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Book Report Alternative: Writing Resumes for Characters in Historical Fiction. Historical fiction transports its readers back in time with the characters. Readers can feel as if they are experiencing life vicariously with the characters in these novels. Invite your students to engage even more with the and hitch 1974, characters and equity examples setting of the historical fiction that they read by helping a character from their reading choose and apply for a job. What would it be like to search for a job in the past? What qualifications would be needed?

Students explore help wanted ads, in working memory 1974 print and online, to see what employers want. The Solitary? Then, students draft a resume so their characters can apply for jobs. Historical Fiction Novels : This sheet features a list of working memory 1974, dozens of historical fiction novels. The traditional book report rarely gives students the opportunity to move beyond summary to engage with the book and respond analytically or in effect any detail. Chris Crowe warns teachers: Forget traditional book reports. Working Model? Kids hate them, and you'll hate reading them, in part because they're inherently boring and in part because it is impossible to electronic payment tell whether or not your students actually read the books they will have written their reports on (151).

Diana Mitchell offers similar advice: Students tire of responding to novels in the same ways. They want new ways to think about a piece of literature and new ways to model baddeley 1974 dig into it (92). What teachers need, Mitchell suggests, are book report alternatives that whet the interest of students in exploring new directions and in responding with greater depth to the books they read (92). Crowe, Chris. Young Adult Literature. The Solitary Reaper? English Journal 90.1 (September 2000): 149-51. NCTE/IRA NATIONAL STANDARDS FOR THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS. Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to working model baddeley and hitch 1974 build an the solitary reaper, understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and working memory model and hitch 1974 demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works. Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions #40;e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic#41; of equity examples, human experience.

Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on memory model and hitch 1974 their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and advantage and disadvantage essay their understanding of textual features #40;e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics#41;. Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language #40;e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary#41; to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences and for different purposes. Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes. Working Model Baddeley? Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions #40;e.g., spelling and punctuation#41;, media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts. Students use a variety of technological and information resources #40;e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video#41; to gather and reaper synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge. Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities. Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes #40;e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information#41;. The Resume Handbook: How to Write Outstanding Resumes Cover Letters for memory baddeley, Every Situation (Resume Handbook, 4th Ed) by Arthur D. Rosenberg, et al. Resume for Sarah Elisabeth Wheaton.

Before this lesson, students will read a book independently, in Hobbes Institutional Sovereignty Essay literature circles, or as a whole class. analyze a historical fiction novel for explicit and implicit information about memory baddeley and hitch a character. Secure Payment? Introduce the assignment to memory model baddeley 1974 students: What if a character from your book came to you and asked you to equity examples help write a resume so he or she could apply for a job? What would you need to know to help that character? You would need to know that characters skills, knowledge, and personality traits. You would also need to know the specifics about the job they are looking for. Share additional details about the assignment using the interactive Writing Resumes for Fictional Characters. Use books, Web resources, and collected resumes to share more details about the model 1974, different types of resumes.

If desired, go over the components of a resume in more detail, using the Resume Workshop, from Purdue OWL. Invite students to explore the sites further on their own, but note that the resources are geared toward an older audience. The resources include sample resumes. Distribute the Resume Component Checklist. Have students mark out any components that they wish to omit from their characters resumes. Have the students write a resume to get promoted to the next grade level.

Have teachers from the next level provide feedback. Informal feedback can come from students who respond to the character resumes and the bandwagon effect then search out the related book is excellent feedback for students. You might make arrangements with your school library to display copies of the memory model 1974, resumes in a notebook. Students looking for something to secure payment read can then browse through the notebook for suggestions. In this alternative to the traditional book report, students respond to working memory model baddeley 1974 a play they have read by creating a resume for one of its characters. To prepare for literature circles featuring historical novels, students research the decades of the electronic payment, 1930s to the 1990s and working model baddeley 1974 share their information using Prezi, a web application for creating multimedia presentations. Students identify the elements of the bandwagon, fiction in a book they have read and model baddeley 1974 share summaries of them by writing and illustrating their own mini-book. Students respond to a book they have read by thinking symbolically to create a business card for one of the characters. Students make bookmarks on computers and wordsworth reaper share their ideas with other readers at their school, while practicing summarizing, recognizing symbols, and writing reviewsall for an authentic audience.

Students select a book to memory model baddeley 1974 read based only on its cover art. After reading the book, they use an interactive tool to create a new cover for advantage, it. Students explore book covers of a variety of books then create a new cover for a book they have read. Students must think critically to create comic strips highlighting six important scenes from model and hitch 1974 a book they have read. Students explore familiar literary characters, usually first encountered as adults, but whose childhood stories are only told later.

Students then create childhoods for adult characters from books of their choice. Students write a persuasive letter to the editor of a newspaper from secure electronic payment a selected fictional character#039;s perspective, focusing on a specific issue or situation explored in the novel. Students select a job listing for a character in a book they have read, then create a resume and application letter for that character. Model And Hitch 1974? Comic frames are traditionally used to illustrate a story in a short, concise format. The Bandwagon Effect? In this lesson, students use a six-paneled comic strip frame to memory baddeley create a story map, summarizing a book or story that they#039;ve read. Each panel retells a particular detail or explains a literary element #40;such as setting or character#41; from the story. Students celebrate a novel they have read and on get hands-on experience with technical writing by creating a board game based on the novel and writing the instructions for it. Working Memory Model Baddeley And Hitch? In this alternative book report, students identify the elements of fiction in books they have read by creating glogs, interactive multimedia posters, and then share their glogs. In this alternative to the traditional book report, students report on their novel choices using Facebook-like pages. Grades 9 12 | Student Interactive | Organizing Summarizing.

This tool guides students through the creation of a resume that can be saved and edited. Written and audio tips provide extra support. Grades 7 12 | Calendar Activity |nbsp August 29. Students write original short works of historical fiction in verse format, modeling the style Hesse used to write Out of the Dust . Students explore the genre of historical fiction by writing original works and comparing all of the the solitary reaper, finished pieces. Offers 50 diverse suggestions intended to offer students new ways to think about a piece of memory model baddeley and hitch, literature, new directions to explore, and and disadvantage essay ways to respond with greater depth to the books they read. Professional Library | Journal. In this article, Versaci details the many merits of using comics and graphic novels in memory model baddeley 1974 the classroom, suggests how they can be integrated into historical and social issues units, and recommends several titles. The Solitary? 2017 IRA/NCTE. All rights reserved.

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Baddeley s model of working memory - Wikipedia

Working memory model baddeley and hitch 1974

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Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies - CSU, Chico

Sociology: Marx, Weber #038; Feminist Theory. 1. Classical Marxist theories have served as a springboard of inspiration for a variety of contemporary theorists challenging the existing state of society and seeking social justice and memory model baddeley, a fair society. Consequently, feminist standpoint theories, theories that represent a specific disposition, align with common themes found throughout Marxist interpretations of society, with an emphasis on the development of individual schemas dependent upon the relationship between the individual and their economic and material conditions. Although the foundation of the advantage essay, separation of and disparities between classes is model 1974, applicable in feminist standpoint theory, feminist theories contribute an the solitary reaper entirely unorthodox dimension to the Eurocentric, masculinist dominated sociological discourse about oppression: gender. Marxs theories of society developed around what he considered an unfair and unjust society in which two classes existed, determined by the coincidence of birth, which Marx coined the bourgeois, the owners of the working and hitch 1974, means of production, and the proletariat, the wage earning laborers who become alienated from their work due to social constraints. Marx believed in historical materialism and class struggle, demonstrating that the private ownership of the means of production enabled the bourgeois to maintain power over the larger, powerless proletariats who provided the labor for the means of production. As a repercussion of this disparity of power Marx concluded social and moral problems were inherent to a capitalist system, which forced competition and created unnecessary antagonisms, essentially isolating the and disadvantage essay, proletariat in working model their social position for generations. According to feminist standpoint theories, the concrete experience of females and males is historically different, as they are required by society to wordsworth the solitary play very different roles. Feminist theories build on Marxs standpoint of experience based on social class and include the systematic oppression in a society that devalues womens knowledge and experiences. One feminist standpoint theorist in particular demonstrated the memory model and hitch 1974, subtle differences between standpoint theories and Marxs theories on society.

Patricia Hill Collins matrix of domination theory agrees that there is a top-down power struggle in society that forces and controls unwilling victims, yet also notes that an individual has the ability to effect be the working, oppressor, a member of an oppressed group or both simultaneously, citing gender and on, class as variables of oppression. Collins continues to purport that it is the oppressed or subordinate individuals and groups in society who possess the most comprehensive social knowledge of power structures and their affects on working model baddeley and hitch, these individuals and groups due to the bandwagon their social positions. Marx sought change in memory model 1974 society and attempted to inspire a revolution amongst the proletariat, with an overthrow of the capitalist system. Collins seeks to understand the struggle with a more complex perspective, contributing the observation that people simultaneously experience and resist oppression, implying that there is more control in the hands of the definition stress psychologists, oppressed than what was previously thought. Just as Marx challenged the capitalist system, feminist standpoint theory further challenges the existing male-biased conventional knowledge.

In both theories there exists the implication that the experiences of individuals is shaped by their social position, and working memory model baddeley, a hierarchy of power relations exists among those who have and those who have not, or the oppressor and the oppressed. However, although Marxs theories on society and feminist standpoint theories share the emphasis on individual experience being shaped by social position, Marx focused on class from an economic standpoint while feminist theory added to the discussion of social injustice by incorporating a new dimension, gender. While Marx was more interested in social justice for the proletariat, feminist standpoint theory extended this social justice to include the day to day concrete experiences of females with respect to their different knowledge of the world, as well as various other subordinate groups whose perspectives are often left out of the discourse on society. In conclusion, the comprehensive discussion of class relations that has been ongoing for centuries has continued to evolve over time and space, xtending the concepts of social justice and a fair society to various subordinate groups. Electronic. I support Marxs theories of society serving as a significant platform for the descending schools of thought to build off of, with shared goals of working, social justice and a fair society.

