the environment did not occur. Since those meager beginnings, advances in mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering, coupled with their application to no country for old food science and technology, have resulted in development of equipment and Policy During The Cold War Essay, procedures to optimize the application of heat to for old men explained foods for the purpose of extending their shelf life and enhancing their edibility (texture, flavor, and bull-moose, visual appearance). There are basically 3 types of no country for old heat processes that are applied to food, other than cooking: blanching, pasteurization, and canning. The latter 2 are tightly regulated by federaland in some cases, stateagencies to ensure proper application of the technology and prevention of food-borne illness.

Blanching  is a mild heat treatment (usually accomplished at temperatures below 212F for less than 2 to hearst american war 3 min) applied to foods that are to be subsequently canned, frozen, or dried. No Country For Old Men Explained! The purpose is to eliminate or reduce activity of enzymes in the foods that catalyze changes in flavor, texture, or color. Other benefits include removal of was the radical republican air from the food tissue to reduce oxidation, softening of the for old men explained, plant tissue to facilitate packing into packages, and inactivation of of imitation antinutritional properties (such as trypsin inhibitor in soybeans, a naturally occurring chemical that reduces dietary protein breakdown in the human gastrointestinal tract). The process is no country men explained usually carried out in hot water or steam, although there are processes based on hot air or microwave heating. Since the process is relatively mild, there is relatively little effect on nutrients, although when hot water is used as the what radical, heating medium some nutrients, especially water-soluble nutrients, are leached into the water. “ Pasteurization ” is named after Pasteur, who demonstrated that wine spoiled because of the presence of microorganisms and that a mild heat treatment could be used to inactivate the for old men explained, microorganisms and thereby extend the shelf life. Pasteurization is most well known for its application to milk, which is strictly regulated through the U.S. Public Health Service/FDA's Pasteurized Milk Ordinance. Pasteurization is most generally applied to liquids, although it is also applied to semisolid and solid foods. As applied to liquids, the temperature is elevated to 140 to 212F for a short period of time (usually less than 1 min) to concept inactivate microorganisms that can cause illness (pathogens).

As originally applied, the liquid was heated after it was put into no country for old men explained the container; but by applying advances in william randolph spanish american food engineering, such as the understanding of flow dynamics and heat transfer to flowing liquids, continuous processes were developed using heat exchangers, machines used to transfer heat from a hot fluid to a colder one. Modern processes are almost exclusively continuous processes, with the pasteurized liquid being deposited into sterile packages. Most pasteurized foods are subsequently kept in refrigerated storage to extend the shelf life because not all spoilage organisms present have been inactivated. “ Canning ” is primarily used to inactivate microorganisms that cause food-borne disease such as botulism, but it also inactivates microorganisms that cause food spoilage. This thermal process is commonly accomplished by holding the product at no country men explained temperatures well above 230F for Essay Historic several minutes. Canned food is not absolutely sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms) but rather is no country for old men explained commercially sterile (devoid of all viable microorganisms that could grow under normal storage conditions). There are 2 major methods: heating the aristotle, food after it has been sealed in a container (referred to for old men explained as  canning ) and sterilizing the food, then depositing it in a sterile container within a sterile environment and sealing the randolph spanish, container (referred to as  aseptic processing ). These processes can also be optimized for retention of nutrients and quality factors such as taste, flavor, and color. The success of this method of preserving foods in eliminating food-related deficiency diseases cannot be understated, with canned fruits and vegetables being a source of vitamin C independent of seasons, for example. •  Refrigeration and Freezing. The use of low temperatures to extend the shelf life of food and no country, beverage products has a long history. The use of ice to reduce the define, temperature of foods and men explained, prevent spoilage has been recognized for centuries.

Refrigerators are now found in almost every home in emasculating industrialized countries. Although the reduction of temperature does not eliminate microbial populations, it reduces the rate of microbial growth enough to prevent product spoilage and extend the shelf life of most food products. Most fruits and vegetables are refrigerated to extend their freshness. In addition, refrigeration also reduces the men explained, reaction rates of enzymes that cause deterioration of what was the radical most quality attributes of a food or beverage, making high-quality products available to the consumer for extended periods of time (Heldman and Hartel 1997). Some foods and no country, beverages receive a mild heat treatment to inactivate enzymes and define, eliminate microorganisms that can cause disease but still require refrigeration to control the growth of surviving microorganisms that can cause spoilage. Pasteurized milk is probably the best example, but many other foods and beverages are also pasteurized and no country for old men explained, then refrigerated.

In general, holding a food or beverage at refrigeration or freezing temperature has no negative impact on the quality attributes of the food but extends consumable product life. “ Freezing ” is a more intense use of william randolph spanish war refrigeration to reduce the temperature of a product to levels below the freezing temperature of water in the product. Lower temperatures cause the liquid water to change phase to ice. At these reduced temperatures (−0.4 to −14F), the deterioration rates for product quality attributes are reduced to below those at refrigeration temperature, and microbial growth is reduced to negligible levels. It is not unusual for frozen fruits, vegetables, and some meat products to maintain high quality for as much as 1 y while frozen. Many favorite desserts, such as ice cream, have been created by the freezing process.

Most nutrients are not affected by freezing; however, it is difficult to freeze a food product without impact on the some of its more evident quality attributes. No Country For Old Men Explained! The formation of ice crystals within the structure of a plant or animal food results in a series of reactions with potential impact on aristotle texture and flavor. Thus, careful control of the no country for old men explained, time to freeze the product and the temperature of the what was the radical plan, frozen product during distribution and storage is important to minimize such reactions and ensure the best possible quality attributes over time (Erickson and no country, Hung 1997). The size of ice crystals created during the Essay Historic, freezing process can be controlled, but this is not possible with all products or freezing facilities. For example, small pieces of fruits or vegetables can be frozen very rapidly, and the product structure is no country for old preserved with uniform distribution of aristotle small ice crystals. In contrast, a large portion of no country men explained beef or any product in a large package will require a longer time to freeze and will result in a less-uniform distribution of larger ice crystals. The extent of the impact on product quality depends on spanish american an array of factors occurring after freezing, including control of temperature during storage and distribution and final preparation of the for old men explained, food. For many foods, the quality attributes of refrigerated and frozen foods compare favorably to those of the fresh counterparts (Mallet 1993). •  Dehydration. Drying is intended to halt or slow the growth of microorganisms and republican plan, rate of chemical reactions.

The removal of water provides food processors excellent opportunities to reduce volume and for old, weight, extend shelf life, and convert liquids to powdery products, such as instant coffee or a vegetable soup base mix. This process is one of the oldest techniques used to preserve foods, one of the most utilized, and the most energy intensive (von Loesecke 1943; Saravacos 1965; King 1968; Thijssen 1979). Water removal is usually performed via evaporation, vaporization, or sublimation (drying while frozen) by means of define emasculating a simultaneous heat, mass, and momentum transfer mechanism (Whitaker 1977). This transfer occurs within the food itself and between the food and the drying medium, resulting in the reduction of moisture, a key variable in all drying operations. In addition to water removal, chemical reactions occur, such as Maillard browning (nonenzymatic browning) of amino acids/reducing sugars such as glucose, caramelization of sugar, denaturation/degradation of cross-linking proteins, and pyrolysis (decomposition or transformation of a compound caused by heat) of the various organic constituents. In addition, loss of volatile compounds, gelatinization of starches, and modification of food material structure change the characteristics of the original product significantly (Viollaz and Alzamora 2005). Many types of dryers, dehydration methods, and no country for old, associated equipment are applied to a very wide range of foods.

Sun drying on Policy The Cold trays, mats, or platforms is the traditional method and is still used today. Modern equipment includes cabinet, bed, conveyor, fluidized bed, drum, vacuum, and spray dryers. Freeze drying (lyophilization), osmotic dehydration, microwave, and innovative light-driven refractance-window dryers are also in use. With continuous technological advances in different fields, drying is constantly evolving to offer better quality and novel products. Mathematical modeling and process simulation have significantly contributed to the understanding of the no country men explained, intricacies of this very complex process and the design of new dryers and drying systems. One trend is to combine 2 or more dehydration techniquesor a dehydration method with other processing approachesfor treatments that optimize cost, food quality, and safety. Examples of Essay on The these combinations include microwavevacuum drying, ultrasound-assisted air drying, and encapsulation and flavor impregnation to for old men explained add value. •  Acidification. Raw foods and beverages vary significantly in Essay Historic levels of acid they contain. Foods with lower levels of for old men explained acid are more susceptible to microbial growth and are thus more perishable. The intentional adjustment in the level of acid in a food has been a preservation method for centuries, in making pickles, for example.

This approach to preservation is based on the inability of many spoilage microorganisms and william randolph hearst american, pathogens to grow at high levels of acid. Increasing the no country, acidity prevents growth of many microorganisms and extends the shelf life of the product, while maintaining many of its attributes. This preservation method can be accomplished by addition of acid to adjust the aristotle, overall acidity level of the product, or biologically through fermentation. Since acid alone may not be sufficient to no country fully protect the Containment During The Cold War Essay, product, adjustments in acidity are frequently used in combination with other techniques such as heat, additives, or refrigeration to accomplish preservation and safety. •  Fermentation. The use of microorganisms to change a perishable food into a less-perishable product is another very old way of preservation that has been used around the men explained, world by societies without access to randolph war refrigeration to extend the edible life of a fresh food.

Many of for old men explained these products, such as blue cheese, salami, sauerkraut, and yogurt, have become so popular that societies with ready access to refrigeration continue to enjoy fermented foods but still frequently use refrigeration to maintain safety and extend shelf life of these modern versions. Although some microorganisms lead to food spoilage and aristotle of imitation, others cause food poisoning, specific microorganisms that can induce desirable changes in foods are used to overpower those that can lead to unappealing or unsafe foods. Fermentation microorganisms primarily work to change the chemical makeup of a product, making it less likely that undesirable microorganisms will reproduce and no country men explained, compromise product safety or quality. William Randolph Hearst American War! Beneficial microorganisms synthesize natural preservatives, such as lactic acid and other acids (increasing the acidity of the food), carbon dioxide (lowering the oxygen content), and ethanol (discouraging growth of undesirable microorganisms). Yeasts produce carbon dioxide to expand the for old men explained, structure, such as dough for bread baking.

They are also responsible for the production of ethanol to produce beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. Fermented dairy products include yogurt and a host of ripened cheeses. Fermented cucumbers are called pickles in Western countries, but pickling is another word for define emasculating fermenting and is used to for old produce pickled eggs, pig's feet, and even snakes in certain countries. Many countries and cultures have their own favorite types of fermented products, such as injera from Ethiopia, kimchi (fermented cabbage) from concept of imitation, Korea, salami and no country for old, other fermented sausages from Italy and Germany, and sauerkraut from northern Europe. Harvested cacao beans are fermented before cleaning and roasting, making all chocolate products the result of at bull-moose party least one fermentation step. •  Water Activity. No Country Men Explained! A very important and useful tool in the control of food quality attributes and food safety is water activity (a W ). Defined as an equilibrium property (free energy) of water at a given temperature and emasculating, moisture content, the concept of a W was first suggested in the 1950s when it became obvious that water content could not adequately account for no country for old men explained microbial growth limitations. During the Containment Policy During The Cold War Essay, 1960s, researchers demonstrated that a W is also important in controlling the rates of chemical deterioration in foods, and then in men explained the 1980s it was also found to relate to the texture of crisp dry foods and caking of powders such as instant coffee. a W is not the same as water content, or the quantitative amount of water in define emasculating a sample, nor is it a measure of no country for old free compared with bound water in a food, an early misconception that is now abandoned. Through the on The, research of hundreds of food scientists, a number of a W paradigms have been established and used by food manufacturers to create safe, tasty, and for old men explained, nutritious dry and semimoist foods such as crispy snacks and define, breakfast cereals, semimoist cookies, and creamy confections. For example, it is men explained known that at a W values between about 0.3 and party, 0.65, changes in product texture occur (for example, loss of crispness and onset of stickiness, caking, or hardening), and that at a W values around 0.85 and greater, significant growth of microorganisms, including illness-causing bacteria, occurs.

In fact, the concept of a W is used in regulation of food processing to ensure food safety. The  Code of Federal Regulations  (21 CFR 110.80 [b][14]) requires that “Foods such as but not limited to dry mixes, nuts, intermediate moisture foods, and dehydrated foods that rely on no country men explained the control of a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms shall be processed to and maintained at a safe moisture level. Compliance may be accomplished by any effective means including (i) monitoring the a W of ingredients and finished product, (ii) controlling the define emasculating, soluble solids-water ratio, (iii) protecting finished foods from moisture pickup so that the a W does not increase to men explained an unsafe level .” In addition, a W is the key to control of enzyme activity, lipid oxidation, and many other reactions that have an impact on food quality, such as degradation of vitamins and changes in color, flavor, and aroma (Labuza and others 1970). What Was The Radical! Figure 2 depicts the water content and a W of a few common foods. Moisture sorption isotherm relating water activity to moisture content at no country for old men explained a specific temperature. Specific knowledge of the relationship of a W to moisture content, such as that shown in Figure 2, is useful to food manufacturers for choosing specific ingredients, such as in making a high- or intermediate-moisture food that will maintain a safe a W level (generally below 0.85). This information is hearst also important in predicting and controlling textural changes and ingredient stability. Men Explained! Foods such as dry mixes, nuts, and dehydrated foods rely on control of a W for preventing the growth of microorganisms.

This can be accomplished by adding food-grade acids such as citric or lactic, by adding a microbial growth inhibitor such as sodium benzoate or potassium sorbate, or by also including a smoking step, as has been done with hams and fish. The systematic control of a W through product formulation ensures the maximum quality and on The Historic, shelf life for dry and intermediate-moisture foods (Labuza and no country for old men explained, others 1970), such as beef jerky, gummies, dried raisins and cranberries, or chewy granola bars. Many of United States The Cold these foods are traditional foods, but are available with improved quality attributes and no country men explained, convenience. Party! Our ancestors used this method of preservation centuries ago by simply adding salt or sugar to meat or plant foods. The best examples are cured hams, semidry smoked salted fish, and men explained, sugared fruit slices. •  Smoking. Essay On The Historic Hubble! The application of no country for old smoke to food products, primarily meats, is a very traditional process that was probably discovered by aristotle of imitation accident. It has been speculated that when ancient cave dwellers learned to cook food over men explained, open fires, it quickly became obvious to them that the smoke from the what radical, fire helped reduce the spoilage of perishable food products such as meat and also imparted a very distinctive, desirable flavor. Over time, the smoke process was expanded to include not only for old men explained meat, fish, and poultry but also, more recently, sausage products, ham, bacon, cheeses, and many other foods for which a unique smoked flavor and increased shelf life are desired. William Randolph Hearst Spanish American War! Classic survival foods, such as meat jerky, are produced by a combination of smoking and dehydration and have now evolved into a wide variety of savory snack foods.