The differences can be attributed to the historical context of the development of these theories, with the discourse of sociology seen as an ongoing continuum. Sociological implications are inspirational, as it has been seen that within the discussion of social justice subordinate groups are gaining attention and credibility, and I believe it can be concluded that because of this criticism of the existent state of society, society has begun to improve. Definition Stress Psychologists. With the emersion of Marxist inspired feminist standpoint theory in the middle of the 20th century, womens experiences have been acknowledged and memory baddeley and hitch 1974, improved because of their visibility in academic discourse. I support the Marxist call for an examination of subordination in the existent social structure, accompanied by feminist standpoint theories that extend to include all subordinate groups that struggle with societal constraints. Wordsworth. 2. The structure of the critiques of science and knowledge provided by Foucault parallel the central concepts and arguments found in the feminist critiques of science and positivism, yet the model, focus of topics are differentiated along gender lines and the quest for stress psychologists, the origins of truth, or the acceptance that truth itself is subjective. Both Foucault and feminist critiques share a common theme of mistrust of authoritative power, and the social injustice stemming from this authoritative power. As a post-positivist philosopher with an interest in power relations and the ability of power to dominate western culture, Foucault offers criticisms of science and knowledge rooted in the distrust he maintained for the developments of science representing improved reference and authority. Foucault emphasized the quest to discover the roots of truth values in the social context of science but rejected an working model and hitch 1974 account of the bandwagon effect, science as ideological and argued that the discourse of scientific knowledge is constraining of what scientists themselves can see, but more significantly is productive and enabling for the production and solving of working memory baddeley and hitch, problems, the construction of data, and therefore the production of new knowledge to be interpreted widely s valid, or universal truth. For post-modernists, such as Foucault, science is nothing more than an allegation derived from subjective orientations, or a social construction. Feminist theorists corroborate this belief and interpret the power and injustice stemming from science with a different sociological perspective, a female standpoint. Feminist theorists believe mainstream science is a product of payment, a patriarchy, and working model 1974, despite being portrayed as universal, value-free and neutral in its pursuit of truth or knowledge deemed valuable for all, it is actually organized in effect a way that systematically oppresses and harms women based on their gender.

Feminists believe that the production of knowledge is a social activity, embedded in a certain culture and worldview, echoing the social construction of knowledge purported by Foucault. Feminist critics of science have noted that Western science, as it has developed since the Enlightenment, is determined by political, economic and social conditions, which are based on a patriarchal order. Feminists go on to note that women themselves were left out memory model baddeley and hitch, of the development of science, and as a consequence of being perceived as closer to nature than men with respect to wordsworth the solitary reaper their capacity for feelings and emotions, were ruled out working 1974, as unfit for reasoning abilities. Foucaults main concern throughout his lifetime of publications revolved around the relationship between power and knowledge, and how one affected the other. Citing Nietzsches considerations of a will to power motivating human behavior with the declining of traditional values losing power over society is built upon by Foucaults further analysis of knowledge ceasing to be liberating and instead becoming a mode of surveillance, regulation, and discipline.

Foucault also argued that power itself creates new objects of knowledge and on, accumulates new bodies of information. The feminist critiques on positivism shares common characteristics with Foucaults critical theories of science and knowledge, as feminists tend to adopt an anti-positivist, anti-science position due largely to the male dominated social science research. Despite positivist views put forth by such classical theorists as Emile Durkheim, supporting the working model baddeley 1974, necessity of electronic payment, objectivity in research, feminist critiques argue for subjectivity. According to model baddeley and hitch 1974 feminist critique, male social science researchers like. Durkheim claimed objectivity by citing non-involvement in social problems, enabling them to distance themselves from their human subjects of research and omitting their research goals, as well as claimed scientific truth for equity examples, their theories by imitating quantitative methods of the natural sciences.

In an effort to parallel the natural sciences with sociology, furthering the notion that science is in fact objective, Durkheim conducted a study on suicide and working model baddeley and hitch, measured it using the scientific method and quantifiable observations. The feminist criticism notes the results of paralleling the natural sciences with sociology were often blatantly untrue and biased against women, with science and social science being manipulated to wordsworth reaper harm women, for example by neglecting to appropriate equal value of their experiences with that of their male counterparts. Most significantly, feminist critique argues the pursuit of objectivity in science and the pursuit of truth are impossible, and by pretending that they are possible the scientific community is working baddeley 1974, deceiving the public. In conclusion, feminist critiques of science and positivism are directly paralleled with the concepts found in Foucaults critiques of science and knowledge. In both instances, I support the arguments that center on the need to understand the ambiguity and cultural context of the notion of universal truth and for scientific and social research to be sensitive to wordsworth reaper the dangers of objectivity regarding such truth. I believe the scientific approach is useful but misguided as subjectivity is inherent in the search for truth and knowledge. These critiques have significant sociological implications as the existing state of baddeley and hitch 1974, male-centered scientific research is being challenged in a way that will be productive for the various sub-groups within society, particularly along gender lines.

3. The concept of modernity generally refers to a post-feudal historical period that is characterized by the move away from feudalism and toward capitalism, accompanied by all of the definition stress psychologists, ripple effects initiated by capitalism, such as the industrialization and secularization of society that is maintained and controlled through extensive surveillance. Modernity ocuses on the affects that the rise of capitalism has had on social relations, and notes Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim and Max Weber as influential theorists commenting on this phenomenon. For the working memory model and hitch, purposes of this assignment, I will be focusing on the concepts and analyses of Marx and Weber. Karl Marx is perhaps the first in on a series of late 19th and early 20th century theorists who initiated the call for an empirical approach to social science, theorizing about the rise of modernity accompanied by the simultaneous decline in traditional societies and advocating for a change in the means of production in working model and hitch order to enable social justice. Marxs analysis of modernity reveals his conceptualization of modern society as being dictated by the rapid advancement of productive forces of Hobbes Essay, modern industry, and the corresponding relationships of model and hitch, production between the capitalist and equity examples, the wage laborers. In addition, Marx also examined the concept of class interest, which seeks to further the life of capitalism as those individuals or groups who have power work to retain this power at the despair of the subordinate, socially powerless individuals and groups. The rapid advancement of major innovations after the Enlightenment period known as modernity stood in stark contrast to the incremental development of working memory model baddeley and hitch, even the most complex pre-modern societies, which saw productive forces developing at wordsworth, a much slower pace, over hundreds or thousands of years as compared to modern times, with swift growth and memory baddeley, change. Equity Examples. This alarming contrast fascinated Marx who traced the spawning of modern capitalism in the Communist Manifesto, citing this record speed as the heat which generated the creation of the global division of baddeley and hitch 1974, labor and a greater variety of productive forces than anytime before. Ultimately, Marxs approach is best known as an effort to come to terms with the unprecedentedly rapid development of the new capitalist world and the consequential development and adaptation of social constraints. Marx concluded that modernity was a social construction of stress, mankind, and working 1974, as a creation of mankind, mankind could reverse it and with the public class-consciousness acknowledging this rule, revolution, followed by utopia, was inevitable. In contrast, Max Weber found that social life did not evolve according to his rule, and, unlike Marx, Weber did not anticipate a definitive end of modernity but instead viewed modernity and the outlook of mankind as an open query, with an equity examples answer impossible to predict.

Webers disposition on modernity transformed modern society into a metaphorical iron cage. The iron cage represents societys entanglement with the modern, mechanized transformation of working memory and hitch 1974, society initially thought to the bandwagon be controllable, with the ability to detangle itself from the machines at any time, like a cloak that can be removed. Throughout history, however, Marx notes that this entanglement has become permanent and the individual has been locked in a cage by a modern society, with the implementation of more social control manifest in excessive bureaucracy. Karl Marx and Max Weber have made significant contributions to the field of sociology, and model baddeley and hitch 1974, I support both theorists in equity examples their arguments. I believe that Marx was correct in regards to his conceptualization of the social structure being of mans creation and therefore within the realm of change under the direction of man. However I believe that limitations exist in the idealistic nature of his utopian dream. Maintaining a utopian objective as the goal of social change exposes the inherently distorted analysis of sociological phenomenon, as there is model 1974, neglect of examining social issues from a micro, day-to-day orientation essentially proving the existence of a Eurocentric male bias historically found within the study of sociology. I also agree with Webers connection between the Protestant work ethic and the consequent rise of capitalism as is found in his work The Protestant Work Ethic, which implicates religion as the engine that enabled the rapid development of capitalism.

However I find limitations with the primacy placed on and disadvantage, the influence of religion as the sole engine for capitalism. Marx and Weber lived and worked in a distinctive scholarly moment in time, after theological persuasive power had declined and while sociological analysis maintained a fresh outlook on model baddeley and hitch, classical theories. During this moment in time Marx and Weber also experienced the rapid transformation of society dictated by modern forces, which would influence their focus and work. Marx and Weber, whos work has been critiqued and contributed to by future theorists as society continues to rapidly transform into a fully mechanized, technologically dependent society, holds sociological implications in the theorists whose work has been influenced by their analysis of modernity. The Bandwagon Effect. 4. The Marxist perspective on working memory model baddeley 1974, work and capitalism is paralleled in many ways with Max Webers perspective on these issues, with subtle differences stemming from the causation of capitalism. For Marx, the theory of historical materialism held that all human institutions, including religion, were based on economic foundations, with the implication that the economic foundations came first. In contrast, Webers The Protestant Ethic challenges this assertion and instead implicates a religious movement as responsible for fostering capitalism, yet doesnt fully discount the theories of Marx. According to Marx, it is effect, historical materialism that fuels the engine of working model and hitch 1974, society.

Historical materialism examines the causes of equity examples, developments and changes in human society in regards to working memory model and hitch 1974 the collective production of life necessities, with non-economic characteristics of society, such as religious ideologies, seen as a repercussion of its economic activity. The emphasis on material objects, or commodities, during the on, newly mechanized time period influenced the construction of a labor class that performed activities that were detached from their personal identities. As private ownership over the means of production reduces the role of the worker to that of a cog in a machine, as Marx astutely determined, the worker becomes an expendable object that performs routinzed tasks. For Marx, working simply for memory 1974, money, in essence seen as a means to an end, and neglecting the creative potential for definition, labor itself was analogous to selling ones soul. Weber, on memory and hitch, the other hand, did not fully discount Marxs theories but added to them and incidentally sparked a conversation that has become a historically significant and enduring sociological debate. Weber proposed that ideology fostered capitalism, in part resulting from the absence of assurances from religious authorities. Equity Examples. Weber argued that Protestants began to look for other signs that they were saved, and, spurred on by Calvinist ideas of predestination, in which individuals identified their central duty to prove their salvation accompanied by the rejection of having too much wealth, capitalism prospered. Essentially self-confidence replaced the priestly assurance of Gods kindness, and a way for this self-confidence to anifest itself and be measured was with worldly success, and profit became a visible blessing from baddeley and hitch God that enabled followers to feel confidence that they were going to heaven.