The smoke application process has evolved dramatically from open campfires to a highly controlled, scientific process, but the no country for old men explained, benefits have remained the same. Smoke achieves 4 different functions when applied to food, all of which contribute to safer, more palatable products: Food safety.  Smoke kills some of the bacteria that are present on the product surface and prevents or slows the growth of others. While this has been one of the most important roles of smoke for food preservation in the past, this effect is less critical today because several other antimicrobial processes are available. Nevertheless, smoke is was the radical still an important contributor to bacterial control in smoked foods. The antibacterial effect of smoke is due to several components of wood smoke, specifically acids and alcohol, which are formed during combustion of wood and deposited on the product surface.

Furthermore, most smoke processes are done with application of heat at the same time, and the combination of smoke with mild heating increases the control of both spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Smoke application usually results in some surface drying of the product as well, and this helps to prevent bacterial growth during subsequent storage. Qualityflavor and aroma. Men Explained!  Smoke imparts a very pleasant and randolph hearst, desirable aroma and flavor to smoked foods, a role that has become more important today as consumers seek a greater variety of flavors and eating experiences. Wood smoke can be derived from a variety of wood sources, including hickory, apple, mesquite, and others, to no country for old men explained add to the variety of flavors that can be achieved. Qualityvisual appeal.  Smoke provides a highly attractive surface color, especially for smoked meats. The deep, rich mahogany color of a smoked ham is easily recognized by consumers and communicates assurance that the associated aroma and flavor expected of a smoked ham will be delivered.

Preservation. States During War Essay!  Smoke functions as an antioxidant or flavor protector. Several of the compounds in wood smoke, most notably complex phenols, will dramatically slow the flavor deterioration that typically occurs with development of rancidity following cooking. Despite the advantages, 3 criticisms have occasionally been leveled at no country for old the use of smoke for food preservation. First is that atmospheric emissions result from was the republican plan, combustion of wood to generate smoke. Men Explained! Second is that it degrades some food nutrients; this has been demonstrated to be of very minor importancesmoke has been shown to not significantly alter the nutrient value of bull-moose party food under normal circumstances. Third is men explained that combustion of wood can generate undesirable compounds (polycyclic hydrocarbons) shown to be toxic and/or carcinogenic. Of note is that this process results in smoke deposition almost exclusively on the surface of the Containment Policy The Cold War Essay, product, with relatively little penetration below the surfacesmoke deposition is limited to the outer ¼ to ½ inch of the product. However, smoke application can also be achieved with “liquid smoke,” a concentrated extract of natural wood smoke. For Old Men Explained! Liquid smoke contains all of the important functional components of natural smoke and results in the same effects on color, flavor, and bacterial control, but it is much more consistent in composition than natural smoke and therefore more reproducible in effect.

Other significant advantages to liquid smoke are that no atmospheric emissions are generated during smoke application, the undesirable toxic/carcinogenic components of natural smoke are not included in the extract, and the liquid smoke can be mixed into a product during manufacturing for a more uniform smoked flavor. Meat products with liquid smoke added can usually be identified by a term such as “smoke flavoring” in the ingredients list on the product label. Liquid smoke can also be applied by drenching or dipping, spraying or atomization, or use of smoke-impregnated sausage casings. These application methods result in surface deposition of smoke components with product effects that are very similar to those produced by the surface application of natural smoke. •  Irradiation.

For more than 40 y, ionizing radiation has been used commercially to destroy bacterial and insect contamination of food. Common sources of ionizing radiation today are electron beams, X-rays, and, more often, gamma rays (with the radioactive isotope cobalt-60, the aristotle of imitation, same source used for for old radiation therapy in hospitals). Elaborate physical safeguards assure worker safety. Irradiation is particularly effective in william randolph hearst spanish american war reducing microbial contamination of no country for old men explained hamburger meat and poultry, which can be contaminated by pathogens such as  Escherichia coli  O157:H7,  Salmonella , and  Campylobacter  and result in food-borne illness. Irradiation also may be applied to eliminate insects in Essay Hubble a wide variety of foods, for example, flour, spices, fruits, vegetables, and grains (IFT 2004), to prevent seeds from sprouting, and to control pathogens in men explained fresh shell eggs, seeds for sprouting, fresh or frozen molluscan shellfish (for example, oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops), and bull-moose party, fresh iceberg lettuce and fresh spinach (Morehouse and for old men explained, Komolprasert 2004, FDA 2008). Low doses permit fruit to be harvested when ripe or nearly so, thus increasing nutritional and flavor quality, while still extending shelf life well beyond that of nonirradiated produce. Irradiation works by damaging the DNA of living organisms; the targets are typically bacteria and insects, but the DNA of the plant or animal food is of imitation of course also affected. This poses no human risk, since normal digestion completely breaks down and metabolizes the DNA, whether that damage is minimal, as with irradiation, or extensive, as with cooking. Low doses of irradiation can achieve sprout inhibition and no country men explained, insect de-infestation; medium doses are required for reduction of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria; and high doses are required for sterilization. Irradiated foods must be labeled as such (21 CFR 179.26[c]). Irradiation is also used at high doses and in far higher volume to what was the radical republican sterilize joint implants, bandages, sutures, drugs, cosmetics, and wine and bottle corks (Crawford and Ruff 1996; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010).

The effects of irradiation on nutritional quality vary depending on nutrient, food, and irradiation conditions (for example, dosage, temperature, and atmospheric conditions). Nutrient losses are similar to those occurring with heat and other processes (IFT 2004). Thiamin (vitamin B1) is sensitive to for old irradiation, but loss can be minimized with packaging techniques (Thayer 1990; Fox and others 1995, 1997). Irradiation does not in any way replace existing procedures for safe handling of food. Instead, it is a tool to achieve what normal safe handling cannot (CDC 2010). Irradiation cannot make food safe that is already spoiled (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Because of the usefulness of irradiation in dealing with microbial risks, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and party, other public health authorities have endorsed its use (CDC 2010).

The same conclusions on no country for old men explained safety and effectiveness have been reached by international agencies (WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). Codex Alimentarius, the bull-moose, international food standard-setting agency, has published a  General Standard for Irradiated Foods  (CAC 2003a) and a  Recommended International Code of Practice  (CAC 2003b). Although regulations of irradiation of food vary from country to men explained country, regulations in several countries have been or are being harmonized through compliance with the Codex  General Standard  (Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004). In the bull-moose, United States, food irradiation is regulated as a food additive, because in the Food Additives Amendment of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1958 Congress defined radiation sources as food additives. The safety of for old irradiated food, which has been tested extensively, has been clearly demonstrated (Diehl 1995; Crawford and Ruff 1996; WHO 1997; Morehouse and Komolprasert 2004; CDC 2010). Foods made sterile by what was the radical irradiation to inactivate bacterial spores (at the highest doses) have been fed for years to patients with reduced immunity and to no country men explained astronauts (CDC 2010; UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Consumer concern over the safety of irradiated food was initially high, in american part because of the misconceptions that come with the introduction of any new technology. Arguments against irradiation are similar to those voiced against pasteurization of milk, when it was introduced 100 y ago (UW Food Irradiation Education Group 2010). Concern still exists but has gradually declined as information on irradiation and its advantages have become more widely known (Conley 1992; Bruhn 1995; Morehouse and men explained, Komolprasert 2004; IFIC 2009). The world volume of irradiated food is estimated to exceed 400000 tons annually, with the largest increase occurring in define Asia (Kume and others 2009).

The food industry has been slow to adopt food irradiation in the more developed nations because of the large capital investment required; there is for old little incentive to invest in irradiation equipment because of funds already allocated for refrigeration, canning, and party, other major processes. The situation is very different in developing areas, where existing processes are much less extensive and postharvest losses and the risks of food-borne illness are far greater. Some argue that this is no country for old where the need for hearst american irradiation is greatest and the ability to afford it is the lowest. In the United States, irradiation could reduce  E. coli  in ground beef and  Salmonella  in poultry should products be contaminated, and could provide a needed pathogen kill step for for old men explained fresh greens eaten raw. •  Extrusion. William Hearst American War! This process pushes a material through a specially engineered opening to give a desired shape and texture through increases in temperature, pressure, and shear forces. The pushing force is no country for old men explained applied by using either a piston or a screw. In food applications, screw extrusion is predominant. Hubble! Examples of traditional extruded foods are pasta, noodles, vermicelli, and breakfast cereals. Other extruded foods include flat bread and snack foods such as corn curls, chips, crackers, chewing gum, chocolate, and soft/chewy candy.

Extrusion is also used to create flavors and encapsulate them for heat stability in no country for old men explained processing. Thus, this process gives a desired shape, texture, functionality, and flavor. Depending on what was the radical republican the product, an extruder can simply be a screw press or it can be a continuous cooker. In the case of a screw press, the product is usually further processed extensively, such as by frying, baking, flaking, coating, or drying, as in the extrusion process to for old produce cornflakes. A continuous cooker extruder can make products that are almost ready-to-eat (for example, puffed rice), requiring very little further processing. Inside an extruder, several processes may occur, including fluid flow, heat transfer, mixing, shearing, particle size reduction, and melting. United During War Essay! In pasta manufacturing, for example, the main objective of the extrusion process is to partially gelatinize starch, compact the dough, and give it the men explained, desired shape. In the case of chocolate manufacturing, however, the extruder is used as a reactor to bull-moose party generate key flavor attributes.

And, in the case of flat bread, an extruder is used to no country for old men explained develop the desired expanded and porous structure. Food extrusion is of imitation generally considered a high-temperature, short-time (HTST) process. The food components are exposed to temperatures above 284F for a very short time, generally a few seconds. This gives a distinct advantage over conventional pressure cooking, in which the exposure could be several minutes at temperatures near 212 to 248F. Any cooking process causes loss of heat-sensitive nutrients, flavors, and colors. A combination of no country higher temperature and shorter time is desirable because it retains nutrients better than a combination of lower temperature and party, longer time. It has been found that vitamins A, C, E, B1, and folic acid are very sensitive to extrusion, whereas the B-complex vitamins B2, B6, B12, niacin, calcium pantothenate, and biotin are stable during extrusion. Extrusion offers a good method for reducing antinutritional factors in legumes. For example, in men explained peas, extrusion has been found to Essay on The be more effective than germination for reducing tannins, polyphenols, and trypsin inhibitors. Extruders have been used as bioreactors for pretreatment of for old men explained cereal grains for subsequent ethanol fermentation, enzymatic conversion of what was the radical republican plan starch to glucose and maltose, and sterilization of ground spices such as black pepper, white pepper, and men explained, paprika. Extrusion has been shown to reduce the deleterious microorganisms in spices to well below maximum allowable levels.

Extrusion is an aristotle of imitation environmentally friendly process that uses heat and power efficiently and does not produce effluents. In addition, the same equipment can be used to make a variety of for old men explained products. Extruded products are safe to consume, with no known harmful effects. •  Modified/Controlled Atmosphere. Historic Hubble! The shelf life of for old many fresh foods has been extended by controlling the composition of the gas environment in direct contact with the product. For products with shelf life limited by chemical or enzymatic reactions involving oxygen, reducing or eliminating the oxygen content of the environment provides significant extension of the product shelf life (Floros 1990). The shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables is extended by controlling both the oxygen and carbon dioxide composition of the atmosphere surrounding the products, which are still actively undergoing respiration and continue to convert oxygen to carbon dioxide. Large-scale controlled-atmosphere storage of fruits and vegetables has become a standard approach to maintaining the highest product quality between the time of harvest and what plan, delivery to the consumer.

More recently, controlled-atmosphere packaging has also become very common. This approach has evolved with the development of shipping containers and packaging films that allow for selective transmission or removal of different respiratory gases or the natural fruit-ripening gas ethylene (Floros and Matsos 2005). The modification of product atmosphere must be approached with caution, because of the response of no country for old certain microbial populations. The most serious concerns are with anaerobic pathogens, such as  Clostridium botulinum , that have the potential to grow and produce toxins in an oxygen-free environment. Several packaging systems have been developed based on these concepts, but are limited in application.

•  Additives. Food additives are adjuncts to food processing. Concept! They extend the range and flexibility of the relatively few food processes available, and they improve the economics of the processes. No Country! For example, without stabilizers, ice cream would quickly become “grainy,” as small ice crystals grow into large ones. Without fumigants, flour and aristotle, other grain products and men explained, spices would be wormy, as they once were years ago. Without fortification of States Policy War Essay milk and flour and the addition of for old iodine (in the concept of imitation, form of iodate) to salt, rickets and goiter would still occur. Without artificial colors, many foods, such as gelatin, would be unattractive because natural colors lack the stability and coloring power of the no country for old, synthetics. Without nonnutritive sweeteners, a great many sweetened beverages, desserts, and confections would have unacceptable calorie contents or contain levels of Policy During sugar that cannot be consumed by certain individuals, such as people with diabetes and many others.

Anticaking agents, enzymes, preservatives, emulsifiers (which allow immiscible liquids such as oil and for old men explained, water to form a stable mixture), humectants (which affect moisture retention through their affinity to water and stabilizing action on water content), and many other additives add significantly to the safety, nutritive value, attractiveness, convenience, and economy of our modern food supply. The practical definition of a food additivenot the far longer, involved legal definitionis “Any substance added to food in small amounts to achieve a particular technical effect.” The  Code of what republican Federal Regulations  (21.170) recognizes 32 categories of additives allowed for their technical or functional effects. Among them are acidifiers, antioxidants, emulsifiers, leavening agents, micronutrients, and nonnutritive sweeteners. There is no formal distinction between “food ingredient” and “food additive.” Common usage would suggest that an ingredient used at less than perhaps 1% of a food would be an “additive.” In a hard candy, for example, sugar is the food itself; color and flavor are the men explained, additives. In a lightly sweetened beverage, however, sugar could be an “additive.” There are more than 2200 additives in concept of imitation use, the men explained, majority of which are flavoring ingredients. Figure 3 displays the Essay Historic Hubble, distribution of additives in use during the no country, recent decade, ranked by per capita annual consumption in the United States food supply. Party! The figure identifies only a few examples in the different ingredient categories.

The graph shows  use , the amount that disappears into the food supply. Actual  consumption  is significantly lower because of plate waste and, in the case of volatile additives such as flavors, volatilization. Thus, the amounts in no country men explained a similar graph of what was the radical republican plan actual consumption would be lower than those shown here. The median additive, with half of the total used in larger amount and half in lesser amount, is slightly more than 1 mg/person/y. The per capita consumption of no country a heavily used substance, such as a nutritive sweetener, frequently exceeds the per capita consumption of an ingredient in aristotle concept of imitation a much less used category. For example, a flavoring ingredient that because of men explained its potency is used at william hearst war very low levels will have a per capita consumption much lower than almost all other ingredients added to food. Substances intentionally added to food in decreasing order of per capita annual use.

•  Packaging. Many different types of food packages are used for several different reasons. Food is packaged primarily to contain the product, protect the product from contamination, enable convenience, and no country men explained, provide information (Paine 1991; Robertson 1993; Yam and others 2005; IFT 2008). Most food products are delivered to the consumer in some type of party package. Foods that have received some type of preservation process are placed in a package to ensure that the no country for old, product attributes enhanced by the process are maintained. Even fresh produce is packaged after receiving a washing and cleaning process. Packaging offers a critical component of food safety by preventing contamination from define, pathogens. In addition, packaging extends the for old, shelf life of the product by providing a physical barrier to or protection from atmospheric oxygen and moisture, light, and william randolph american war, other agents that would accelerate deterioration of the product. Finally, packaging is the for old, vehicle by which legally required information is define emasculating presented to the consumer in the form of the label bearing information about the product identity, quantity, ingredients, nutrient content, expiration date, and commercial source. Packaging has advanced from glass bottles, paperboard cartons, tin-plated soldered side-seam steel cans, and aluminum foil to 2-piece aluminum cans with “pop tops;” plastic, flexible, rigid, semirigid, and no country, multilayer containers; microwave safe packages; and active and intelligent packaging (Floros and others 1997, 1998; Suppakul and others 2003; Ozdemir and Floros 2004; Yam and others 2005; Han and Floros 2007; IFT 2008). Innovations were driven by a number of forces, including convenience, consumer desire for minimally processed foods, changes in retail and distribution practices; foodservice needs; trend toward more sustainable packaging; and demands for global and fast transport of of imitation food (Suppakul and others 2003; IFT 2008).

Aseptic packaging is a major area of food packaging that has significantly increased the safety, quality, availability, and convenience of certain foods around the world, while reducing the amount of men explained energy needed to preserve and store such foods. Emasculating! The major difference between aseptic packaging and traditional methods of food packaging is that in no country for old aseptic packaging the product and the packaging material are continuously sterilized separately. Then, under aseptic conditions that prevent recontamination of the what, product, the sterile package is filled with the cooled sterile product and hermetically sealed to produce a shelf-stable final product with extended shelf life and no need for refrigerated storage. This technique has allowed for substantial improvements in no country for old the quality of the final product, mainly due to the much milder heat treatment that the product undergoes compared to the traditional thermal process (Floros 1993). Large-scale aseptic bulk processing and packaging, combined with aseptic storage and transportation, contributes significantly to reduction of postharvest fruit and Essay on The Hubble, vegetable losses and greater availability of these food products around the no country men explained, world. Many advances in the packaging of what was the radical republican food took place in the past 20 to 30 y, producing a wide variety of new materials and no country for old men explained, processing technologies. The steady accumulation of what was the republican research developments indicates that food packaging will continue to evolve and respond to men explained the changing needs of the food system and the increased demands of consumers. To meet consumers’ growing demands for fresh-like and party, highly nutritious foods with guaranteed safety, several alternative preservation technologies have been developed during the past 15 to 25 y for application to food products. These technologies include both (1) novel thermal processes such as microwave and ohmic heating, which are much faster than the currently widespread canning method to produce shelf-stable foods and (2) other physical methods that do not use heat as a primary mode of inactivating microorganisms in no country foods, such as ultra-high pressure (UHP), pulsed electric fields, ultrasonic waves, high-intensity pulsed light, and others. Each of these alternative technologies has unique characteristics and potential for expanded applications in different categories of food products.

The goal of all the bull-moose, new processes is to reduce the overall time and temperature exposures of the foods so that they are safe and more like fresh or freshly cooked items. Men Explained! The nonthermal methods are primarily being used to replace traditional thermal pasteurization of Historic Hubble foods. •  Microwave Heating. This method of heating prepared foods and beverages and cooking raw foods is well known and accepted by consumers, but applications for food preservation are still evolving. Some microwave-processed foods are marketed in no country for old men explained Europe and Japan. William Spanish! In the past year, FDA accepted applications under the low-acid canned food regulations for microwave sterilization, both in a continuous mode for a sweet potato puree that is aseptically packaged in sterile flexible pouches, and for a semicontinuous process for prepackaged food in limited batches. •  Ohmic Heating. This process, also called electrical resistance heating, Joule heating, or electroheating, involves passing electricity through the food via contact with charged electrodes. For Old! The electrical energy results in rapid, uniform heating, in contrast to william randolph spanish war the slow conduction and convection heating of conventional thermal processing, thereby allowing for greater quality than canned counterparts.

It is particularly useful for heat-sensitive proteinaceous foods (Ramaswamy and others 2005). Ohmic heating has been applied in limited situations to such foods as cut and whole fruit and liquid eggs, but applications may expand to soups and similar items in the future. •  High-Pressure Processing. This process, also known as high-hydrostatic-pressure processing and UHP processing, seems to have a promising future for food preservation, since reductions in microbial populations can be accomplished without significant elevation of product temperature. The use of pressures approaching 100000 pounds per square inch for holding times of a few minutes produces a processed food with the taste, color, and texture similar to fresh. Following the successful introduction of a pressure-treated guacamole product in 1997, a growing number of ready-to-eat meats and other refrigerated items, including raw oysters, have been treated by high pressure to meet food safety standards for such products and have increased their high-quality shelf life. When elevated temperatures are used in combination with UHP, the microbial spores in the food can be inactivated. In 2009, a pressure-assisted thermal sterilization process developed by a consortium of Army and industrial researchers at the Natl. Center for Food Safety and Technology was accepted under the low-acid canned food regulations by FDA (NCFST 2009). This process is more rapid and less damaging to several food quality attributes than traditional thermal sterilization because application of pressure rapidly and uniformly heats packaged food in the pressure vessel to the desired end temperature, and then, when pressure is released after a few minutes the product returns to the original temperature.

•  Pulsed Electric Fields. Use of very high voltage (20 kV) and very short, microsecond, electric pulses has potential as a nonthermal method for pasteurization of fruit juices and other fluid or pumpable products. The process is being optimized, but more information needs to be evaluated on no country for old the impact of the process on food components, first to assure microbiological safety and then to determine the impact on sensory quality as well as content of key nutrients (Sanchez-Moreno and others 2009). Recent research has shown not only that some of these alternative novel processes allow production of very high quality items, but also that those items may have a higher nutritive value than similar items produced by define emasculating traditional thermal processes because the novel processes result in less chemical damage of key micronutrients. To achieve acceptance first by the regulatory authorities and then by consumers will require an for old overall evaluation of aristotle concept each of no country these novel processes. Approximately 30 to aristotle concept 40% of raw food materials and ingredients are lost between the points of for old production and consumption. The magnitude of these losses, and the contributing factors, are different in developing countries compared to industrialized countries (Godfray and others 2010). For example, food losses in aristotle the developing world are primarily due to the lack of an infrastructure, as well as lack of knowledge of or investment in for old the means to protect from losses arising from damage and spoilage attributable to rodents, insects, molds, and other microorganisms. Significant losses occur during production, harvesting, and on-farm storage. In contrast, in industrialized countries, food losses are more significant in retail and foodservice establishments and in the home. The losses in developed countries are attributable to several factors, including the relatively low costs of food and the lack of incentives to avoid wastes (Godfray and aristotle of imitation, others 2010).

Commercial food manufacturing operations are more efficient in the conversion of no country for old raw materials into consumer products than home processing and preparation. Moreover, there are significant economic incentives for food manufacturing operations to minimize waste streams, resulting in the use of new or modified processing methods, in-plant treatment, and reuse (Hang 2004). Many food processing waste streams are used for animal feed (Hudson 1971), and processes have been developed for converting waste materials into biofuels, food ingredients, and other edible, valuable bioproducts (Hang 2004). Randolph Hearst Spanish! These waste-management practices are being refined as part of the trends in life-cycle assessment of the environmental impact of the entire food chain (Ohlsson 2004). Through such assessments, the food industry is identifying the no country, steps in the food chain that have the greatest environmental impact. Hearst Spanish American! The assessments become the basis for selection of alternative raw materials, packaging materials, and other inputs, and an overall improvement in waste-management strategies (Ohlsson 2004). Life-cycle assessments provide a much more accurate understanding of no country for old men explained energy consumption and waste production than popular concepts such as food miles (Mattsson and Sonesson 2003). An example of bull-moose party life-cycle assessments is the no country, comparison of high value added products, such as pork, with a highly productive crop, such as potatoes. The analysis indicates that for define emasculating the high value added product, the no country men explained, largest energy consumption and production of Essay Historic emissions and other wastes is in the agricultural sector (that is, on men explained the farm). In contrast, the Essay on The Historic, major part of energy use for a highly productive crop is by for old men explained the consumer (in the what republican, home) (Ohlsson 2004).

Thus, to no country for old reduce energy contributions to global warming and generation of pollutants, it would be appropriate to target reductions where they would have the greatest effect (for example, on bull-moose party the farm for items such as pork and in for old the home for items such as potatoes) rather than simply focusing on food miles or food processing. In summary, the processing of a food or beverage includes an array of technologies and processes to transform raw food materials and ingredients into United States War Essay consumer food products. The primary purpose of these processes is for preservation (for example, transforming perishable fruits and vegetables with the highest quality outcome possible into products available throughout the year around the world) and to ensure food safety. The processing of a food does create some changes in the quality attributes of the for old men explained, product. On The! In some cases, these changes are intentional and provide improvements in the nutritive quality, texture, appearance, and flavor of the product. In other cases, the changes may simply make the product different, without improving or changing its quality. Processed foods and beverages can have positive nutrient benefits beyond those of the raw or home-prepared product. For Old! Nutrient retention is highly variable, depending on commodity, cultivar, timing of was the republican harvesting, storage conditions, nutrient type (for example, sensitivity to heat or oxygen, and water solubility), and processing method. No Country For Old Men Explained! Depending on these variables, processed foods may have more nutritional value (due to greater bioavailability of United States Containment Policy During War Essay beta-carotene or lycopene, for example) than the no country for old men explained, fresh product (Rickman and others 2007a, 2007b). In addition, some processed products (for example, canned and frozen fruits and republican plan, vegetables) are often a better value for the consumer than the “fresh” or raw product. Food expenditures, as a percentage of household expenditures, in the United States are the lowest in the world: 5.6% compared to 9.1% in for old Canada, 11.4% in Germany, 24.1% in define Mexico, and 44.1% in Indonesia (ERS 2008).

Cost is an extremely important variable to most consumers in making food and other purchases, particularly to no country for old those with low incomes. Many of the most economical foodsprocessed meats, snack foods, caloric soft drinkshave high-calorie contents. People purchase them because they like the taste and was the republican, consistency, and because they are good value. They have a legitimate role in our food supply, but that role should not be excessively large. The future of the agriculture and men explained, food system will be largely determined by the trajectory of 3 major trends: the population and its associated demographics; availability and type of william spanish war energy resources; and no country for old, climate as it influences available land, water, and air quality. Population is the what was the republican plan, most important by far, since it drives the for old men explained, others (given the impact on demand for on The arable land, for example) through its multiplier, the standard of living (consumption rate). However, the technologies deployed will also be a matter of scientific understanding, public policy, consumer attitudes, and no country men explained, fiscal resources. Historical perspectives and future development. Assuming that the goal is a sustainable future, Warren Belasco (2006) considered in his book  Meals to Come: A History of the Future of Food  the perspectives of was the republican plan 3 people living in the 1790s: Thomas Malthus, who was concerned about population growth; the enlightenment philosopher Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Condorcet; and William Godwin, who believed that inequitable distribution was the problem. From these historical perspectives, Belasco proposed 3 possible cornucopian futures: (1) the classical, based on expansion into new areas (for example, expand food production and processing); (2) the modern, the belief in scientific and technological solutions; and (3) the recombinant, a blend of the radical modern with the no country, familiar classical (for example, share resources more efficiently). Wrangham (2009) called for increased research into food physics, or what has recently been termed “food materials science,” especially the relationships between food structure and hearst spanish war, nutritional value.

While Michael Pollan (2008), in his book  In Defense of Food: An Eater's Manifesto , laments modern “nutritionism,” he points to the need for more science as well. Foreshadowing today's “molecular gastronomy” (study of the physical and chemical processes occurring during cooking), Gerald Wendt, science director of the no country for old, 1939 World's Fair, wrote that foods “will abandon all pretense of bull-moose imitating nature” (Belasco 2006). In reality, this has always been the case; for example, bread, cheese, and tofu are all foods that are created from the raw substances of for old men explained nature but have no natural analogs. Food culture evolves, albeit slowly. In his classic dystopic 1973 novel  Make Room, Make Room , on which the movie  Soylent Green  was based, Harry Harrison envisioned a meager and unappetizing diet of soybean and bull-moose party, lentil steaks, tilapia, soymilk, seaweed, and energy drinks (Harrison 1973). Today, however, some people seek out these products (quite a change in 2 generations). Harrison mentioned chlorella (algae) oil as the lowest of food ingredients, but chlorella is now taken by some as a supplement or added to foods or animal feeds to boost omega-3 intake. Surimi is an example of technology applied to increase both stability and distribution of a raw commodity (fish) but that also increases the value of the product, as in surimi-based imitation crab. In the future, many other new products from fish may be seen, just as has been the case with numerous meat sausages.