This enthusiasm toward achieving self-confidence through the the bandwagon effect, production of profits encapsulates the Spirit of Capitalism, and it was within this spirit that capitalism flourished. Weber described a paradox regarding this Protestant work ethic. On the one hand, Protestants desperately sought the working model 1974, accumulation of worldly wealth in an attempt to give them self-confidence that God has chosen them and Hobbes Institutional Essay, they will be granted salvation. However, on the other hand, Protestants were also deeply passionate about frivolous purchasing of luxuries being perceived as a sin, accompanied by complex limitations for model baddeley and hitch 1974, extricating the the bandwagon effect, money. In order to resolve this paradox the money was invested, giving life to the class distinctions along the lines of those who possess, and those who do not. Adam Smith paved the way for this phenomenon of working memory baddeley and hitch, investment and class divergence, citing the existence of reaper, those who work hard and working memory baddeley and hitch, those who do not, and that over time those who work hard and can be motivated will accumulate wealth. I applaud Webers theoretical surfacing of the irony of the Protestant work ethic, which views ideology as being composed of the need to be posthumously saved through their religion, and yet this motivational work ethic would inspire the distribution of excessive earnings to maintain their religious ideals, spawning and encouraging capitalism. Marxist perspectives are limited by effect the need for further examination of the memory model, causes and continuations of capitalism throughout the current state of society, particularly with respect to the rapid transformation and globalization of the economy. Wordsworth The Solitary. If further analysis reveals the causation of capitalism and the structure that continues to keep it running, then it may reveal implications that mankind can control the working model baddeley, economic and social conditions of humanity. With the appropriate critiques of on Institutional Sovereignty Essay, capitalism in a contemporary society there may be a potential for social justice. . Working And Hitch 1974. Social action and interaction can be explained in a number of ways, and in the field of sociology exists two major theoretical orientations that aim to discover whether the hierarchy of influence between individuals and effect, society is macro, with society influencing the individual, or micro, with the individual influencing society.

Herbert Blumers interpretation of working memory and hitch 1974, symbolic interactionism demonstrates the process of Institutional, interaction from a micro perspective, demonstrated in the formation of meanings for individuals. As John Dewey influenced Blumer, Blumer believed human beings are best understood in relation to their environment and 1974, used this concept as inspiration for the study of human group life and conduct. Blumer outlines his micro theory of symbolic interactionsim with three central principles. The first principle, meaning, states that humans act toward people and things, based upon the meanings they have given to those people or things, and meaning is a central influence on human behavior. Hobbes On Sovereignty Essay. The second principle regards language as a means by which to negotiate through symbols. According to Blumer, it is by working model baddeley 1974 engaging in acts of speech with other individuals that humans come to identify meaning, enabling the equity examples, development of discourse. The third and final principle is baddeley and hitch 1974, thought, which is equity examples, based on language, and is a mental representation of conversation or dialogue, requiring role taking and imagining different points of memory 1974, view. Essentially, Blumer supported the micro perspective of individuals influencing society because he believed the the bandwagon, language and and hitch 1974, meaning of language explains social action.

In contrast, Talcott Parsons macro approach to social action and interaction reveals a different conclusion. Parsons developed the theory of functionalism, which serves as a framework that views society as a complex system, whose parts work together in order to promote stability and solidarity. Parsons approach views society with a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole, adopting a macro orientation to effect social action. Looking simultaneously at social structure and memory model 1974, social functions, the theory of functionalism tackles society as a whole in the bandwagon effect terms of the functions that compose elements. These elements mostly include norms, traditions, customs and institutions. For example, it is like the human body; the individual parts work together for the functioning of the body as a whole. Functionalists such as Parsons support the working model 1974, notion that a social role is created due to the repetition of behaviors in interactions with the reinforcement of expectations. The role that is created is definition, defined by Parsons as the regular, repetition of participation in concrete social interactions with specific role-partners.

Eventually, Parsons concept of roles was formed into a collective definition that is functional as they assist society in servicing and satisfying its functional needs, enabling society to working and hitch run smoothly. I support both Blumers micro level orientation as well as Parsons macro orientated theoretical arguments in that they acknowledge the capabilities of the individual and the adaptability of secure electronic payment, society, implicating a dialogue between the two entities. However I believe limitations exist in that both theorists place primacy of one orientation over the other, and as a result are neglecting a holistic approach. Research questions that have emerged from functionalist theories add new depth and dimension to the basic concept of working and hitch, functionalism. For instance, emergent theorists have inquired about functionalists tendency to see only the benefits of various institutional relationships brought to society, posing the question of whether or not institutions can be oppressive and exploitative. On Sovereignty Essay. Further emergent research questions address whether or not social institutions create social constraints, and controversially ponder why anything should change if it is working memory model baddeley and hitch, already functional to society. Ultimately this discourse inspires sociological thought to continue developing and evolving over stress psychologists time.

6. Traditionally, theorists and theories that generally support one of two orientations have dominated the discipline of sociology. The first orientation is regarded as a macro-perspective, with an analysis of society focused on the larger overall structure of memory model, society, placing an emphasis on social systems and secure payment, institutions, or structure, and the ensuing tendency for working memory and hitch 1974, the structure to dominate the individual. The second orientation can be described as a zoomed in payment image of society, with a focus on the every day individual and group interactions, with the memory model and hitch 1974, implication that the individual is being dominated by the structure of society. It is through these two distinct lenses that sociologists have contributed to the larger discourse regarding social justice and Hobbes on, equality, yet the disconnect manifests in working model and hitch the perceptive cohesion of these two orientations. Contemporary sociologists, such as Anthony Giddens theory of structuration and the empowerment theory in feminist thought, have sparked a revolution in sociological thought with the unorthodox notion that the advantage and disadvantage, actor, or individual, and the agency, the working and hitch, structure, are in electronic fact of equal primacy, and represent a duality rather than a hierarchy. In addition to memory model baddeley and hitch bringing this connection to the surface of sociological discourse, many contemporary theorists theories are challenging the limitations of reaper, solely using one orientation in the effort to balance humanitys understanding that individuals posses the will to and hitch maintain social relations based on the comprehension of power, social reproduction, and Hobbes on Institutional, institutional constraints. Giddens developed the memory model and hitch, theory of structuration, and, like many other contemporary theorists like Pierre Bourdieu, the theory supports the integration of macro and micro orientations. The structuration theory centers on the consensual duality of structure and the bandwagon effect, agency, where the agent and the structure intersect, arguing that they are a dichotomy where one wouldnt exist without the other. Memory Model 1974. Giddens argues that the individual, or agency, is essentially responsible for definition stress psychologists, their surroundings as they are reflexive and possess the ability to adapt to the ever-changing social structures and working baddeley and hitch 1974, institutions, which also adapt to the individuals behavior, creating an ongoing dialogue between the two entities. The argument for a rejection of primacy between the wordsworth the solitary, agency and structure includes the objective of literal social change that can result from social scientific knowledge of society.

Giddens continues to model baddeley 1974 argue that it is the individuals motives that dictate the secure, larger plan of action and the routinized practices determine what the action will manifest as. According to this logic Giddens proposes that individuals therefore have the ability to change their actions, which produce unintended and inevitable consequences, influencing future actions. Giddens critiques sociologists for placing too much emphasis on the constraints of 1974, social structure when he believes it is only through this activity of the individual agent that structure, or rules and resources, can exist at all. In fact, Giddens purports that a social structure or system is composed of a set of produced and reproduced relations between agents. It is this belief in the duality of agency and structure, as well as the desire to alter the discourse to and disadvantage ncorporate an memory model 1974 integrated orientation rather than independent orientations, that Giddens has significantly contributed to advantage and disadvantage essay the discussion and debate of macro and micro orientations, citing the inability for one to exist without the other. Despite criticism of structuration as inadequate, Giddens work continues to influence and inspire contemporary social thought. Feminist thought and working memory and hitch 1974, the empowerment theory takes an additional step back from sociological discourse to evaluate the wordsworth, misconception of objectivity found in Eurocentric, male dominated standpoints and argue for the need to take a subjective perspective in order to memory model baddeley 1974 achieve any social change. Additionally, feminist thought advocates for the integration of orientations to examine the individuals experience as equivalent, or dualistic, with the social structure in which the individual plays an active role in shaping. It is psychologists, also deemed necessary that the interrelationships between the individual, groups and society are examined from a subjective, integrated orientation in order to make the leap from working memory model baddeley and hitch social theory to social practice.

According to feminist thought, by making the previously personal world of the individual political the barrier between the individual and society is broken down and lays the foundation for individuals to influence and experience social change. The empowerment theory suggests that production and the bandwagon effect, maintenance of society is dependent upon the individuals who are socially considered undesirable, casting these occupations as invisible in working memory model baddeley 1974 society and, accompanied by a societal ideology that lacks public appreciation for these occupations, the undesirable individuals also believe their work is invisible, revealing the distortion of secure electronic, societal components. It is within feminist thought that the empowerment theory extends not only to women, but any subordinate, oppressed group or individual within the larger society. This emerging connection between the personal and political identity parallels Giddens support of integrating the macro and micro orientations in order to achieve any significant social change, and I support both approaches. I believe that with the integration of the orientations true social change can be achieved, and that further examination of the intersection between agency and model baddeley and hitch, structure can enhance the limitations of equity examples, past sociological thought. By creating and working memory and hitch, maintaining a boundary between these two worlds and rejecting the notion of a duality, a cognitive dissonance will continue to definition stress psychologists remain in the lives of oppressed and arginalized individuals without any hope for societal change. Contemporary sociologists must continue to transcend this boundary, accepting the inherent subjectivity found in working model baddeley and hitch 1974 any social science and focusing on fostering a productive sociological discourse with the goal of social justice. As Marx a stoutly stated in secure the mid-19th century, philosophers have only interpreted the world; the point, however, is to change it. Baddeley And Hitch 1974. 7. As the grand theory is considered the most abstract level of advantage and disadvantage essay, sociological theory, the initial intentions of memory and hitch, such a theory are discussed in an abstract, idealistic way.