Not only can the conversion of macronutrients (for example, proteins and carbohydrate polysaccharides) to calories be modulated by processing (such as the effect of high-pressure processing on protein conformation and hence conversion to no country men explained calories), but also micronutrients bound up in the cellular structure of foods can be made more bioavailable by appropriate novel processing methods, such as high-pressure processing and pulsed electric fields (Sanchez-Moreno and others 2009). United! Even if heating may result in a lower total quantity of vitamins and other micronutrients in the food than in their raw counterparts, making them appear less nutritious, the bioavailability of some of these micronutrients may actually be greater, making some processed foods more healthful. No Country! Novel emerging processes not totally relying on heat seem to offer the potential to increase bioavailability of classic micronutrients and to spare many of the labile phytochemicals (plant metabolites, some of which are known to have human health benefits) that are a major advantage of fresh fruits and Essay on The Historic Hubble, vegetables. Solving the diet-and-disease challenge. The solutions to the diet-and-disease problem are complex and require a multipronged strategy from both the men explained, public and private sectors.

The report of the 2010 DGAC recognized that ensuring that all Americans consume a health-promoting dietary pattern and achieve and maintain energy balance requires far more than individual behavior change (DGAC 2010). The DGAC's report contained 4 primary recommendations: •  Reduce the radical republican, incidence and prevalence of overweight and obesity of the U.S. population by reducing overall calorie intake and increasing physical activity; •  shift food intake patterns to a more plant-based diet and increase the no country for old, intake of seafood and fat-free and what was the radical, low-fat milk and milk products and consume only moderate amounts of lean meats, poultry, and eggs; •  significantly reduce intake of foods containing added sugars and solid fats, reduce sodium intake, and lower intake of refined grains; and •  meet the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. The report expressed an urgent call to action and recommended that a strategic plan be developed that focuses on the behaviors and no country, actions needed to successfully implement these 4 key recommendations. A healthful diet is determined in republican totality, not just by a choice to include or exclude one single food or beverage. For Old! Decision-making and priority setting should be made in this context. Policy makers must carefully consider promoting an environment where better and more nutritious foods are readily available, while respecting consumer choice. Recently, local governments have created bans on certain food ingredients such as  trans  fats. While we have a history of understanding the impact of food fortification, the impact of this type of regulation is States Containment War Essay not yet clear and remains to men explained be demonstrated.

Consider salt as an what was the republican plan example. The typical American consumes almost 150% of the recommended daily value for sodiumalmost a tablespoon a day. A recent report by the Inst. of Medicine (IOM 2010) declares that voluntary salt reduction has not worked. The IOM recommendations include modification by FDA of the Generally Recognized as Safe status of no country for old ingredients containing sodium and national standards to lower consumption, stepwise reduction in salt content of define emasculating processed foods and menu items in restaurants to men explained allow American consumers to adapt their tastes to foods with lower levels of sodium, enhanced monitoring and party, surveillance of compliance with the recommended new FDA standards, increased funding for research that links salt consumption to consumer preferences at different stages in human life, and for old, development of programs that increase consumer awareness of elevated salt consumption. The most widely understood functional property of hearst spanish salt in foods is enhancement of no country flavor. Consumers can adapt their tastes to lower levels of salt in their diet over time (Dahl 2005), but an abrupt change may lead to widespread resistance (IOM 2010). Mandated reduction in The Cold salt content of formulated foods and restaurant recipes would need to be carefully coordinated, as salt concentration provides significant economic advantage to those who do not comply. Surveillance of restaurants that are not bound by strict recipes but have chef autonomy will be difficult to monitor.

Also, the freedom of consumers to add their own salt via readily available shakers makes it difficult to determine actual levels of consumption (Dahl 2005). Salt functions as a preservative by lowering a W to inhibit or halt microbial growth. No Country! The safety of Containment Policy During War Essay some formulated products would not be affected by salt reduction, but the safety of many others could be compromised (Taormina 2010). Salt-cured products such as country hams that contain as much as 1700 mg of sodium (70% of the daily value) in just a 3-ounce serving (Voltz and Harvell 1999) would probably disappear from supermarket shelves and men explained, restaurant menus. Other products that could be at risk with significant reduction in sodium content include deli meats, hard and soft cheeses, baked pastries, and salad dressings. Salt is also used to control fermentations for products such as olives and pickles, which could be compromised with insufficient levels of salt (Taormina 2010). Overconsumption of total calories coupled with very low physical activity and too much sedentary time is the define, driving force behind the men explained, obesity epidemic, rather than the macronutrient distribution of a person's diet (DGAC 2010). Consumers must make more healthful choices of diet and bull-moose, exercise.

Excessively sedentary lifestyles must be modified with more physical activity. Clear, accurate informationnot misinformationabout the foods themselves must be provided, and far more extensive education is needed about no country for old, how to of imitation use that information in making healthful, economical food choices. More emphasis is needed on no country men explained the potential adverse consequences of Policy War Essay poor eating habits, and the benefits of more healthful ones. Choosing foods wisely is a survival skill, one that has received far too little attention. More consumers are born every year, and those efforts must begin early in men explained life and continue through the years.

Many resources are still being devoted to increasing the availability of indulgent foods that do not contribute to meeting the nutrient needs of consumers. The food industry must use innovation pipelines and resources to on The produce foods and beverages that are more nutrient-rich rather than energy dense to assist the consumer in the quest for a healthful diet. This approach is equally as important for responsibly using resources and reducing waste as is the use of technologies described above. This applies both to no country for old consumers who are food secure as well as to those who are food insecure. There are some models of the food industry working in partnership to address these complex problems (Yach and others 2010). Responsible marketing is also part of the solution to a healthful diet. States Containment Policy! Reduced-energy foods and beverages may help to moderate energy, sugar, or fat intake, but only if substituted for energy-rich versions. Simply including them in the diet may fail to reduce energy balance. For example, recommending tea or coffee consumption (Popkin and others 2006) does not reduce energy intake for those who add sugar or cream and may replace nutrient-rich options such as milk. The foodservice industry must provide healthful offerings with available nutritional information and appropriate portions.

Foodservice establishments have moved steadily toward larger portion sizes, as a result of consumer purchasing patterns. Food researchers must set responsible goals for application of technologies that fill the knowledge gaps, to guide the food industry in developing better products and the policy makers in developing more effective public health messages. For Old Men Explained! There is still much to be learned about the relationship of diet composition and energy balance, the effect of reduced-energy versions of foods and beverages on signaling systems, and the connection between reduced-energy products with enhanced palatability and energy intake. An important area of needed research is behavior modification for consumers to achieve a more healthful diet promoted by public health messages. It would be neither practical nor possible to return to an idyllic pastoral food system. Procuring food is hard work, and though many in william hearst spanish the industrialized countries enjoy the rewards of a home garden, few would be willing to return to subsistence farming and home food preparation full time. In the short term, the local food movement will likely expand as a result of consumer demand, as seen in the urban farms springing up in no country men explained places such as Detroit, Michigan. But the local food movement has its limits, since many consumers will continue to demand out-of-season and exotic foods that cannot be grown locally, and climate conditions prevent the efficient growth of food year round in all regions. Furthermore, when water availability and the threat of desertification are considered, it can actually be more sustainable to ship grain longer distances, for example, from the United States to Kenya, than to grow it locally (Roberts 2008). With the world population expected to reach 9 billion by 2050, it is what radical republican plan necessary to find a means to sustainably produce about 50% more food than is currently produced.

In particular, it will be necessary to provide substantially more protein, yet with substantially lower external costs (resulting impacts) (Roberts 2008). Also, application of simple and appropriate processing technologies (for example, drying) and packaging and shipping methods close to food production sites to counter the large percentage of waste (up to 50% by some estimates) in less-developed areas must be fostered. Some people have envisioned urban farming in vertical greenhouses or in currently blighted urban landscapes, but this seems a rather large investment of for old men explained materials and bull-moose, energy with perhaps the only benefit being limited local production. Similarly, while single-cell protein from no country men explained, algae may make sense nutritionally, it faces many hurdles, both economic and cultural. Precision farming may build on current thrusts in both organic and sustainable green agriculture to benefit both those in the developed world and those in the developing countries, where basic sustenance is a growing concern. Spanish War! Ronald and for old men explained, Adamchak (2010) stated in  Tomorrow's Table  that “the judicious incorporation of 2 important strands of agriculturegenetic engineering and organic farmingis key to helping feed the growing population in an ecologically balanced manner.” Mixed crop and define, livestock production systems, used to produce about half of the world's food supply, offer important synergies, such as using livestock draft power to cultivate land and manure to for old fertilize soil, crop residues to feed livestock, and income from livestock products to william hearst american buffer against low crop yields (Herrero and others 2010). It has been suggested that the small-holder farmers in these systems should be the first target for policies to sustainably intensify production by carefully managed inputs of for old men explained fertilizer, water, and feed to minimize waste and environmental impact, supported by improved access to markets, new varieties, and technologies (Herrero and others 2010). As those in industrialized countries become more aware of the beneficial phytochemical nutrients found in many crops in developing countries, such as fruits from the tropics or quinoa from South America, export markets for william randolph hearst american war those foods may emerge to stabilize local economies if appropriate food processing and transport infrastructures can be upgraded. Hurdle technology, using combinations of minimal technologies, has been used in developed countries for manufacturing ready-to-eat products, and for old men explained, may hold considerable potential for preserving certain traditional items in developing cultures. Leistner and Gould (2002) reported that much progress had been made in on The Historic Hubble Latin America and India, and that interest in this technology has been seen in China, Taiwan, and Africa. There is no country men explained hope for william hearst the future by embracing a “recombinant” strategy, as Belasco (2006) proposed, blending the best of the classical food sources with modern technologies.

Aquaculture, when combined with hydroponics to form aquaponics, and innovations in meat production efficiency hold great promise for the efficient production of high-quality protein. Federoff and others (2010) suggested that aquaculture, integrated with agriculture, is no country for old part of the answer to meeting the demands for aristotle concept food, feed, fiber, and fuel, given the implications of population growth, arable land and freshwater limits, and climate change. In addition, the judicious application of recombinant DNA biotechnology (rDNA, discussed in a subsequent section) offers the ability to more rapidly transform some of the less highly bred plants, such as quinoa. Looking at teosinte now as corn or maize's ancient ancestor, would the productivity of no country hybrid maize be predicted? rDNA biotechnology could be harnessed to improve the protein quality of cereal grains and could also be employed to improve crops such as sorghum and millet to reduce antinutrients and bull-moose, build in drought tolerance. This would involve a shift in application of the biotechnology to more directly benefit consumers instead of growers and manufacturers. A new Green Revolution may include an accelerated mutation breeding program (use of chemical or radiation mutagens to introduce genetic change) to build in traits to better preserve quality and nutrient content of key food commodities.

The 21st century has seen increased growth in no country knowledge of the human genome, the genomes of microorganisms, and the human microbiome (communities of emasculating microbial cells within the human body) (Human Microbiome Project 2010). In the future, as we learn many more of the complex interactions of the thousands of compounds in common foods with the human genome and intestinal microflora, the old adage “You are what you eat” may well evolve into an optimal nutrition strategy to serve the growing human population. It is no country difficult to what was the plan make predictions in such a rapidly changing scientific and technological atmosphere, but it is certain that the “designer foods” concept (following the concept of personalized nutrition, which is enabled by knowledge of no country for old one's genome and biome) will take on new meaning in bull-moose party coming years, given the accelerating pace of both the science base and technical innovation. An  ad hoc  committee of the Natl. Research Council was charged with examining the current state of biological research in the United States and recommending how best to capitalize on no country men explained recent scientific and technological advances to concept of imitation find solutions to 4 major societal needs, including sustainable food production. The committee's main recommendation was for a coordinated, interagency initiative to encourage the emergence of a “New Biology” approach to challenging problems, described in the book  New Biology for the 21st Century  (NRC 2009). The essence of the no country men explained, New Biology is integration, described as a new level of republican plan inquiry that reintegrates the no country men explained, subdisciplines of party biology and integrates physicists, chemists, computer scientists, engineers, and mathematicians, purposefully organized around problem solving. With respect to the food challenge, the New Biology requires parallel application of several technologies; computational modeling of plant growth and development at the molecular and cellular levels; cell-type specific-gene expression, proteomic, and no country men explained, metabolomic data; high-throughput visual and chemical phenotyping; methods to characterize the dynamics and functions of microbial communities; and ready access to next-generation sequencing methods. With an emasculating integrated approach to no country men explained these needs, predictive models of plant growth at the cellular and molecular level detail would allow scientific plant breeding of a new type, in bull-moose party which genetic changes could be targeted in a manner that would predictably result in food plants that adapt and grow sustainably in changing environments (NRC 2009). Emerging areas affecting health and wellness. There are several research areas that have the potential to greatly affect the quality of food and no country for old men explained, human health and wellness.

• Personalized Nutrition. Humans have emerged from evolution with a remarkable flexibility in the range of phenotypes that they can adopt. Human adults vary in height, weight, strength, speed, endurance, flexibility, cognition, and other traits. Furthermore, humans apply these phenotypes to a remarkable range of lifestyles, varying in everything from daily activities such as endurance exercise to recreational pursuits ranging from music, art, and athletics to of imitation preference for foods. This basic biological truth means that as science gains more information on the interaction among genetics, environment, and phenotype, people will want to use the for old, controllable variables of their environmentdiet and exercise, for exampleto guide their own personal phenotype. One consequence of was the republican plan human diversity relates to the observable variations in disease susceptibility. Disease resistance is one aspect of phenotype that everyone would like to improve.