Grand Theory, a term created by American sociologist C. Wright Mills, refers to the preference for formal organization and the arrangement of equity examples, concepts over understanding the social world. The concept of an overarching, grand sociological theory can be applicable in an idealistic setting, where each diverse aspect of society is equitably dealt with and examined to formulate widely accepted conclusions about the working memory model baddeley, world. However, the emphasis tends to focus on concepts that are generally disconnected from the concrete, every day realities of societal life. I believe that an adapted version of a grand theory in sociology is necessary to the extent that it has the ability to provide a structured framework in an otherwise incredibly complex social world. However, I also believe the grand theory should not be accepted as universal but instead should be considered a continuous work in progress that is added to over time as traditionally invisible issues continue to surface, creating multiple new dimensions of potential thought.

Throughout sociological history the theoretical supporters and critics of a grand theory have been numerous. Karl Marxs Historical Materialism, Anthony Giddens The Juggernaut of definition psychologists, Modernity, and Talcott Parsons Actions Theory each offer various uses and perspectives of grand theory concepts. The evolution of the concept of a grand theory can be seen throughout these noteworthy theorists work. For example, Marxs work with the grand theory of historical materialism put forth a streamlined argument that stated economic relations were the foundation of social structure, regardless of any other variable. Embedded in this theory is the idea of an overarching, universal definition of social structure contingent solely upon economic and material relations. This revolutionary idea may have been appropriate in the historical context of the theory, yet weaknesses in working the universal concept of a grand theory appear in the absence of any other variable which undoubtedly impacted the social structure of Marxs time. Anthony Giddens uses the concept of the bandwagon, a grand theory to examine modernity, differentiating from the streamlined definition of society as purported by Marx by including a complex assortment of variables, which contribute to modernity. Giddens relates modernity to an overpowering force that transcends everything in its path with the implication that it is uncontrollable. Giddens also suggests that the overpowering force of modernity is dynamic, with the consequences of actions unforeseeable and uncontrollable, yet it manages to adjust based on reflexive actions, creating new societal problems in the process.

Overall, Giddens interpretation of grand theory offers a more complex framework for analyzing society in modernity, yet it is left open ended as Giddens anticipates the creation of a new slew of issues that will plague society based on working memory model 1974, the adjustments made from previous issues. Talcott Parsons is credited with the continuing the quest toward the theoretical evolutionary development of structural functionalism and established what can be defined as a grand theory of action systems, despite the fact that Parsons himself declined to identify it as a grand theory. Parsons contributes to the discussion of grand theories in that he expanded the theory to consist of influence from various disciplines aside from sociology, including psychological, economical, political and religious components. Parsons also connected the concepts of motives as part of our actions, and determined that social science must take ends, purposes and ideals into consideration when creating a grand theory. Parsons attempted to integrate all of the social sciences within an overarching, grand theoretical framework that aimed to include aspects of both macro and micro orientations. Tracing the evolution of the concept of a grand theory reveals the irony rooted in the quest for such a grand theory, which is that despite attempts to create universal truths regarding society independent of time and space, such independence is not possible. Marx, Giddens and Parsons each lived in their own, slightly different time periods and as a result one can observe the variations in their concepts of grand theories. I believe that the evolution of a grand theory is a continuous one with no particular end, because as Giddens suggested, the definition stress, flexibility of society to adapt to societal issues in turn creates new societal issues, suggesting the permanence of such an analytical cycle. 8. Among Emile Durkheims plethora of contributions to sociological theory emerges an baddeley 1974 unorthodox, evolutionary approach, which considered society to be like an the bandwagon effect organism, distinguishing two central characteristics as structure and function. Working Baddeley. Durkheims contributions also include helping establish and define the field of sociology as an academic order.

Durkheim expanded the limitations of the study of sociology when he argued that sociologists should study particular features of collective, or group, life. He suggested that society exists independently of the individuals in it, as societies influence individuals through established norms, sentiments, and social facts. Durkheim contributed the inquiry of study regarding modern society and its ability to remain cohesive despite the individualism and self-sufficiency of each person, as well as the study of social facts representing features of the group that cannot be examined independently of either the collective or the individual. Emile Durkheims writings are recognized for forming the foundation of functionalist thought, which remains among the oldest and most dominant theoretical perspectives in the study of sociology. Secure Payment. The foundations of functionalism center on two categories: the individual organism and society being seen as analogous, and baddeley and hitch 1974, the examination of the objective social world with the application of the scientific method. Durkheim was one of the first sociologists to make use of scientific and statistical data to conduct sociological research, such as with his famous work Suicide, using real data to examine the phenomenon of suicide among religious groups. Institutional Essay. By incorporating the scientific method as a central method of research, Durkheim implicitly contributed the assertion that the memory, social world can be studied in the same ways as the physical world. Regarding Durkheims relation to structuralism, he was concerned with the question of electronic payment, how particular societies are able to maintain stability internally and are capable of survival over time.

Durkheim discussed structuralism in two variations, with the first referring to the pre-industrial societies that were structured on working memory and hitch 1974, equivalent parts connected by shared values, and the second referring to more complex post-industrial societies that are connected through specialization and on Sovereignty, strong interdependence. The essence of working memory model baddeley, Durkheims relation to structuralism and functionalism is the concept of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts, with society being greater than the individuals. Talcott Parsons offers a contemporary perspective on the concepts of structuralism and builds on Durkheims interpretation by discussing structuralism as a framework to definition stress psychologists examine society as a complex system whose parts work together in order to promote solidarity and stability. The focus on Parsons work is on the social structures that shape society as a whole, determining that each individual has a set of expectations based on others actions and reactions to that individuals own behavior. Parsons also contributes the idea of the role, established through the repetition of behaviors and interactions dictated by social structure and that become recognized as normal. This concept of roles evolved into the groups of roles that harmonize each other and ultimately fulfill functions for model baddeley and hitch, society, in the sense that they assist society in operating and running smoothly. In conclusion, the concepts put forth by the theories of functionalism and structuralism has had a significant impact on the study of sociology. Durkheim utilized the scientific method, and for electronic, this leap to a parallel with the natural sciences and hence more validity I am in support. However, Durkheims scientific method was perceived from an inherently Eurocentric male standpoint, and consequently produced misleading results. Emile Durkheim is ascribed with forming the foundation of thought in the functionalist orientation, and continued to attempt revolutions in sociological thought throughout his lifes work.

Talcott Parsons is one of working memory model baddeley and hitch, many contemporary theorists who have built upon Hobbes on Sovereignty Essay Durkheims original theory y contributing contemporary rationalizations and have enhanced the sociological discussion regarding the macro evaluation of a modern functioning society. I support Parsons concept of social roles that are dictated on social expectations and are controlled by working 1974 social structure, yet I find limitations in the neglect of an analysis of the social roles for subordinate individuals and groups, and without this analysis social justice will remain an idealistic theory. 9. The theoretical contributions and approaches of effect, sociological theorists such as W. E. B. Du Bois and Patricia Hill Collins are significant in the conversation of sociological history as they take the unorthodox approach of delving into the perception of historically invisible issues regarding race and gender. For instance, Du Bois approaches the subject of race that centers on describing and explaining the actual, instead of theoretical, daily life conditions of African Americans, such as the threat of racially motivated violence like lynching, and the psychological damage of working model baddeley and hitch 1974, being separate but equal under Jim Crow laws. This brought a clearness of vision of specific phenomenon to the sociological conversation, with a focus on race, and effect, an extension to any colored group that has experienced Eurocentric imperialism.

In regards to racism, Du Bois granted the primary responsibility of the social construction of racism on capitalism, and Du Bois was sympathetic to socialist causes throughout his work. And Hitch. Du Bois utilized deductive analysis, accompanied by empirical observation, to examine the psychologists, experience of model 1974, African Americans throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Du Bois was primarily focused on variables that had been ignored by his sociological predecessors with particular attention paid to the intersection of race and class. He was interested in how the intersection of these variables contributes to broader cultural patterns dictating the payment, stratification of individuals along lines of race and class and the shaping of working model and hitch 1974, individuals perceptions and on Sovereignty Essay, experiences. Du Bois offers his conceptualization of working memory model baddeley, race in comparing the variety of races around the world, with the U. Equity Examples. S. housing two of the most extreme examples of race on the planet. As a result, the concept of the double consciousness exists, as African Americans may ask themselves on working memory model baddeley, daily occasions what identity is truly theirs. For instance, one might ask, am I American or am I black? Can I be both? Does being black give me more of an obligation to assert my nationality than European immigrants would?

Further, the double consciousness is the sense of otherness that prevents this uniform sense of self in accordance with the American image and produces a sense of two-ness, both American and black. In addition, Du Bois concept of the equity examples, veil represents the distance that is felt socially between people of separate races, most significantly keeping the less dominant group, blacks, out of the dominant groups, white, world. Patricia Hill Collins continues to working memory baddeley and hitch build on the concepts highlighted by Du Bois work, and secure payment, instead of extending his conversation about race and class Collins adopts an unconventional method of memory baddeley and hitch, examining the intersection of race and gender. Collins emphasizes the specific experiences of electronic, black women as intersecting categories of working model baddeley, oppression, with the goal of extending the discourse into other oppressed individuals and social groups. Collins theorizes that black women stand at the focal point where two historically powerful systems of oppression meet: gender and race, focusing on black women as outsiders within the larger, white male dominated society. According to Collins, by acknowledging this intersection of oppression, the possibility to equity examples see into other social injustices. Collins identifies three aspects of every day life in which black women are affected by and manage their race and definitions of identity in the greater American culture.

These three aspects are known as safe spaces where black women are able to articulate their thoughts and working memory and hitch, feelings without the social pressure of mainstream society, which creates the double consciousness experienced by racial divide. The creation of the safe space is essential for the survival of definition psychologists, oppressed groups, as they provide a unique place away from the ruling ideologies. For instance, one safe space for memory and hitch 1974, black women is in on Essay their relationships with each other. By empowering themselves in their own relationships, black women are able to help each other learn the and hitch 1974, knowledge to survive. Other safe spaces include black womens blues traditions, followed by black female literature and poetry. Through these art forms, black women are able to approach the advantage essay, concepts of social injustice in a non-threatening manner. Collins also adds that groups must identify themselves, instead of letting other identify them. In conclusion, W. E. B. Du Bois and memory model 1974, Patricia Hill Collins have made significant contributions to the sociological discussion of social injustice by forcing the essay, issues of racial, class, and gender inequalities to the surface of social discourse. Memory Baddeley 1974. I find the effect, work of model and hitch, Collins to be an extension of what Du Bois began, and I support the shared goal for both theorists in their quest for the bandwagon, social justice for all subordinate groups.

In fact, I believe that the combination of work from Du Bois and working memory model baddeley and hitch, Collins epitomizes the essence of micro sociology, as they are able to articulate the invisible yet powerful social constraints that subordinate individuals and groups experience, and reaper, represents a transcendence of sociological thought above Eurocentric male standpoints. Their work has left deep impressions on current and future sociological theorists and essentially opened the door for the study of other socially oppressed groups. Havent found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

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The Working Memory Model

SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. One of the best ways to prepare for the DBQ (the document-based question on the AP European History, AP US History, and AP World History exams) is to model baddeley 1974 look over sample questions and example essays. This will help you to get a sense of Hobbes on Sovereignty what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. Ill briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of example essays by working memory model baddeley and hitch, course. Lastly, Ive provided some tips as how to best use sample essays in the bandwagon, your own preparation process. Without a doubt, the best sample resources come from the College Board. Working Model Baddeley. This is because they are the ones who design and administer the AP exams. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt. All samples are real student responses from previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ.

In other words, they're authentic! They not only have scores, they have explanations of each essay's score according to the terms of the stress rubric. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. Memory Model Baddeley 1974. But in general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and documents. It will be much easier for you to on Essay see how the 1974 information from the documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at electronic payment, the documents. Have a score. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out there in working model baddeley, the uncharted internet don't have one. Without a real, official score, it's hard to gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is. With that in mind, I have below compiled lists by exam of high-quality example DBQs.

Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by stress psychologists, Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to AP European History, and finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Because of the working model baddeley and hitch recent test redesign, the College Board has only posted sample responses from 2016 and 2015. This means there are only two official College Board set of sample essays that use the on Institutional Sovereignty current rubric. Look here for the free-response questions from 2015 and the ones from 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the memory baddeley and hitch 1974 scoring guidelines). Advantage And Disadvantage. When you're ready for the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from working memory model and hitch 2015 and wordsworth the solitary, the samples from 2016.

If you want to see additional sample sets, you can also look at older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the way back to 2003. To look at these questions, click Free-Response Questions for a given year. For the corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click Sample Responses Q1. Note that these use the old rubric (which is integrated into the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). General comments about the quality of the essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the working memory model baddeley 1974 score is on a nine-point scale instead of the and disadvantage essay new seven-point scale, and working memory model 1974, some of the particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the new format will have six-seven documents.

If you do look at definition psychologists, older DBQ examples, I recommend using the new rubric to re-grade the essays in the sample according to memory model baddeley the new seven-scale score. Electronic Payment. I'll also give more advice on how to working memory baddeley use all of these samples in your prep later on. Mr. Bald Eagle is an AP US History DBQ Grader in equity examples, his spare time. AP European History: Official College Board Examples. Unfortunately, sample resources for the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the first year the test was administered in the new format. This means that there is only one set of model 1974 official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric. The rest of the on Sovereignty existing available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. In the old format there were six core points and then three additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: In the old format, you are given a brief historical background section before the documents.

There are more documentsup to twelve. Working Memory 1974. The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on grouping the documents that is not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on on Institutional, correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in model, the new rubric. The essential components of the DBQ are still the same between the two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at advantage, any of the old AP European History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric. Samples by year: You can get samples in the old format all the way back to 2003 from the College Board . (Click Free-Response Questions for memory baddeley, the questions and Sample Responses Q1 for the samples.) If you want to check out reaper, some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by the College Board with the new rubric, look at model, the 2015 AP US History samples and secure electronic payment, the 2016 AP US history samples . Memory And Hitch. The content will of Hobbes Institutional Sovereignty Essay course be different, but the structure and scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples. Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in model, the old format.

This means theres not much to stress psychologists be gained by looking outside the College Boards extensive archives. However, the New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is working and hitch, not identical and it is scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced. This will give you a good visual of how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of payment your documents. Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is your life. AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to a new format to more resemble AP US History and AP European History for the 2017 test.

This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the working 1974 seven-point format to be implemented this year. In the old format there were seven core points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but Ill highlight some key differences between the old and new formats: There are more documentsup to reaper ten. The new format will have 6-7. There is an working memory baddeley 1974, emphasis on grouping the documents on the old rubric that is secure, not present in the new rubric. There is also an memory baddeley 1974, explicit emphasis on on Institutional, correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in baddeley 1974, the new rubric. In the old rubric, you need to identify one additional document that would aid in your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement. The essential components of the equity examples DBQ are still the same between the memory baddeley and hitch 1974 two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the and disadvantage old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to look at the old essays and score them according to the new rubric.

For whatever reason the memory model questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so youll need to click separate links to get the question and documents and then the wordsworth responses. If you want to take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the new rubric, you could check out the working and hitch 1974 2015 and 2016 samples from AP US History and the 2016 samples from AP European History. The historical content is different, but this will give you an idea of how the new rubric is Hobbes Institutional Sovereignty Essay, implemented. Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to Prepare? So, now that you have all of these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over some tips as to working model baddeley 1974 how you can use example DBQs in your own studying, including when to start using them and how many you should plan to definition psychologists review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the rubric . This is why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study processmaybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. Then, when you compare the scores you gave to the scores and working memory model baddeley, scoring notes for the samples, you'll have a good idea of what parts of the rubric you don't really understand . If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the psychologists graders, youll know those are skills to work on. Keep giving points for and hitch 1974, the thesis and Hobbes Sovereignty Essay, then finding out the sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills.

Not giving points for historical context and then finding out the AP Grader gave full credit? You need to work on recognizing what constitutes historical context according to the AP. You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in my article on how to write a DBQ. Once you've worked on some of those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. This way you can see how your ability to grade the essays like an AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is memory and hitch 1974, a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at examples in an old format (e.g. AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by the College Board will be helpful in establishing a ballparkobviously a 9 is still going to be a good essay under the on Sovereignty 7-point scalebut there may be some modest differences in grades between the two scales. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to rubric changes.)

For practice grading with old samples, you might want to pull out two copies of the new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and each re-grade the samples. Then, you can discuss any major differences in model baddeley 1974, the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of on Institutional Sovereignty Essay eyes will help you see if the and hitch scores you are giving are reasonable, since you wont have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to secure electronic this question depends on your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and you plan on transforming yourself into memory baddeley a hard diamond of DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on a sample set every few weeks to a month to Sovereignty check in on model 1974, your progress towards thinking like an AP grader. In this case you would probably use six to nine College Board sample sets. If, on the other hand, the exam is in a month and you are just trying to equity examples get in working memory and hitch 1974, some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to 10 days. It makes sense to effect check in on your skills more often when you have less time to study, because you want to working memory model baddeley and hitch be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on the skills that need the equity examples most work. So for a short time frame, expect to working model baddeley 1974 use somewhere in the range of three to four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and reaper, doing some practice DBQ writing of baddeley 1974 your own . Towards the end of your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading.

Read and complete a timed prompt, then grade the sample set for on Institutional, that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and working baddeley 1974, any areas you may have overlooked. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to using sample sets, but in general they are a useful tool for making sure you have a good idea what the equity examples DBQ graders will be looking for when you write your DBQ. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of working memory model baddeley study strategies for the AP History exams. Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of your own blind spots so you know what skills to Hobbes Essay focus on in your own prep. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the model baddeley 1974 same mistakes over stress psychologists and over working memory model baddeley 1974 again. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at psychologists, least a couple even if you only have a month to working memory model baddeley and hitch practice. There you have it, folks. With this list of DBQ examples and tips on how to definition psychologists use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into your study strategy!

Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out my explanation of the DBQ. Want tips on how to really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and working memory model baddeley and hitch 1974, writing the DBQ (coming soon). If you're still studying for AP World History, check out our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Want more material for AP US History? Look into this article on electronic payment, the best notes to use for studying from one of our experts. Also check out 1974, her review of the the bandwagon best AP US History textbooks! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and is deeply committed to helping students succeed in all areas of life. She received a BA from Harvard in baddeley and hitch, Folklore and Mythology and Hobbes Sovereignty Essay, is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on working memory model baddeley and hitch 1974, your feed. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

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Baddeley s model of working memory - Wikipedia

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Working Memory Model - AS Psychology

akira anime essay 0.1.1 Why an Akira-FAQ ? 0.1.2 Is it worth reading ? 0.1.3 What do the memory model and hitch 1974 letters in brackets behind most questions stand for ? 0.1.4 Where do I find the right answer to my question ? 0.1.5 My questions haven't been answered ! 0.1.6 Some questions are bloody trivial ! 0.1.7 Do I have to the bandwagon effect fear spoilers ? 0.2.1 What's the significance of the version number ? 0.2.2 Where can I get future versions of the Akira-FAQ ? 0.2.3 How can I contribute to this FAQ ? 0.2.4 What's new ? Tell me about the history of the Akira-FAQ. 1.1 In case you don't know of Akira yet. 1.1.1 What kind of show is this ? (A/M) 1.1.2 Tell me about the author of Akira and his works. (A/M) 1.1.3 Why would I want to working baddeley and hitch watch/read Akira ? (A/M) 1.1.4 Does Akira contain sex and/or violence ? (A/M) 1.2 The Akira market. 1.2.1 Why has Akira been delayed ? (M) 1.2.2 I heard Otomo has written an alternative ending for the western market. What did he change ? (M) 1.2.3 What is Akira Club ? 1.2.4 Hey ! Wasn't that from Akira in this other show ? (A/M) 1.2.5 What about this Akira live-action movie ? 1.2.6 I want to get the Akira soundtrack ! (A) 1.2.7 Are there computer games based on Akira ? 1.2.8 Is there any Akira related material for my computer ? 1.2.9 Is there any more Akira stuff ? 1.3 Form, Style, Design, Background.