The first priority of life science research, of course, is to understand the basis of no country for old men explained varying predisposition to, cures of, and recovery from disease (Collins and others 2003). The future will see humans take charge of the variables of environment to guide their own health to lower their disease risks and speed recovery. Personalizing diet will be essential to their success. The research investments of the 20th century have chronicled the basic biological processes, detailed the define, basic genetic sequence of organisms, and no country men explained, linked the complex interweaving pathways of bull-moose biochemistry to variations in anatomy, metabolism, physiology, immunology, so on. Scientists are already cataloguing these same processes but are now into assigning the details of individuals. For Old! The field of nutrigenomics (interaction of dietary components such as essential nutrients with genes) is seeking to assign the variations in dietary responses of humans to specific genetic sequences (Muller and Kersten 2003). In parallel, the field of metabolomics is building the bull-moose party, tools to men explained both diagnose individual variations in metabolism and identify the solutions to improve it (German and others 2004, 2005). As science and Historic Hubble, technologies are racing to reduce disease, the no country for old men explained, relationships between basic biology and human performance are also emerging (Handschin and Spiegelman 2008). As science understands the basis of human disease and prevention, technologies will compete to bring solutions to practice. All aspects of interventiondrugs, diet, and of imitation, lifestylewill be recruited to lower disease risk.

These solutions will have to solve the 2 key dimensions of preventionindividualization and integration. Diets must be individualized, since all people are not predisposed to no country for old men explained the same health problems. In addition, diets must be integrated, since no single ingredient, bioactive or therapeutic, can solve all issues at once. United States Policy! The concept of multiple ingredients solving multiple targets combined into men explained products is a logical direction for food. Foods can already be used in a personalized wayto lower cholesterol, improve blood pressure, alter intestinal microflora, and guide immunity.

The food industry and all of United Policy During its support and regulatory systems will have to come to grips with this new reality. One of the fundamental problems of the current functional-food and health-claim system is the men explained, wildly optimistic pursuit of food ingredients that are equally effective and william randolph american, safe for for old men explained all consumers. What Was The Republican! Personalizing will change the value system of health-promoting foods and its regulatory oversight as the benefits are targeted directly to those who respond. Parsing individual response (based on the individual's genotype) is at least as complex a challenge as the no country for old men explained, task of increasing or decreasing the amount of a specific protein, fatty acid, or other component of the plant itself (Brigelius-Flohe and Joost 2006). Functional-food components are of increasing interest in reducing risk of a number of the leading causes of death: cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Essay, hypertension. Many food components, such as plant-derived estrogens (phytoestrogens), are known to influence the expression of both structural genes and transcription factors (a sequence-specific DNA binding factor that controls the for old, transfer of bull-moose genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA) in humans (Kaput and others 2007). No Country For Old Men Explained! Genistein, coumestrol, and zearalenone, for example, bind to what was the the estrogen receptor and may switch on a similar set of genes, such as 17β-estradiol, the no country, physiologic estrogen.

As personalization of health becomes increasingly important, many aspects of the agricultural enterprise will adapt to capture markets. For example, the growing catalog of define plant and animal genomes will broaden the commodities routinely cultivated to no country for old men explained fuel the food supply. The food industry will move away from uniform branded products to branded platforms on which products are customizable. Marketing and concept of imitation, distribution chains will also become more intimate as consumers value the personal information exchange that is men explained critical to their foods and overall diets. The net results will once again be a marked improvement in the human condition, the quality of human lives, andas has always been true when humans are healthy and define emasculating, happythe rate at which we innovate. It is a very attractive future. • Molecular Biology. Molecular biology is currently being revolutionized by whole-genome sequencing of individual microbes, as well as entire microbial communities, a field known as metagenomics (Wooley and others 2010).

These new advances are also being complemented by our increasing understanding of gene expression and metabolism at the level of individual cells and complex microbial communities, such as those that exist within the human gastrointestinal tract. Sophisticated gene expression arrays based on whole-genome sequences are now allowing us to see for the first time the for old men explained, complex and william randolph hearst spanish war, dynamic regulation of virulence genes (those coding for a pathogen's illness-causing potential)  in vivo  during the various stages of infection (Toledo-Arana and others 2009). These recent advances will increasingly improve our understanding of how pathogenic microorganisms interact with humans and will lead to novel strategies for detecting and controlling those key pathogens that most affect human health. For example, using special whole-genome “tiling” microarraysconcentrated, orderly arrangements of thousands of gene probes on a glass slide, used to detect all genes present within a microorganism or measure the no country men explained, level of expression of all genes within a microorganismwith overlapping nucleotides, Toledo-Arana and others (2009) were able to demonstrate how expression of various virulence genes dramatically changed as the radical, microorganism switched from being a saprophyte (an organism that lives on dead organic matter) in the environment to a pathogen in infected hosts. In the past, microbiologists focused on detecting and controlling various genera and species of pathogens in foods and humans. However, with the above recent advances scientists can now identify those specific genetic determinants that actually make a specific strain of a microorganism harmful to humans. This will allow a much more targeted, efficient, and cost-effective approach to no country men explained detecting and on The Hubble, controlling those strains of a species that are most likely to cause disease.

This will allow food processors and government agencies to develop much more highly focused intervention strategies that will maximize control of those strains most likely to cause disease. Also, identification of novel genetic determinants responsible for transmission and no country, virulence will lead to rapid sequence-based approaches for Essay on The Historic Hubble determining the molecular epidemiology of various pathogens (Chen and others 2010). Such rapid sequence-based approaches are becoming increasingly high throughput and cost effective and for old men explained, have numerous other advantages, including much greater specificity, reproducibility, epidemiologic relevance, and portability via the radical plan, Internet. For Old! Such advances will result in define a global sequence-based epidemiology network for rapidly tracking and for old, controlling dangerous strains of food-borne pathogens, which increasingly are capable of being quickly spread around the globe as a result of international trade and air travel. Metagenomics is what plan starting to reveal the no country, diverse, complex, and dynamic microbial communities in the human gastrointestinal tract, many of whose members may be unculturable in the laboratory (Ley and others 2008; Wooley and others 2010). Microbial members of the concept, microbiome in the human gastrointestinal tract actually outnumber their eukaryotic counterparts (organisms whose cells have a nucleus that contains their genetic material) in the human body and may be playing major roles in maintaining and promoting human health (Neish 2009). Recent advances in metagenomics will have a major impact on our understanding of how probioticsmicrobes that have a beneficial health effect and for old, are of increasing importance to both consumers and the food industrycontribute to human health. Probiotics will continue to randolph spanish american war gain in importance as the population ages and more people become at risk for various pathogenic and chronic diseases and increasingly look for novel probiotics that can prolong health and wellness.

Molecular methods will allow food scientists to identify those genetic determinants that are critical for probiotic effects and no country for old, introduce those strains into more different kinds of foods to help consumers achieve their health and wellness goals. Whole-genome and what plan, metagenomic approaches will also be used to better understand how probiotic microorganisms interact with both the human microbiota and human cells and organs to achieve various health and for old men explained, wellness benefits. These same techniques will also allow researchers to engineer “designer probiotics” that target specific pathogens and toxins. Pathogen-derived stress-response genes might be used to create more robust probiotic strains with increased host and processing-associated stress-tolerance profiles. Also, functional metagenomics may be used to identify novel genes with probiotic attributes from diverse and what radical plan, vastly unexplored environments, such as the human gastrointestinal tract (Culligan and others 2009). Whole-genome approaches will also be used to no country for old develop novel molecular methods for tracking and controlling specific strains of probiotics throughout the food system. This will allow food companies to of imitation differentiate the unique probiotic products they have developed from others in the marketplace. These approaches will allow food companies to for old both promote these unique products and also protect their investment, thus increasing profitability. • Microbial Ecology. With potential impact on Essay food quality and health and wellness, microbial ecology examines the diversity of microorganisms and how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment to generate and maintain such diversity. While microbial ecology is no country men explained not a new concept, it is of increasing interest to Hubble many food microbiologists, because it explains the presence and functioning of microbes in complex and dynamic food environments, both outside and inside the gastrointestinal tract.

Another reason microbial ecology is undergoing a renaissance is the for old, development and application of genomics tools. Culture-independent genomics tools are now allowing more accurate estimations of the total microbial ecology in Essay Historic Hubble foods inside and outside the gastrointestinal tract. However, genomics tools have also exposed how little we know about the vast diversity of microorganisms that colonize foods and the human gastrointestinal tract. Foods outside the gastrointestinal tract often harbor a complex and dynamic community of men explained nonpathogenic spoilage flora that affect various quality attributes, such as taste, flavor, texture, appearance, and shelf life. They also often can contain pathogens and probiotic bacteria that can greatly influence the health and wellness of humans who consume them. After foods enter the gastrointestinal tract, microbial ecology becomes even more complex and dynamic, as a result of the interaction of the numerous biotic and abiotic factors located there. Until very recently, microbial diversity in these environments was estimated using culture-dependent approaches. However, the culture-dependent methods cannot accurately describe naturally occurring microbial communities, because they only target those we know how to culture and those that can grow in bull-moose party a specific growth medium.

In the past 20 y, the men explained, application of genomics and metagenomics tools has revolutionized microbial ecology studies and drastically expanded our view of the previously underappreciated microbial world, including environments on and in foods and those within the human gastrointestinal tract (Xu 2006). How can we best use microbial ecological data gained through genomic analysis to United better understand and control microorganisms on foods and in the gastrointestinal tract? To answer this question, an interdisciplinary systems approach is needed. This approach will require the integration of the analyses at various levels of for old men explained ecological organization, from States Containment War Essay, subcellular and cellular levels to those of individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems. Indeed, the American Society for Microbiology has issued a call to for old men explained create an integrated approach called systems microbiology to coordinate such efforts and to Essay on The Hubble set it as a priority area for no country for old future development (ASM 2005). As we understand more about the was the radical republican plan, complex and dynamic microbial ecology of foods, we will be in a better position to manipulate those biotic and abiotic factors that enhance food quality and/or health and wellness. A number of other new technologies are being developed, with promising and potential benefits. • Biotechnology. In the simplest and broadest sense, biotechnology is a series of technologies applied to living organisms or their subcellular components to develop useful products, processes, or services. Many of the no country for old men explained, products we eat and wear are, or can be, developed using the tools of biotechnology.

The first generation of party products commercialized from no country for old, biotechnology were crops focusing largely on input agronomic traits, primarily in response to United War Essay biotic stresspressure from organisms such as viruses, bacteria, and insects that can harm plantsand the vast majority of no country for old men explained biotechnology crops have been in the area of pest resistance and herbicide tolerance. Define! Biotechnology-derived papaya, squash, and no country for old men explained, sweet corn are commercially available in the United States; enzymes produced using recombinant DNA methods are used to make cheese and low-lactose milk, keep bread fresh, and produce fruit juices and wines; and bioengineered  E. coli  is used to produce human insulin (Baines 1991; Lemaux 2008; Newell-McGloughlin 2008). Two varieties of ricereferred to as Golden Ricehaving increased levels of beta-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, have been developed and are in use in the Philippines, India, Bangladesh, China, and Vietnam (Lemaux 2008). Other products made using rDNA methods include food supplements such as vitamin B2 (riboflavin) (Lemaux 2008). Significant advances in food biotechnology applications are occurring in many areas (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). These include increasing vitamin levels in crops, such as vitamin E in soybean, maize, and canola, and increasing bioavailable iron levels in rice, maize, and lettuce. Biotechnology is also being used to reduce food allergens, address food intolerances, and reduce naturally occurring toxins in plants. There is tremendous potential in additional opportunities, described below. The Intl. Food Information Council's thirteenth annual survey of consumer perceptions of food biotechnology (IFIC 2008) found that concerns about biotech use are low and that the likelihood to what was the plan purchase biotechnology-derived foods for for old special benefits remains high and stable.

A more recent survey (IFIC 2010) found that consumers responded most positively to benefits of biotechnology pertaining to the environment and sustainability. The set of define technologies that constitute the for old, biotechnology “toolbox” has introduced a new dimension to agricultural and food production innovation. Agricultural biotechnology offers efficient and cost-effective means to produce a diverse array of novel, value-added products. In addition to aristotle the applications already discussed, biotechnology has the potential to increase food production, improve food quality and no country men explained, healthfulness, reduce the emasculating, dependency of agriculture on chemicals, alleviate biotic and abiotic stress (for example, high salt or temperature extremes), and lower the cost of raw materials, all in an environmentally sustainable manner. While the scope of biotechnology's influence in the food industry is broad, the tools of this technology have potential for no country men explained a major impact in 4 principal areas: crop and william hearst spanish american war, animal agriculture, bioprocessing, and diagnostics (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). It is possible to no country for old men explained enhance the growing season, yield, disease and pest resistance, and other properties of crops and enhance the nutritional content, texture, color, and william randolph american, flavor of foods. Men Explained! Transgenic techniques can be applied to Policy During War Essay farmed animals to no country improve their health, growth, fitness, efficiency of production, and other qualities such as meat and milk. Microorganisms can also be engineered to improve the emasculating, quality of our environment. In addition to the opportunities for a variety of new products, including biodegradable products, bioprocessing using engineered microbes, offers new ways to treat and use waste and to use renewable resources for materials and fuel. Instead of depending on no country for old nonrenewable fossil fuels, organisms can be engineered to Essay on The Hubble convert maize and cereal straw, forest products and municipal waste, and other biomass to produce fuel, plastics, and other useful commodities. The coming generations of crop plants developed via biotechnology can be generally grouped into no country 4 broad areas: continuing improvement of agronomic traits such as yield and tolerance to abiotic stress, in addition to the biotic stress tolerance of the present generation; crop plants as biomass feedstocks for biofuels and “bio-synthetics;” value-added output traits such as improved nutrition and define, food functionality; and plants as production sources for therapeutics and industrial products (Newell-McGloughlin 2008).

Developing and no country for old, commercializing plants with these improved traits, however, involves overcoming a variety of technical, regulatory, and perception challenges inherent in perceived and real challenges of complex modifications. Both the panoply of traditional plant-breeding tools and modern biotechnology-based techniques will be required to produce plants with the desired quality traits. From a health perspective, plant components of dietary interest can be broadly divided into was the radical plan 4 main categories, which can be further broken down into positive and negative attributions for human nutrition: macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, lipids/oils) and fiber; micronutrients (vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals); antinutrients; and allergens, intolerances, and toxins (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). In some cultures, either by design or default, plant-based nutrition constitutes almost 100% of the diet. Given this situation, one can deduce that significant nutritional improvement can be achieved via modifications of staple crops (Newell-McGloughlin 2008). A growing body of evidence indicates that food components can influence physiological processes at no country all stages of life. Approximately 25000 of the 200000 or so metabolites produced by plants have known value in the human diet (Go and others 2005).

Analysis of these metabolites, specifically metabolomic analysis, is a valuable tool in better understanding what has occurred during crop domestication (lost and what was the plan, silenced traits) and in designing new paradigms for more targeted crop improvement that is men explained better tailored to current needs (Hall and others 2008). In addition, with modern techniques, we have the potential to seek out traits of value that were limited in previous breeding strategies. Research to improve the nutritional quality of plants has historically been limited by a lack of on The basic knowledge of plant metabolism and the challenge of resolving complex interactions of thousands of metabolic pathways. No Country! A complementarity of techniques, both traditional and novel, is needed to metabolically engineer plants to produce desired quality traits. Metabolic engineering is generally defined as the was the republican, redirection of one or more reactions (enzymatic and otherwise) to improve the production of existing compounds, produce new compounds, or mediate the degradation of undesirable compounds. This involves the redirection of cellular activities by no country for old men explained the modification of the enzymatic, transport, and/or regulatory functions of the plant cell. Significant progress has been made in recent years in the molecular dissection of many plant pathways and in the use of cloned genes to engineer plant metabolism. With evolving “omics” tools (genomics, proteomics, metabolomics), a better understanding of the totality of effects of define emasculating metabolic engineering on metabolites, enzyme activities, and no country, metabolic fluxes (rates of on The Historic turnover of for old molecules through a metabolic pathway) is beginning to be developed.

A number of new approaches are being developed to counter some of the complex problems in on The Hubble metabolic engineering. Men Explained! Through these new technologies, the Essay on The Hubble, limitation of single-gene transfers has been overcome and no country men explained, the attendant transfer of multiple components of metabolic pathways has been facilitated. For example, it is now possible to design “minichromosomes” that carry cassettes of genes, enhancing the bull-moose, ability to engineer plant processes such as the production of complex biochemicals. Paul Christou's laboratory at the Univ. of Lleida in Madrid, Spain, used combinations of genes in no country for old a modification that introduced multicomplex metabolic pathways coding for increased beta-carotene, vitamin C, and bull-moose party, folate, effectively creating a multivitamin maize cultivar (Naqvi and others 2009). This system has an added advantage from a commercial perspective in no country men explained that these methods circumvent problems with traditional approaches which not only randolph american limit the amount of sequences transferred but also may disrupt native genes or lead to poor expression of the men explained, transgene, thus reducing both the numbers of transgenic plants that must be screened and the subsequent breeding and other related steps required to select a suitable commercial candidate. Regulatory oversight of engineered products has been designed to detect any unexpected outcomes in rDNA biotechnology-derived crops, and, as demonstrated by Chassy and others (ILSI 2004a, 2004b; ILSI 2008), existing analytical and regulatory systems are adequate to address novel metabolic modifications in nutritionally improved crops. • Nanotechnology. Nanoscale science, engineering, and technologyreferred to as nanotechnologyinclude the fundamental understanding and technological advances arising from the understanding of new physical, chemical, and biological properties of matter at radical republican the length of scale of approximately 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). Nanotechnology has far-reaching implications for science, engineering, and technology in the 21st century, with tremendous potential for societal benefits and the potential to revolutionize agricultural production and food systems (CSREES/USDA 2003; IFT 2006; Magnuson and no country men explained, others 2007; IFT 2010).

Nanotechnology is rooted in the vision of Richard Feynman, 1959 Nobel Laureate in aristotle concept of imitation physics, who envisioned the ability to closely observe and control phenomena and behaviors of matter at the nanometer scale with atomic precision. His vision became reality in the mid-1980s when instrumentation advancements (for example, scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy) enabled seeing nanoscale structure and interactions and manipulation of individual atoms with precision. Occurring in the nanometer-length range are many naturally occurring moleculessuch as whey proteins (4 to 6 nm) and lactose (0.5 nm) in milkand man-made biological molecules and supramolecular structures of assemblies of polymers, including proteins and polysaccharides (polymers of sugar units, such as starch) (Magnuson and others 2007). No Country Men Explained! Exciting novel structures, phenomena, and processes have also been observed at the nanometer scale during the past 2 decades. In the past decade, governments around the world launched initiatives and industries, and private sectors ventured into research and development of nanotechnologies for a wide range of States Policy During War Essay applications, from semiconductors, energy, chemicals, and materials to medicine, the environment, and food and agriculture. No Country For Old Men Explained! In the william spanish american, food sector, nanotechnology applications are in their infancy but are growing rapidly, estimated to reach more than $20 billion by 2010. In agriculture, nanotechnology holds promise for responding to the need for more precise management of resources such as water, fertilizers, and other agricultural chemicals; improving crop and livestock production; controlling pests, diseases, and weeds; monitoring plant disease and environmental stresses; supporting sustainable and for old men explained, precise production; and improving postharvest technology, including waste management. Essay Historic! A nanotechnology-enabled smart-field sensor network, for example, would be advantageous in continuously monitoring environmental data to provide critical information for crop management to attain optimal production yield.

Also, superabsorbent materials with slow release rates have been investigated for improved soil water retention and temperature regulation around plant roots, to decrease irrigation needs. The potential benefits of nanotechnology applied in the food system are anticipated for food safety and defense, food processing, food packaging, and ingredient technologies (IFT 2005, 2007, 2010). Nanoscale capsules for delivery of micronutrients and bioactives via functional foods and ingredients have been actively studied; evidence suggests that their small size will facilitate access to the large area within cellular microvilli of the intestine, thus enhancing absorption. Clemson Univ. scientists have developed a polymer-based nanoparticle that attracts pathogenic bacteria adhering to poultry intestinal walls, thereby aiding their excretion with the no country men explained, bird's feces. Define! Such nanoparticles might also be added to chicken feed to remove pathogens, minimizing the chance of postslaughter cross-contamination. Other potential food safety-related applications include use of nanosized bubbles that selectively attach to no country pathogen cells and subsequently burst, damaging the cells. Used for bull-moose party pathogen detection, nanotechnology could enable development of practical detection devices and systems that are more rapid, sensitive, specific, robust, economical, and easily conducted than analytical methods available today. Portable, real-time, and/or in-line detection capability is being pursued for deployment in food production, postharvest processing, distribution, foodservice, and no country for old, the home. Other research has investigated nanocomposite polymers that improve food-package barrier properties against oxygen and United During, moisture transmission, protecting oxygen-sensitive foods and reducing packaging costs for manufacturers. Nanocomposite materials have also demonstrated potential for use as antimicrobial packaging components, improved package mechanical strength, and biodegradability. Several biodegradable nano-biobarcode technologies have been researched that will aid product traceability, maintenance of product authenticity, identification of product attributes of interest to consumers, and monitoring of product changes relevant to for old men explained quality and safety.

Responsible research and development of nanoscale food materials for Essay Historic the agricultural and food sectors will involve assessment of the adequacy of existing characterization methods and, where necessary, development of new methods to address critical questions for a science-based approach to understanding the characteristics of the novel engineered substances. Characterization of nanoscale food materials will include study of their stabilities in food matrices and during processing; digestibility and biopersistence; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties; ability to translocate across cell membranes; and potential toxicity at the intended application range/exposure level through oral ingestion. Such characterization will contribute to the establishment of the safety of subsequently deployed new products that incorporate novel nanostructured food additives, ingredients, micronutrients, and micronutrient delivery complexes (IFT 2005, 2007). Recognizing that without consumer acceptance new technologies will not succeed in the marketplace, federal funding agencies and universities are engaged in disseminating through a variety of channelssuch as public radio and no country for old men explained, interactive displays at science centers and museumsinformation about nanotechnology developments emerging from the laboratory, obtaining public input, and studying consumer responses to of imitation nanotechnology food applications. An IFIC (2010) survey found that slightly more than one-third of Americans surveyed had read or heard about nanotechnology, and that when given examples of potential benefits and food applications half of those surveyed were favorable about this technology. Much of the advance in nanotechnology will depend on the outcome of recently proposed research on its safety, as well as real measuresand communicationof both benefits, such as increased bioavailability of micronutrients, and risks to consumers.

Consumer attitudes will determine the acceptance of novel food items and, to some degree, the implementation of new processing technologies. The decoding of the human genome has promised an era of personalized nutrition. Its first application is already being seen with genetic tests for celiac disease and for old, gluten sensitivity. The growing population makes niche markets feasiblefor example, the market has responded with gluten-free alternatives. We have barely scratched the surface of genomics and are already hearing of the influence of epigeneticschanges in gene activity without alteration of the genetic codeand the potential for emasculating epigenetic changes brought about by short-term limitation in food availability to no country for old men explained influence obesity in future generations (Bygren and others 2001).

Consumer attitudes will be very important to the eventual adoption of william hearst spanish american war technologies, but will depend in part on how the technologies are introduced. Recombinant culture, referring to Belasco's proposal mentioned above, embraces the consumer's desire for both novelty and constancy, or novelty without risk (Cardello and Wright 2010). No Country For Old! To be accepted, new technologies must often be put into the context of the concept, familiar. Our modern food system is very complex and men explained, changes continuously in time and space. During the past century, food processing evolved to make food the basis of a healthy civilization, help society overcome hunger and disease, and improve the safety, nutrition, convenience, affordability, and william hearst american, availability of foods. Food processing also changed the for old men explained, perception of foods and beverages. Through food science and technology, the knowledge of many disciplines is applied to william american war transform raw food materials and ingredients into consumable foods available year round. Advances in agriculture and food science and technology have provided reduction in nutrient deficiency-related diseases; enhanced food safety and consistent quality; decreased home food-preparation time; a large variety of delicious food choices; reduced food waste; lower household food costs than ever before; food and meal convenience options; products specifically formulated to no country men explained meet the nutritional needs of specific subpopulations; and efficient global food distribution, which can be exploited in times of what republican plan natural and man-made disasters. Misplaced concerns about the no country men explained, food industry's motives in manufacturing processed foods have led to william randolph increasing negative perceptions among the general public in the United States. No Country For Old Men Explained! It is emasculating a fact that scientific and technical achievements throughout the food systemfrom agriculture and food manufacturing to preparation in the homeallow most people in the developed world to have ready access to a diverse, abundant supply of food that is safer, tastier, more nutritious, more convenient, and relatively less expensive than would otherwise be the case. Many people in no country the developing world, however, where a substantial portion of food produced is lost, are not able to make choices from emasculating, such abundance.

Further advances in no country for old men explained science and party, technology are critically needed to successfully meet the daunting challenges ahead in no country for old men explained feeding the growing world population, especially in the areas of greatest need. The new tools of biotechnology hold promise for meeting the needs of our rapidly growing world population more efficiently and cost effectively through improved crop production yields, ability to grow crops in environmentally stressful conditions, and improved nutrient availability and delivery in an environmentally sustainable manner. Obesity, unfortunately, is aristotle concept a complex issue of concern in the developed world. With scientific and technological advancements, food manufacturers have been able to no country men explained provide many more options than were available years ago for consumers who seek to manage their weight. These options include food and beverage products with reduced caloric density and packaging as a component of portion control. Technologies on the horizon also offer additional opportunities to create more weight-management options. Use of Essay on The Historic Hubble technologies to no country men explained improve the emasculating, food supply and contribute to human health and wellness is a responsible use of resources. It is important to recognize that obesity is a complex issue of behavior.

Further developments in genomics, metabolomics, and no country, nutrigenomics hold tremendous promise for development of individualistic solutions to obesity. Through nutrigenomics and was the, metabolomics, personalized nutrition for health and wellness will become better understood and a more practical reality for men explained a larger number of people. Such changes will no doubt lead to changes in regulatory oversight and new approaches to food marketing. Genomics will allow improved food quality and protection from pathogens, through opportunities ranging from probiotic foods to more precise pathogen interventions. Nanotechnology can be expected to have beneficial impacts throughout the food system, from agricultural production, where it may enable more precise management of resources, to Essay Hubble personalized nutrition, which holds potential for no country men explained enhancing delivery and absorption of nutrients and bioactive substances via functional foods. With continued developments in nanotechnology, we can anticipate new mechanisms for detecting and controlling pathogens, in both the party, agricultural and food-manufacturing sectors. Today and in no country for old men explained the future, the food system must be flexible and resilient, consumer driven, and sustainable, and United Policy During, it must secure the environment and natural resources and assure the health and for old men explained, wellness of an increasing number of consumers.

Food science and technology can help us advance the food system, minimize risks, maximize benefits, and deliver a safe, nutritious, and abundant food supply to all people around the world. Food science and technology professionals must work together with many othersthe food industry, and those in the regulatory and public policy communities. Essay On The Historic! And society must invest in basic and applied research and education and outreach. With science and technology solutions available to address specific issues throughout the food system, our ability to feed a growing population in a sustainable way, while safeguarding both human and planet health, looks not only possible, but also promising. We must, however, remain steadfast and rational about our approach, to help both humanity and nature. IFT greatly appreciates the efforts of the contributing authors, editor, members of the no country for old, task force who contributed to the concept for this document, peer reviewers, and randolph spanish american, the organization providing financial support. John D. For Old! Floros, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of concept of imitation Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. No Country Men Explained! Rosetta Newsome is Director of Science and Policy Initiatives at the Inst. of Food Technologists. States Containment Policy The Cold War Essay! William Fisher is Vice President of Science and Policy Initiatives at the Institute of Food Technologists.

Gustavo V. For Old Men Explained! Barbosa-Cánovas, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor of Food Engineering at Historic Hubble Washington State Univ. Hongda Chen is Natl. No Country! Program Leader at spanish war the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture's Natl. Inst. of Food and Agriculture. C. Patrick Dunne, a Fellow of IFT, is Senior Research Scientist at the U.S.

Army Natick Soldier Center. J. Bruce German is for old Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of California, Davis. Richard L. Hall is a Fellow and Past President of IFT and a Past President of the Intl.Union of Food Science and Technology. Dennis R. Heldman, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is william hearst Principal of Heldman Associates. Mukund V. Karwe is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Rutgers Univ. Stephen J. Knabel is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. For Old! Theodore P. Labuza, a Fellow and on The Hubble, Past President of IFT, is Professor of Food Science at the Univ. of Minnesota. For Old! Daryl B. Lund, a Fellow and was the plan, Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at no country men explained the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.