1.3.1 Why do people in Akira look different than in other anime or manga ? (A/M) 1.3.2 When exactly has the very first bomb exploded ? (A/M) 1.3.3 Why is advantage and disadvantage essay, Akira written in Katakana ? (A/M) 1.3.4 How is Kei/Kay really spelled ? (A/M) 1.3.5 What's the right pronunciation of the characters in Akira ? (A/M) 1.3.6 The word RESCUE on that helicopter is in mirror writing. Why ? (M) 1.3.7 Which voice-actors contributed to Akira ? (A) 2.1.1 Is Akira mute ? (M) 2.1.2 Why doesn't Akira say anything ? (M) 2.1.3 Akira plays with rocks. What's the significance of those shapes ? (M) 2.1.4 Who is calling Akira ? (M) 2.2.1 Tetsuo's hair got longer. Does that mean anything ? (A/M) 2.2.2 Tetsuo's hair got shorter. Working Memory Baddeley? Does that mean anything ? (M) 2.2.3 I thought Tetsuo was so powerful. Why doesn't he manage to definition psychologists finish Kaneda off ? (A/M) 2.2.4 I am Tetsuo. ? What does that mean ? (A) 2.3.1 Why did Kei's hairstyle change ? (M) 2.3.2 What's this fuss about model 1974, amoebas Kei is talking about ? (A) 2.3.3 I thought Kei was a pretty normal girl. Why is she able to definition psychologists fight with psychic powers ? (A) 2.3.4 Huh ? Kei's character changed all of a sudden ! (M) 2.4.1 Kaneda wrecked a bike. Why ? (A) 2.4.2 How did Kaneda survive that drop from the sky ? (M) 2.4.3 How did Kaneda survive that rain of rocks ? (A) 2.4.4 Why does Kaneda know where Kei is ? (M) 2.5.1 Is there ANY connection between the Miyako in the manga and the one in the anime ? (A/M) 2.5.2 Where has Tetsuo seen the relief in Miyako's temple before ? (M) 2.5.3 What's this fuss about and hitch 1974, a flow Miyako is talking about ? (M) 2.5.4 Hm ? I thought they wanted to attack Akira not Tetsuo. Wordsworth The Solitary Reaper? (M) 2.6 Takashi, Masaru and Kyoko.

2.6.1 Why do the working and hitch 1974 kids look so funny ? (A/M) 2.6.2 Why can Kyoko predict future events ? (A/M) 2.6.3 Toys are attacking Tetsuo! (A) 2.6.4 What's so bad about waking Akira ? (A) 2.6.5 The kids meditate in front of the Akira tubes. What do they plan ? (A) 2.6.6 What has just begun ? What do they want to achieve ? (A) 2.7.1 Who's the prophet with the funny hairstyle and dark glasses ? (A) 2.7.2 Who's that short guy in Kaneda's gang ? (A) 2.7.3 Who's that lone scientist working for the Colonel ? (M) 2.7.4 Is Ryu really Kei's brother ? (M) 2.7.5 Is Chiyoko really Kei's aunt ? (M) 2.7.6 Is Yuri really Kei's sister ? (A) 2.7.7 Nezu's looks remind me on something. (A/M) 2.7.8 Where did Sakaki and wordsworth reaper, company get their powers ? (M) 3.1.1 Tell me about the working model 1974 main theory in Akira. 3.1.2 Where does the Power come from ? 3.1.3 So the Power is in everybody of equity examples, us ? In me, too ? (A) 3.2 Using the working Power. 3.2.1 Did Tetsuo get his psychic powers out of nowhere ? (A/M)

3.2.2 Where does Tetsuo's headache come from ? (A/M) 3.2.3 What effect do drugs have on psychic powers ? (M) 3.2.4 Why are some people stronger than others ? (A/M) 3.2.5 How can people give their powers to a medium ? (M) 3.2.6 Why is it dangerous to make heavy use of the secure electronic Power ? (M) 3.3 Dreams and visions. 3.3.1 Which meaning have the hallucinations Tetsuo had just before they brought him back to model and hitch 1974 the laboratory ? (A) 3.3.2 A holographic phenomenon ! How strange ! (M) 3.3.3 What's the significance of Tetsuo's dream after having fun ? (M) 3.3.4 What did Tetsuo see in Akira's head ? (M) 3.3.5 There are many strange things happening in the giant sphere . Advantage And Disadvantage Essay? . . (A/M) 3.4.1 Tetsuo just changed into memory baddeley a giant blob. What happened ? (A/M) 3.4.2 Why does it start on Tetsuo's arm ? (A/M) 3.4.3 Where does all this mass come from ? (A/M) 3.4.4 Why is the the bandwagon blob shaped like a baby ? (A/M) 3.5 The sphere(s) and other phenomena. 3.5.1 I see a giant sphere. What the hell is going on working baddeley ? (A/M) 3.5.2 A new universe ? What's the Doc talking about ? (A) 3.5.3 A new universe ? What are the scientists talking about ? (M) 3.5.4 In the sphere: . Why do I see events from the past ? And what's going on in here, anyway ? (A/M)

3.5.5 Many buildings drop from the sky ! (M) 3.5.6 What do the scientists mean by 2-dimensional / 3-dimensional ? (M) 3.5.7 What's the significance of the Hobbes on Essay earthquake ? (M) 4.1 Politics and Intrigues. 4.1.1 Does Nezu work for working baddeley 1974, Miyako or what ? (M) 4.1.2 What does Nezu want ? (A/M) 4.1.3 Should I join the Great Tokyo Empire ? (M) 4.2 High-tech stuff. 4.2.1 Who dropped that bomb at the beginning ? (A/M) 4.2.2 Why do small stones rise just before SOL shoots ? (A) 4.2.3 I've seen SOL again. But that can't be ! (M) 4.2.4 A nuclear missile exploded. Why didn't everybody die ? (M) 4.2.5 Cool.

Kaneda's bike has got a reverse gear. (A) Akira is the most known manga/anime in the western world, to a certain degree even among people unfamiliar to anime or manga. Some of them may have seen anime like 'Star Blazers' or 'Robotech' before but didn't recognize it as a part of the equity examples anime universe (So Akira is working memory model and hitch, one of those new *anime* thingies ?). However, most people have got a question sooner or later: What the hell is going on ?! Due to it's complex and often confusing storyline, Akira is quite difficult to understand. Ok, I admit it's VERY difficult to understand. The one who understands the story completely by watching the film for Institutional Sovereignty Essay, the first time is a genius. I've tried to solve as many questions as I can by memory model baddeley 1974, setting up this FAQ. Also included: any other information concerning Akira I could think of.

However, feel free to mail me any comments, suggestions, wishes, corrections, etc. at stress psychologists rehrl@informatik.tu-muenchen.de . You can help to make this FAQ more interesting and complete. More info concerning this matter can be found at 0-2-3 (How can I contribute to this FAQ ?). I hope you enjoy this FAQ as much as I've enjoyed writing it. Working Memory Baddeley 1974? It isn't that serious kind of FAQ. In fact I've tried to make it fun to read. It's like discussing the Warp drives in advantage and disadvantage essay, Star Trek: The theories can fill a whole universe. But of course you know all that can't be true, or ? Or ? Think again. Working Memory Baddeley? Really ? (Luckily, we're no scientists.) Go find it out by yourself! ^_^ If you've only advantage and disadvantage essay, watched the working memory and hitch 1974 anime, you'd be interested in questions with an (A) behind it. Question marked with (M) deal with the advantage manga only. (A/M) doesn't mean that you're expected to have watched the anime AND to model baddeley and hitch 1974 have read the equity examples manga. The answers to those questions reveal info considering both versions. If the memory and hitch 1974 question isn't marked with any of these tags, they don't deal with the advantage essay anime or the manga themselves, for example questions concerning merchandising.

All possible questions I could think of are listed in the table of contents. Here are short descriptions of the main parts: 0. About this FAQ. Don't expect any info concerning Akira here. This part deals only with the FAQ itself. Remember: You, too, can be a part of it (More info at 0-2-3). 1. General Questions. All questions which don't have a relation to the STORY of Akira are listed here. For example the question What the hell is going on?! wouldn't be answered there. Sorry for the slightly misleading title. But you're getting an overview along with info on merchandising, the working memory model and hitch author and Hobbes Sovereignty, so on. I've been thinking a long time about how to organize the questions.

A chronological structure turned out to be bad because I'd have had to working split the questions into essay anime- and working and hitch 1974, manga-related. Some questions would have been doubled and the bandwagon effect, others just can't be put in chronological order. So I decided to organize the FAQ in another way. Model Baddeley 1974? If you have a question concerning one of the characters in wordsworth the solitary reaper, Akira, search for the answer in working memory, this part. If you don't find it, think about another topic the question might refer to equity examples and look it up in the appropriate section.

3. The Power, the Universe and Everything. Probably the part which you are most interested in. The explanations for many strange events related to psychic powers and its' effects rest within this section. Most of the questions are derived from What the hell is memory model baddeley, going on?!. 4. (The dreaded) Miscellaneous.

Some topics aren't big enough to have own subsections. These are all put in this part. And Disadvantage Essay? So far there are two of them: 4.1 Politics and Intrigues. Sometimes, the political goals of certain groups are a bit unclear. Use this section to working memory 1974 look them up. 4.2 Hi-tech stuff.

This offers some sort of playground for high-tech-freaks trying to explain how these new weapons, machinery etc. Advantage? which appear in Akira work. Working Memory Model And Hitch 1974? Perhaps you're interested in wordsworth reaper, the new Sol theory. Note, that questions in model baddeley and hitch, this part are not necessarily related to the bandwagon effect technology itself. You can use your editor's search tool to memory go to the desired section. Just search for secure payment, the ID number of the and hitch question, you'd like to get answered.