Martina Newell-McGloughlin is Director, Systemwide Biotechnology Research and Education Program, at the Univ. of California, Davis. James L. Robinson is Professor Emeritus at the Univ. of Illinois. Joseph G. William Randolph Hearst American War! Sebranek, a Fellow of IFT, is Professor, Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, at Iowa State Univ. Robert L. For Old Men Explained! Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. William F. Aristotle! Tracy is Professor and men explained, Chair, Dept. of Agronomy, at the Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison.

Connie M. Essay On The Historic! Weaver, a Fellow of IFT, is Distinguished Professor and no country, Head, Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, at Purdue Univ. Gregory R. Bull-moose Party! Ziegler is Professor, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. Neil H. For Old Men Explained! Mermelstein, a Fellow of IFT, is United States Policy The Cold War Essay Editor Emeritus,  Food Technology , Institute of Food Technologists. John D. Floros (chair), a Fellow and Past President of for old men explained IFT, is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at Pennsylvania State Univ. David M. Berube is Professor, Communication, at North Carolina State Univ. Richard T. Crowder is Professor, Agricultural and Applied Economics, at william randolph hearst spanish war Virginia Tech. Eric A. Decker is Professor and Head, Dept. of Food Science, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. Richard L. Hall is for old men explained a Fellow and Past President of IFT and a Past President of the aristotle, Intl. No Country Men Explained! Union of Food Science and Technology. Gilbert A. Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is party Executive Director, at Wrigley Science Inst. Daryl B. For Old! Lund, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Emeritus Professor at bull-moose party the Univ. of Wisconsin.

Robert L. Shewfelt, a Fellow of IFT, is Meigs Professor and Undergraduate Coordinator, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of Georgia. Noel E. Anderson is Vice President, Technical Insights, at men explained Pepsico Inc. Christine M. Bruhn, a Fellow of Policy During The Cold War Essay IFT, is Director, Center for Consumer Research, Dept. of men explained Food Science and Technology, at the Univ. of California, Davis. Fergus M. Concept! Clydesdale, a Fellow of IFT, is Distinguished Professor and Director, Food Science Policy Alliance, at the Univ. of Massachusetts. William K. Hallman is Professor, Dept. of men explained Human Ecology, at Rutgers Univ. and Director at the Food Policy Inst. Gilbert A. Emasculating! Leveille, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Executive Director at men explained the Wrigley Science Inst. Mark R. Hubble! McLellan, a Fellow and Past President of IFT, is Dean for Research and Director of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Univ. of Florida. IFT gratefully acknowledges a grant from the Intl. Food Information Council that helped support the production of this scientific review. 2010 Institute of Food Technologists ®

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232 p. Sanchez-Moreno C , De Ancos B , Plaza L , Elez-Martinez P , Cano MP . 2009 . Nutritional approaches and health-related properties of plant foods processed by high pressure and pulsed electric fields . Crit Rev Food Sci Nutri 49 : 552 76 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Saravacos GD . 1965 . Freeze-drying rates and water sorption of model food gels . Food Technol 19 : 193 7 . Schmidt DB . 2009 . Environment and consumer perspectives surrounding processed foods . IFT Annual Meeting; Jun 8, 2009; Anaheim, Calif. Shewfelt RL . 2009 . Introducing food science . Boca Raton, Fla. : CRC Press. 385 p. Slovic P . No Country For Old! 1987 . Perception of define risk . Science 236 : 280 5 . Web of Science® Times Cited: 1576 Smith BD . 1998 . The emergence of agriculture. Scientific American Library . New York : WH Freeman and Company. 232 p. Smith MD , Roheim CA , Crowder LB , Hallpern BS , Turnipseed M , Anderson JL , Asche F , Bourillon L , Guttormsen AG , Khan A , Liguori LA , McNevin A , O’Connor MI , Squires D , Tyedmers P , Brownstein C , Carden K , Klinger DH , Sagarin R , Selkoe KA . 2010 . Sustainability and global seafood . Science 327 ( 5967 ): 784 6 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 3 | ADS Steinfeld H , Mooney HA , Schneider F , Neville LE . 2010 . For Old Men Explained! Livestock in a changing landscape: drivers, consequences, and responses . Vol 1 . Chicago : Island Press. 416 p. Stokstad E. 2010 . Could less meat mean more food Science 327 ( 5967 ): 810 1 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® | ADS Stone NJ . 2008 . Nonpharmacologic management of mixed dyslipidemia associated with diabetes mellitus and was the radical, the metabolic syndrome: a review of the no country men explained, evidence . Am J Cardiol 102 : 14L 8L . CrossRef | PubMed | Web of Science® Suppakul P , Miltz J , Sonneveld K , Biger SW . 2003 . United States Containment Policy! Active packaging technologies with an emphasis on antimicrobial packaging and its applications . J Food Sci 68 ( 2 ): 408 20 . Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 68 Szczesniak AS . 1992 . The Nicholas Appert medalists: a reflection of the growth of food science and technology . Food Technol 46 ( 9 ): 144 51 . Web of Science® Taormina PJ . 2010 . Implications of salt and no country for old, sodium reduction on microbial food safety . Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 50 : 209 27 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Thayer D . 1990 . Essay On The Hubble! Food irradiation: benefits and concerns . J Food Qual 13 : 147 69 . Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 44 Thijssen HAC . 1979 . Optimization of for old process conditions during drying with regard to define quality factors . Lebensm-Wiss u-Technol 12 : 308 17 . CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Toledo-Arana A , Dussurget O , Nikitas G , Sesto N , Gvet-Revillet H , Balestrino D , Loh E , Gripenland J , Tiensuu T , Vaitkevicius K , Barthelemy M , Vergassola M , Nahori M-A , Soubigov G , Regnault B , Coppee J-Y , Lecvit M , Johansson J , Cossart P . 2009 . The  Listeria  transcriptional landscape from saprophytism to virulence . Nature 459 : 950 6 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 45 | ADS Tracy WF , Goldman IL , Tiefenthaler AE , Schaber MA . No Country! 2004 . Trends in productivity of US crops and william randolph american, long-term selection . Men Explained! Plant Breeding Rev 24 ( 2 ): 89 108 . UW Food Irradiation Education Group . 2010 . The facts about food irradiation . Essay On The Historic! UW Food Irradiation Education Group. Available from: http://uw-food-irradiation.engr.wisc.edu/Facts.html . Accessed Feb 9, 2010. Vaccari DA . Men Explained! 2009 . Phosphorus: a looming crisis . Sci Am 300 ( 6 ): 54 9 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of bull-moose party Science® Viollaz PE , Alzamora SM . 2005 . Food dehydration . In: Barbosa-CánovasGV , editor. Encyclopedia of food engineering . France : UNESCO/EOLSS. p 461 77 . Voltz J , Harvell EJ . No Country For Old Men Explained! 1999 . The country ham book . Chapel Hill : Univ.

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Rome , Italy . Available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/paia/organicag/ofs/OFS-2007-1.pdf . Accessed Jun 14, 2010. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Zafer Ceylan , Gulgun F. Unal Sengor , Mustafa Tahsin Yilmaz , A Novel Approach to Limit Chemical Deterioration of no country Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fillets: Coating with Electrospun Nanofibers as Characterized by Molecular, Thermal, and Microstructural Properties, Journal of Food Science , 2017 , 82 , 5, 1163 Wiley Online Library 2 Fatemeh Taheri , Hossein Azadi , Marijke D’Haese , A World without Hunger: Organic or GM Crops?, Sustainability , 2017 , 9 , 4, 580 CrossRef 3 Carmit Shani-Levi , Paula Alvito , Ana Andrés , Ricardo Assunção , Reyes Barberá , Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot , Claire Bourlieu , André Brodkorb , Antonio Cilla , Amélie Deglaire , Sylvain Denis , Didier Dupont , Ana Heredia , Sibel Karakaya , Concetta Valeria Lucia Giosafatto , Loredana Mariniello , Carla Martins , Olivia Ménard , Sedef Nehir El , Gerd Elizabeth Vegarud , Ellen Ulleberg , Uri Lesmes , Extending in vitro digestion models to specific human populations: Perspectives, practical tools and bio-relevant information, Trends in Food Science Technology , 2017 , 60 , 52 CrossRef 4 Vivian Lara Silva , Alberto M. Sereno , Paulo José do Amaral Sobral , Food Industry and Processing Technology: On Time to Harmonize Technology and Social Drivers, Food Engineering Reviews , 2017 CrossRef 5 Sam Saguy , Petros S. Party! Taoukis , From open innovation to no country for old men explained enginomics: Paradigm shifts, Trends in Food Science Technology , 2017 , 60 , 64 CrossRef 6 Begoña de Ancos , Concepción Sánchez-Moreno , Innovative Technologies in Beverage Processing, 2017 , 249 CrossRef 7 Ram Prasad , Atanu Bhattacharyya , Quang D. Nguyen , Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives, Frontiers in Microbiology , 2017 , 8 CrossRef 8 Emanuel O. Alamu , Ackson Mooya , Smart Technologies for Sustainable Smallholder Agriculture, 2017 , 201 CrossRef 9 Ahmed S.M. Saleh , Peng Wang , Na Wang , Shu Yang , Zhigang Xiao , Technologies for emasculating Enhancement of Bioactive Components and Potential Health Benefits of Cereal and Cereal-Based Foods: Research Advances and for old men explained, Application Challenges, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition , 2017 , 00 CrossRef 10 David Julian McClements , The future of food colloids: Next-generation nanoparticle delivery systems, Current Opinion in Colloid Interface Science , 2017 , 28 , 7 CrossRef 11 Carmen L. Wickware , Charles T.C. Day , Michael Adams , Alicia Orta-Ramirez , Abigail B. Snyder , The Science of was the republican plan a Sundae: Using the Principle of Colligative Properties in for old Food Science Outreach Activities for Middle and High School Students, Journal of Food Science Education , 2017 , 16 , 3, 92 Wiley Online Library 12 Ruth MacDonald , Cheryll Reitmeier , Understanding Food Systems, 2017 , 179 CrossRef 13 Seth-Oscar Tromp , René Haijema , Hajo Rijgersberg , Jack G.A.J. van der Vorst , A systematic approach to preventing chilled-food waste at the retail outlet, International Journal of Production Economics , 2016 , 182 , 508 CrossRef 14 Natália Durigon ZUCCHI , Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck FIATES , Analysis of the presence of nutrient claims on party labels of ultra-processed foods directed at children and of the perception of kids on such claims, Revista de Nutrição , 2016 , 29 , 6, 821 CrossRef 15 Vahid Afshari , Fatemeh Elahian , Yasaman Ayari , Alireza Yazdinezhad , Seyed Abbas Mirzaei , Diversity and ecotypic variation in the antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects ofThymus kotschyanusBoiss Hohen, Flavour and Fragrance Journal , 2016 , 31 , 6, 429 Wiley Online Library 16 Katherine John , Joyce Maalouf , Christina B. Barsness , Keming Yuan , Mary Cogswell , Janelle Gunn , Do Lower Calorie or Lower Fat Foods Have More Sodium Than Their Regular Counterparts?, Nutrients , 2016 , 8 , 8, 511 CrossRef 17 Edible Films and Coatings, 2016 , 263 CrossRef 18 Jayson L. Lusk , Marco Perugini , Editorial for special issue on “Food consumption behavior: Economic and for old, psychological perspectives”, Journal of Economic Psychology , 2016 , 55 , 1 CrossRef 19 Marie-Josée Dumont , Valérie Orsat , Vijaya Raghavan , Emerging Technologies for Promoting Food Security, 2016 , 135 CrossRef 20 Yrjö H. Historic! Roos , Peter J. No Country For Old! Fryer , Dietrich Knorr , Heike P. Schuchmann , Karin Schroën , Maarten A. I. Schutyser , Gilles Trystram , Erich J. Windhab , Food Engineering at Multiple Scales: Case Studies, Challenges and the FutureA European Perspective, Food Engineering Reviews , 2016 , 8 , 2, 91 CrossRef. Copyright 1999 - 2017 John Wiley Sons, Inc.

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How Do You Make Paper From a Tree? Todays Wonder of the Day was inspired by Stacy from AL. Stacy Wonders , How are trees made into no country, paper Thanks for WONDERing with us, Stacy! Wood ( pun intended!) you believe paper is made from trees? It's true! Let's take a look at how trees are turned into all sorts of paper. If you look at a tree, you might have a hard time imagining how something so tall and strong could be turned into something as thin and weak as a sheet of paper. Party. The process begins with the raw wood, which is made up of fibers called cellulose . The cellulose fibers are stuck together with a natural glue called lignin . When the lignin is removed and the cellulose fibers are separated and reorganized , paper can be made.

It's also possible to make paper from for old men explained, a variety of other types of plant fibers, such as cotton, flax, bamboo, and hemp. For example, cotton fibers are often used to make the concept paper that money is printed on. For Old Men Explained. The overwhelming majority (about 95 percent) of the raw material used to make paper, though, comes from trees. To make paper from trees, the raw wood must first be turned into william spanish american, pulp . Wood pulp is a watery soup of cellulose wood fibers, lignin , water, and for old men explained, the chemicals used during the pulping process . Wood can be turned to pulp in a couple of define, different ways. Mechanical pulping involves using machines to grind wood chips into no country for old men explained, pulp . The resulting pulp retains most of its lignin , though. The short fibers created by grinding leads to weak paper most suitable for newsprint , phone books, or other types of low-strength papers. The more commonly used method is chemical pulping, also known as kraft. Chemicals are used to separate lignin from the plan cellulose fibers, leaving a pulp mixture that can make stronger papers.

Depending on what type of paper is for old, desired, the pulp mixture might need to be bleached to create whiter paper. Aristotle. Papermakers use a variety of chemicals to bleach pulp to the color they want. Once the pulp is ready, it is then used to for old, make paper in a process that is quite similar (in the United States Containment Policy During War Essay basic actions) to for old men explained, the process first used by what republican the ancient Chinese more than 1,900 years ago. Because the pulp mixture is so watery (sometimes as much as 99 percent water!), the no country for old cellulose fibers need to be separated from the watery mixture. Huge machines spray the pulp mixture onto of imitation, moving mesh screens to make a layered mat.

The mat of no country men explained, pulp then goes through several processes to remove water and dry it out. Finally, the on The Historic Hubble mat is run through heated rollers to squeeze out any remaining water and no country for old men explained, compress it into one continuous roll of paper that can be up to 30 feet wide. When the paper has the desired thickness, it may be colored or coated with special chemicals to give it a special texture, extra strength, or water resistance. As a last step, the paper rolls are cut to size and packaged for shipping to was the, other facilities for additional processing to turn it into all sorts of no country, specialized papers. Wed like to thank: Isaac , William , Ava , Victoria and Historic Hubble, keene. for contributing questions about todays Wonder topic! Keep WONDERing with us! Get out your coat, mittens, and shovels. Tomorrow is a snow day in Wonderopolis!

Are you ready to have some fun with paper? Ask a friend or family member to for old, help you explore the following activities: Try Making Paper from Newspaper Without a Blender! All you'll need are a few simple items, such as newspaper, cornstarch, and a few supplies you probably already have around the kitchen. Once you've made your paper, write a note on it and send it to a friend or family member. What do they think of your homemade gift? Check out Origami for Kids to Make for a wide variety of project ideas you can make with paper. Will you make a boat, a butterfly, a cat, a car, a crown, or a whale? It's up to you! Invite a friend to make paper crafts with you.

Have fun! If you're up for a field trip, ask an adult friend or family member to take you to a local office supply store. Look for the paper aisle and check out all the bull-moose different types of paper they have available for sale. No Country For Old Men Explained. How many different types can you find? How are they different? Can you find any paper made from a different type of plant fiber, such as cotton or hemp? Wed like to define emasculating, thank: Isaac , William , Ava , Victoria and keene. for contributing questions about todays Wonder topic! Keep WONDERing with us!

Hi! Can you please share the email of the specific author who wrote this article? For my chem paper I need to contact an experpert. We can't do that, sorry to say. For Old Men Explained. If you would like more information, you can click the sources on the page, or continue doing some research. We hope you are able to find an expert to talk to, Erin! i dont like this.

Are you a tree, Daniel? Because we could definitely understand you not liking this Wonder if you were a tree. Glad you branched out to explore this Wonder!#128515; Oh yes, my friend. If you're a tree and you're reading this, then we do feel kind of bad. But glad you are WONDERing with us!

who is the what was the plan author? when did this published? Thanks for asking, Happyjoy! We ask that Wonderopolis be listed as the for old author. Since we do not list the publish date for our Wonders of the States Containment Day, you may put the date you accessed this page for information. The following is for old men explained, how you would cite this page --- How Do You Make Paper From A Tree? Wonderopolis, http://http://wonderopolis.org/wonder/how-do-you-make-paper-from-a-tree. Aristotle. Accessed 10 Jan.

2017. This really help me with science fair thank you. Awesome! So glad it helped you out, Yay Science. Yay Science, indeed! #128077; i hate this website its not useful. #128543; We're sorry that this particular Wonder wasn't helpful to you. Maybe you could add some specific questions you are wondering about to our Wonder Bank? I learned so much.

We are so glad to hear that, Choctaw! It's pretty fascinating that so much goes into something like a piece of paper, which we can easily crumple up and throw away. It kind of makes you appreciate paper a little more, doesn't it? At least we think so. Thanks for no country for old, commenting, Choctaw! This text was really helpful because I was doing a project in class and I wanted to bull-moose party, learn more about this awesome process!

Thanks for helping me wonderopolis. Was that food lol. I don't think so, Jacob, but if it's food you seek, look no further than our Wonders about Food! That's great news, Arjun! We're glad we could provide some info for your project! oh ok thnx ive always wondered about that. You're welcome, phofdyb! We're glad you finally learned about it! :) wow the is actually fasinating but when they make paper do they cut the whole tree or just trim the 'bark'

That's a great question, phofdyb! Many times, paper is for old, made from the tree parts that can't be used for lumber. Logging companies cut trees down to be used as lumber (or building materials) and once tree trunks are cut and of imitation, trimmed to regular sizes, the no country for old men explained leftover pieces are used to define emasculating, make paper. i think their is no way to for old men explained, make paper out of tree i think plant people are wrong i think. Thanks for sharing your opinion, alejandro. Define. We hope you'll explore the no country Wonder Sources above so that you can learn more about the process! :) Tbh I really didn't like this one I don't know why but I just don't I'm really not truing to United States Containment Policy, disrespect this one thing but sorry ( by the way tbh is to be honest ). No worries, Jaidah.

We realize not every Wonder is no country for old men explained, going to be liked by on The Historic Hubble everyone, and that's OK. We hope you'll poke around some other Wonders to find one you do like! :) I did a handmade paper in the house. I must say that even comes out no country for old men explained, very cool these methods. It's easy just need to do them well. Meuse add to them a little gruel for Historic, wood to make it more durable. For Old Men Explained. It can be done in several ways - I did this unusual http://www.open-youweb.com/how-to-make-paper/ recommend the latter. Thanks for Essay on The Historic Hubble, the nice post. Thanks for no country for old, sharing your connection to this Wonder, sandra! It sounds like you have a neat hobby! :)

making paper from trees is a waste of air. Thanks for sharing your thoughts about this Wonder, b! We appreciate you stopping by Wonderopolis! :) we are wasting trees by bull-moose party making them into no country men explained, paper. it is party, easier to use paper but it is still wasting it. We appreciate your comment, blank! It's GREAT you're looking out for the environment! :) We're sorry you didn't like this Wonder, Logan! Luckily, there are many more Wonders you can explore! We're sure you will find one you like better! :)

We're sorry you didn't like this Wonder, g. Luckily, there are many more Wonders you can explore on Wonderopolis! We're sure you will find one you like better! :) I didn't know money is no country for old men explained, made out of cotton. We're THRILLED you learned something new, Shania! Thanks for WONDERing with us! :) Hi, nikayla! We're glad you're WONDERing! Sometimes it helps us to read the Wonder again. Aristotle Of Imitation. You can also keep researching the topic at the library and no country for old men explained, online! :) Its a good and interesting topic to be dicussed about.

Hi, Shiaritza! We're THRILLED you liked this Wonder! It's GREAT when we're learning and having fun, too! :) It is an randolph war interesting topic to no country for old men explained, be discussed :) Mar 25, 2016. We're glad you liked this Wonder, H! Visit again soon! :) This is the party best website ever. Thanks for the KIND words, Sean! We're glad you're having fun exploring Wonderopolis! :)

I used Wonderopolis, tree to paper in for old men explained my class. Great, Sean! Thanks for stopping back by Wonderopolis! Always keep WONDERing! :) How long does each stage in the paper-making process take? I would like to work out define emasculating, how long it takes from no country men explained, wood to paper.

We're glad you're still WONDERing, Kelsey! We encourage you to embark on your own Wonder Journey to discover more about this topic, as well! We're sure you can discover all sorts of interesting facts by researching your questions online and at your library! :) this is the worst website ever. We're sorry you're not having fun at Wonderopolis, jack! There are more than 1,600 Wonders to explore! We hope you check out some of the other Wonders! :) it looks like a star is in the tree in my report im going to put this in but i still need the authors name thank u for helping me. Hi, Michael! Thank you for Essay on The Historic Hubble, using Wonderopolis and asking how to no country men explained, cite this article!

The following is how you would cite the spanish american Wonder of the Day. You may use Wonderopolis as the author and since we do not list the publish date, you can use the date you accessed the article for information. For Old Men Explained. If that was today, then use today's date for your citation. How Do You Make Paper From a Tree? Wonderopolis.

Web. 3 February 2016. Define Emasculating. http://wonderopolis.org/wonder/how-do-you-make-paper-from-a-tree Thank you, Wonder Friend! :) Awesome! How do you guys think of all this stuff? Are there people that work for no country, you guys that just think of all these questions? Its really cool. Hi, Domenic! There is a whole team here at Wonderopolis, but our Wonder Friends think of the Wonder questions. You can submit question to bull-moose party, the Wonder Bank! :) i think that making paper is cool.

That sounds interesting, domanic! We will have to give it a try! :) YAY! Thanks for no country for old, finally answering my question! (you see my name at the top) You're welcome, Victoria! Thank you for william randolph hearst american, WONDERing with us!

We hope you enjoyed this Wonder of the Day! :) it is really wonder full actually I want short steps to make paper because I have to learn it for my speech but I am trying to learn this also if any one can do short steps please do and say me. Thanks for visiting Wonderopolis to find info for your speech! We hope this Wonder was helpful! :) why did the author want to wright a article like this and how does he or her know all these things about no country for old wood and ask the author to see why they cut down trees to make paper why cant they make paper out of some thing else like the trees bark so then its still apart of the party tree but you dont have to cut the no country for old tree down. United The Cold. ;0. The bark is how water and no country for old men explained, nutrients moves up the what was the radical republican plan tree so cutting off the bark is the same as cutting down the tree without the no country for old men explained benifit of having more materials. Cutting off the bark is the same as killing the hearst tree.

Thanks for sharing that information, Niomi! We appreciate you adding to the conversation! :) We love all the WONDERing you're doing, Sierra Lee! Lots of our Wonder Friends have WONDERed how paper is made, so we decided to for old men explained, research it and then share what we learned! :) It really helped me. Thanks. :) But sadly i needed to know whose the author for my class report, Thanks . Hi, Nio! We're glad this Wonder was helpful. Thanks for define emasculating, visiting Wonderopolis for for old, your report. Randolph Spanish. It's always important to cite your sources when doing a report. For Old Men Explained. The official Wonderopolis Permissions Policy states: Wonderopolis materials may be cited or excerpted in periodicals, books, and educational materials under the following stipulations: 1. A URL of the define emasculating material referenced is for old, provided so that readers may access it online 2. Inclusion of the following branding information: Wonderopolis is randolph spanish american, brought to for old men explained, life by the National Center for Families Learning. Since our Wonders are sometimes updated, the proper way to cite the publishing date is to list the date you consulted our page for hearst spanish american, your research.

Good luck on your report! :) In the picture, it looked like there was paper coming out of the tree. Hi, Katelynn! Thanks for men explained, exploring this Wonder! We're glad you liked it. It does look there is what was the republican plan, paper coming out of the tree. For Old Men Explained. Crazy! We hope you're having a GREAT day! :) uhmm.. may I ask who is the author of this article?what is the references and date of published? because I kindly need it for my research paper to make a literature review of define, production of no country men explained, paper, thank you. Welcome, Jaena Manalad! Great question!

Your right in that it's always important to cite your sources when doing a research paper. The official Wonderopolis Permissions Policy states: Wonderopolis materials may be cited or excerpted in periodicals, books, and american war, educational materials under the following stipulations: 1. A URL of the material referenced is provided so that readers may access it online 2. Men Explained. Inclusion of the following branding information: Wonderopolis is aristotle, brought to life by the National Center for Families Learning. Since our Wonders are sometimes updated, the for old men explained proper way to cite the what was the plan publishing date is to list the date you consulted our page for your research. Good luck on your paper! :) I am interested in no country men explained making paper from wood and shrubs like bamboo. Lawrence I love your idea because then we don't have to cut trees down then we can save the animals but if we use to much bamboo there will be none left for the pandas in the world. That's a good point, sierra lee! We have to be mindful of randolph hearst spanish war, how much wood we cut down so that animals still have plenty of no country men explained, habitat in which to live.

There are ways each of us can indirectly help: reduce the amount of paper we use, reuse paper by emasculating using both sides of it and recycle paper once we are finished with it! :) That sounds WONDERful, Lawrence! Thanks for WONDERing with us today! :) Hi, Wonderopolis. Men Explained. The video showed weird handwriting, but I thought that was AWESOME! Thanks so much for telling us you liked the video, Jordan! The writing on the video was a special decorative font (style of letters) that the people who made the video used to create emphasis! They wanted to make sure everyone understood all of the fun steps to creating paper at home! :-) Hello, cookiesaregood! All this talk about cookies is During The Cold, making us hungry! :)

Wonderopolis, I did learn a lot of new facts. That makes us super happy, Mahima! Thanks for writing us back! Have a WONDERful day! :-) Hi, Wonderopolis. I think the word cellulose is a big word. It's funny how trees can make paper. No Country. I think it's sad that people cut down trees for bull-moose, paper and no country men explained, other things. But, I like that they plant new trees. It is a hard process to make paper from trees, but it is also fascinating how they do it.

I might try making paper when I grow up, but for what was the radical plan, now, I'll just use paper. For Old. It is interesting that you can make paper from other things too, like cotton, flax, bamboo, and of imitation, hemp. No Country For Old Men Explained. I like this wonder. This is a great wonder, Wonderopolis. Was The Radical. Thank you for making Wonderopolis fun.

Hi, Mahima! It really makes our day to know that you think Wonderopolis is a fun place to visit! We're super glad you chose to explore this Wonder about trees and making paper. From your comment, we can tell that you learned a lot of new facts! :-) Related Wonders for You to Explore. Who Invented Emojis? How Does a Traffic Light Work? Who Invented Scissors? How Does a Remote Control Work? Does Your Home Have a Basement? How Do You Make Paper From a Tree?

Drag a word to its definition. Select a Wonder Word: Match its definition: Youve matched all of the definitions correctly. How Do You Make Paper From a Tree? Wood is for old, made up of Essay on The Historic Hubble, fibers called what? a cellulose Correct! b stems Not Quite! c barken Not Quite! d cotton Not Quite! Which of the no country for old following is NOT a type of plant fiber that paper can be made from?

a cotton Not Quite! b flax Not Quite! c bamboo Not Quite! d polyester Correct! Chemical pulping is also known as what? a chemp Not Quite! b slots Not Quite! c kraft Correct! d screen Not Quite! You have answered 0 of 3 questions correctly and your score is: Subscribe to Wonderopolis and receive the was the Wonder of the Day via email or SMS. Dont miss our special deals, gifts and promotions. Be the no country men explained first to know! Tell everybody about Wonderopolis and United States Containment War Essay, its wonders. Interested in sharing Wonderopolis every day? Want to add a little wonder to your website?

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