BTW that's the reason why pointers to other questions have a different syntax. For example if the FAQ says Go to x-y-z, you should search for x.y.z. Of course you can as well let your editor search for keywords. Wordsworth The Solitary? Then tell me about working baddeley and hitch, 'em. Every single suggestion can help me making the Akira-FAQ better. Go to 0-2-3 (How can I contribute to the solitary reaper this FAQ?) for more information. Yes it's true.

Some questions may be trivial for you. But consider this: The Akira-FAQ wants to working model baddeley 1974 help any people who have problems with Akira. Some of them may have seen the anime but never read the manga. Others just didn't read so far yet and don't know whether their problem will be solved later or not. The rest must live with those trivial questions ^_^.

And I thought you were looking for 'em. Yes, several passages of the FAQ give away something. If you don't want to obtain information you might not want YET, try avoiding the answers to questions, which don't mean anything to you. Everything starts on version number 1.00. Additions and/or changes have following effects on the version number v: v+0.01: Minor changes or corrections; questions added etc. v+0.10: New section added; Section rewritten; Main part reorganized etc. v+1.00: New main part or similar reorganizations of the equity examples FAQ (including a complete one.

I truly hope that this will never happen.) More of those can be added at the same time. Each new version will tell you how many things have been changed (e.g. Memory Model And Hitch? 1.00+0.06). All changes are logged in the FAQ history (0-2-4). All people who have helped me with the advantage and disadvantage Akira-FAQ are listed there, too. You can always download the newest Akira-FAQ version at working memory and hitch 1974 the Akira Homepage: http://www.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/ If you don't have WWW access, send me e-mail: rehrl@informatik.tu-muenchen.de. Glad you asked that! The Akira-FAQ surely needs help from outside to fulfill its final destiny: to become an Akira-AAQ (all asked questions). If you have ANY info concerning Akira which isn't implemented yet, don't hesitate to contact me: rehrl@informatik.tu-muenchen.de and we'll talk about it. In return you'll be credited in equity examples, the next version of the FAQ with name, e-mail address (only if you want) and what you've done for all Akira fans in the world. All helpers are credited in working memory and hitch, the history below.

Very well. And Disadvantage Essay? First, I wish to thank all helpers for their time. Memory Model And Hitch? Good job, all of you! Here they are again: Lee Earle (l.earle@hbs.gu.edu.au) Trevize Bayta Seldon (TrevizeNFX@aol.com) David Tonhofer (tonhofer@msn.com) Mike Voorhis (mvoorhis@wpi.edu) Ken Arromdee (arromdee@jyusenkyou.cs.jhu.edu) Hitoshi Doi (doi@tcp.com) rec.arts.manga (the FAQ) And of course Katsuhiro Otomo. Without him, I would have never heard of Akira and all the other cool people ^_^. Version 1.00 (22nd December, 1995): First release of the FAQ. It's stuffed with all info about the solitary, Akira I could think of. Ken provided the Anime Video Game List which also holds info about the Akira games.

I took the working and hitch info about the Akira-CDs from secure electronic payment, Raistlin's Anime CD Guide. Version 1.06 (22nd January, 1996): With this new version, a history informs you about the changes. You're reading it right now. But you probably know that -_^. Memory? Trevize developed a cool theory about the secure electronic Sol killer-satellite. Have fun with it.

Some grammatical and spelling corrections have been made by Mike and Trevize. I've done a little cosmetics here and there. I also added a pointer to another Akira-mod. Zoo told me why the enemy in Robocop3 is working model, called Otomo. There's now info about the Japanese voice-actors of the anime. They have been taken from on Institutional Sovereignty Essay, Hitoshi's Seiyuu Database. Working Memory Model? Thanks to Lee, you now know what's behind the rumour that Otomo has rewritten the reaper ending of Akira and model and hitch 1974, what this has to do with the long wait.

Version 1.07 (29th January, 1996): I forgot to add the information about the delay of the western Akira release I've obtained from the rec.arts.manga FAQ. Sorry about that. On Institutional Sovereignty Essay? I've updated 1-2-2 appropriately. However, the last conclusion remains the memory baddeley same: The long wait wasn't Otomo's fault. Version 1.08 (9th February, 1996): In the previous versions, answer 4-2-3 was definitely wrong.

I must have been blind confusing the American Floyd satellite with SOL. Thanks to David for correcting me. 1.1 In case you don't know of the bandwagon effect, Akira yet. In Japan, the comic market is organized in working model 1974, a different way than in the western world. There are magazines, several 100 pages long, being published weekly or monthly called Manga.

These Manga contain several comic stories in serial form bundled together and are very popular. They're being read regularly by most people and almost everywhere. Because Japanese comic art is so much different from western comics, the word 'Manga' now stands for Japanese comics in general. One of these serial stories is AKIRA. It appeared first in wordsworth reaper, the end of 1982 in working model baddeley and hitch 1974, Young Magazine, which is stress psychologists, aimed towards teenagers and students. Becoming very popular, it was reprinted in 6 fat tomes.

It's a science fiction story loaded with action and suspense (though I must admit the story goes a bit downhill at the end) being set 38 years after World War III in Neo-Tokyo, a megalopolis built on the ruins of the city formerly known as Tokyo. The Japanese army plans to use children with ESP powers as weapons but nobody could have foreseen how dangerous the project would become. Memory Model Baddeley And Hitch 1974? The true proportions of the iceberg under the tip they're standing on definition stress psychologists are beyond imagination. A gang of and hitch 1974, teenage bikers is the bandwagon effect, drawn into the whirlpool of events as well as a group of underground activists trying to memory and hitch 1974 uncover the army's plans. An Akira anime (the animated pendant to secure electronic manga) has been produced in 1988. It's a compressed version of the original story with quite a lot of model 1974, changes. They stuffed 2160 pages in 120 minutes. That makes 18 pages per equity examples minute or 3.33 seconds per page. Nice job, eh ? (Please don't take that calculation seriously) Akira has been written by working baddeley, Katsuhiro Otomo.

He has also directed the anime. He is payment, probably the manga artist who has approached most towards international comic culture. Model Baddeley 1974? Therefore his works are ideal for manga newbies. However they're still pure manga. Otomo's other manga include 'Fire Ball' (short story) and the longer 'Domu' which won a prize, the 'Great Science Fiction Award'. Hobbes? Both are about psychic powers. He also wrote a couple of short stories published by the 'Action' magazine including: For Better or for Worse Memories Buried in Sand The Mission The Touch of Old Times Birds The Martian (my favourite) Chronicle of memory baddeley and hitch, Planet Tako Chronicle of Hobbes on Sovereignty, Planet Tako: The Beginning. (Please excuse any poor translations) On the anime sector, he contributed in the production of working baddeley and hitch 1974, 'Roojin Z' and 'Robot Carnival'.

His new own anime 'Memories', too won a prize on Anime Expo '95 for the best premier film. It's based on on Institutional his short story of the same title. Otomo is now working on his new manga, 'The Legend of Mother Sarah'. Working Model And Hitch 1974? Currently, I've got no more information about it. It's obvious that some people like Akira more than others. Others don't like it at all. To find out if you would like Akira, I've prepared a little test for you. Answer the questions and add up the points (Only one single choice per question). In fact, there are two types of Institutional Sovereignty, them: Anime-points and Manga-points.

Example: 1A means add 1 Anime-point, 10M means add 10 Manga-points. Are you an action-fan ? Yes, YES, YESSS!: 8A, 8M. No, but I can live with it: 4A, 4M. Action is the devil's tool: 0A, 0M. Model And Hitch? Are you looking for babes (eventually with guns)? I prefer normal girls: 8A, 6M. I prefer cool girls: 5A, 10M. I'm a girl myself: 7A, 9M. How realistic should a manga/anime be?

If I wanted realism, I'd watch the news: 6A, 6M. Equity Examples? Realism is good but there HAS to be something else: 9A, 9M. Memory? What? Akira isn't a real-life-story?: 2A, 2M. How should a storyline be to please you?

I just want to relax and enjoy the show: 1A, 2M. Wordsworth Reaper? I like complex but non-confusing storylines: 2A, 5M. I enjoy analyzing every single scene for working model baddeley, its meaning: 10A, 9M. Solution (one result for each type of equity examples, points) : 36-31 points: Congratulations! You're the ideal Akira-lover! So why don't you have it yet? 30-21 points: You're a pretty normal manga/anime-fan. And Hitch? Check Akira out. You might like it!

20-15 points: Be careful! Your Akira-potential is quite low. 15 points: Er, never mind. Probably you don't like Anime or Manga in advantage and disadvantage essay, general. (seriously) Your scruples are partially justified. Both the anime and the manga are violent.

The nature of the violence is memory baddeley 1974, mostly comparable to those of equity examples, common American action movies (massive damage to property; occasionally killed men etc.). And there are isolated splatter effects (e.g. squirting blood; open wounds - yes, they're very open) even though they're not very detailed and quite rare. The VERY few scenes with a sexual content in and hitch 1974, Akira seems to be a problem only in America. Anime and manga don't go further than female breasts (anime: only once; manga: twice, 3 times to be exact). Wordsworth? Well the manga had some more to working memory and hitch offer (see 1-2-2) but thanks to some alterations, the effect American market doesn't come in contact with it. And all these really aren't there to turn the audience on, believe me.

All in memory 1974, all, if you think your children are old enough for the violence, the sex really should not be a problem. The best way to decide if Akira is suitable for essay, your children is to get an idea of it by yourself. Then, TALK to memory model them about your opinion. Advantage And Disadvantage Essay? 'Tis better than just presenting your decision without further explanation. By the way, that applies to BOTH cases. You may have heard that Katsuhiro Otomo was dissatisfied with the ending of Akira and working memory model and hitch 1974, has therefore rewritten it. But the equity examples rewriting was only the reason of the first delay. See next question for more detailed information concerning the rewriting rumour. After a couple of months, the next Akira issue was still not available. Marvel, the publisher of the American Akira release, decided to hold back the working memory baddeley last issues for marketing reasons. Too bad they didn't say a word concerning their intentions.

This could as well fit in stress psychologists, part 4 of this FAQ. Working Model Baddeley 1974? Here's how this rumour originated: Otomo had to interrupt his work on the manga because he wanted to do the anime first. So he wrote a quick and advantage and disadvantage essay, dirty ending for the Japanese manga readers. Of course, nobody including Otomo himself liked it. After the film was finished, he dropped this ending and baddeley, continued the manga. After the film reached American cinenas, Marvel had just begun to release the American Akira edition. The serialized version of Akira in Young Magazine came to an end in July 1990. The earlier issues have already been reprinted in definition stress psychologists, those thick volumes. The last volume has been suspended, however, because Otomo wanted to model baddeley and hitch 1974 do some rewriting.

He did little changes and additions here and there but he mainly wrote that epilogue which you all can read now. Apparently he took his time about definition, it; The last sixth volume was finally released in March 1993. Now the American version: It's delay had begun after the release of issue #33 (very) roughly at the same time the last Japanese volume came out. Otomo changed a few pages for working memory model baddeley and hitch, the western release. Note that this has nothing to definition stress psychologists do with the qd ending which has itself nothing to baddeley 1974 do with the later rewriting.

They both apply only to the Japanese versions. The alterations for the American market were quite little and not important for effect, the story, however. You see the long wait wasn't Otomo's fault at working all. Hobbes On? (At least not for working baddeley, the non-Japanese Akira-fans.) Here is a list of secure electronic payment, all changes I found. Memory? I've used the German edition for comparison which should be equivalent to the American one: - A citizen of the Great Tokyo Empire caused a public nuisance at the Akira festival. The resulting black spot most likely wasn't applied by Hobbes Institutional, Otomo so I've included this one only for completeness' sake. Working Memory Model Baddeley And Hitch? - Kei and the Colonel had troubles with falling debris during the earth quake. Otomo dropped one page and changed the other one with Ryu and Lt. Yamada slightly. The result: 2 pics instead of Hobbes Institutional, 8. - Another missing page: The reaction of the members of the Great Tokyo Empire after the Colonel fired SOL at Tetsuo was formerly two pages long. - A little greater change was made when the Admiral decided to attack Neo-Tokyo. The group of scientists was more excited in the original.

Now, they're acting more resigned. Working Baddeley? More pics have been changed/ replaced in this part. The Solitary Reaper? Former 6 pages have been reduced to 5 pages. - After Kei's fight with the blob, Tetsuo emerges from the debris. This scene has been changed, but not cut. The Colonel was unconscious in model and hitch 1974, the original. Now he's awake. And naked Tetsuo is now drawn from a different visual angle. Have a guess, why. That's all folks.

No more changes especially at effect the very end. Some additional material will be published after completion of the story filling perhaps two issues (#39+#40 ?). This is actually an art-book offered by Kodansha, the Japanese publisher of Akira. On 261 pages, you'll find various illustrations plus some postcards. The main part is a title page collection of the original Akira series which made it's appearance in Young Magazine. About a little more than a half of the pictures are B/W.

Akira Club costs 3500 Yen. It's number is model and hitch, ISBN4-06-330003-X. Maybe you're right. And Disadvantage? I've discovered Akira samples in these two productions: American motion picture 'Sliver': In the memory 1974 apartment of the bandwagon effect, that computer game programmer (What was his name? 'Eek'?), some samples from the working baddeley 1974 manga hanged on the wall. Bad photography if you ask me: The cameraman seemed to equity examples be more interested in this vulcan thingy and various other stuff than in Akira ! Michael Jackson's music video 'Scream': There's a VERY short (5 frames) extract of the anime in the last part of the working memory video.

You can see (and hear) Tetsuo falling from the military hospital/laboratory. All other anime samples aren't from Akira. American motion picture 'Robocop 3': Robocop's enemy in the second sequel is called 'Otomo'. This is no mere coincidence. The scriptwriter Frank Miller is actually a fan of Katsuhiro Otomo and payment, his works. Model And Hitch? You may have heard of him; he is also a comic-author. Psychologists? His most known work is the Batman-saga 'Return of the Dark Knight'. At least this is a rumour with some roots. Yes, Tri-Star planned to working do an Akira live-action film.

It would have surely required a (very) big budget. They decided not to equity examples risk that much money on working model 1974 this experiment (no stars; comic adaption; Japanese (?); length of the story). All they did was a calculation of the equity examples costs, e.g. for the special effects. But we can surely live without a Hollywood Akira film, don't you think ? You can have it. Here's for example the Akira-section of Raistlin's (csuos@warwick.ac.uk) Anime CD Guide : Invitation CD-S: VDRS-1077 (1988.7.16), Y937. 1. AKIRA no TE-MA 6:05 [Akira's theme] 2. 1974? Tetsuo no METAMORUFO-ZE 7:56 [Tetsuo's metamorphosis] Akira Symphonic Suite. Invitation VDR-1532 (1988.7.27), Y3008. Wordsworth? 2. Working Model 1974? BATTLE AGAINST CLOWN 3:37. 3. WINDS OVER THE NEO-TOKYO 2:48.

5. DOLLS' POLYPHONY 2:55. 6. SHOUMYOU 10:12. 8. EXODUS FROM THE UNDERGROUND FORTRESS 3:19. 9. ILLUSION 13:57. Secure Electronic? 10. REQUIEM 14:27. Akira Original Soundtrack. JVC JMI-1001 (1990), $18.00. Working Memory Baddeley And Hitch 1974? There is also a German edition of and disadvantage essay, this original soundtrack, with all information except track names in the CD booklet printed in working model, German. Order number is Institutional, CD 68.948 from Nektar, a division of model baddeley and hitch 1974, Tropical Music, POB 2230, D-3550 Marburg, Germany. It cost 159 NOK in Norway.

2. The Battle Against the Clowns 3:37. On? 3. Winds Over Neo-Tokyo 2:48. 5. Dolls' Polyphony 2:55. 6. Shoumyou 10:12. 8. Working Model And Hitch? Exodus From the and disadvantage essay Underground Fortress 3:19. 9. Illusion 13:57. 10. Requiem 14:27. Akira original motion picture soundtrack. Victor VDR-1538 (1988.10.10), Y3008. 2. Tetsuo I 12:35.

3. Tetsuo II 12:33. Some of working model 1974, these CDs are available from another company, Demon Records, too: Akira Original Soundtrack. The Bandwagon Effect? # 7 40155 800 72 7. Akira original motion picture soundtrack. # 7 40155 800 67 3. Akira games do exist but not for any computer systems. They're all for video game consoles. The games' quality seems to be quite low; you wouldn't want to buy the games for playing them. Anyway, here's the appropriate section of the model baddeley and hitch Anime video games list by Ken Arromdee (arromdee@jyusenkyou.cs.jhu.edu): ------- AKIRA Famicom, Akira, N/A Taito . Y6800. SNES, . Akira THQ, $. (Action Game) Genesis, . Essay? Akira THQ, $. (Action Game) Sega CD, . Baddeley? Akira THQ, $. (Action Game) The above three games were to be produced in the USA. A comment in Hobbes on, the June 1995 Gamepro magazine indicated that they will not be coming out. Model Baddeley And Hitch? (Has anyone got any information from a real information source?) CD^32, N/A, Akira Ice, L30 (Action Game) A British game for the CD^32, this got a very bad review. The CD^32 is basically an Amiga 1200 with a CD drive and no keyboard, and hasn't been released in either the US or Japan, but I'm listing the game here for completeness' sake. Ken, too, will appreciate more info on the Akira games. Remember to mail him if you find something out. First, there's of wordsworth the solitary reaper, course the memory baddeley and hitch 1974 AKIRA Homepage.

You can visit it at: http://www.informatik.tu-muenchen.de/ So far it contains a nice picture archive, a short info about Otomo, a small ASCII Art Collection, a page of links, several reviews and synopses and an access statistics page. And you can always download the newest version of the Akira-FAQ there, of course. I've compiled a little list of links to various Akira stuff on equity examples the net. So far I know of 4 things: A sound patch .WAD for Doom2: Hell on Earth by model, iD Software. I fear that this has left the net forever (No, I don't have the WAD myself). However, if the situation changes, the FAQ will be updated appropriately. The Bandwagon? Mod Music file: Akira Rave II (Pray for a Sequel Remix) This is only for working and hitch 1974, hardcore-fans and people resistant to Institutional Essay noise. Any connection to the original Akira music can be hardly detected by listening to this Mod although some samples contain Akira waves. ftp://info2.rus.uni-stuttgart.de/pub/systems/amiga/aminet/mods/ephnx/ AkiraRaveII.lha (Germany) ftp://ftp.pu-toyama.ac.jp/pub/.b/ftpmail/ftp.cdrom.com/pub/aminet/mods/ ephnx/AkiraRaveII.lha (Japan) Mod music file: Akira Rave.

The Predecessor of AR II. It's quite similar to it and is a bit more bearable (but not much). Cyclewars graphics and sound demo for working model baddeley and hitch 1974, Ms-Dos. Probably the most interesting demo for Akira-fans. The French demogroup Distorsion coded it and implemented a lot of Akira-pics from the manga. ftp://ftp.sun.ac.za/pub/msdos/demos/alpha/1994/c/cyclewar.zip (South Africa) Yes, and plenty of it, too. Part of it is only available in Japan I guess.

Ask your local anime provider for it; you're more or less likely to find something which is on reaper this list: - T-shirts, many different motives, about 10 or even more. The most popular one seems to be that from the film poster (Kaneda with laser rifle). - A trading card set with 100 cards plus some bonus cards and an album. Model Baddeley? - Model Kits (various materials): Tetsuo, Kaneda's bike along with Kaneda, Miyako, SOL, army robot. - An Akira pinball machine (Don't ask for the bandwagon, this at your local anime shop) - buttons, stickers and baseball caps. - Leather jackets, just like Kaneda's, with the capsule on the back. These are all in the hands of fans, I guess. Working And Hitch 1974? That should be enough for a while. Happy treasure hunting! You could also try a mail-order firm.

Otomo's style of drawing is somewhat different than the typical manga style, because he was heavily influenced by definition psychologists, early western films. His characters tend to working and hitch be drawn in a more realistic way (at least as far as anatomy is concerned). Faces are not that realistic but certainly more than Leichi Matsumoto's for example. And Disadvantage Essay? Eyes, noses, and mouths are just normal sized (especially the noses). However, they had some difficulties implementing the memory model baddeley and hitch 1974 characters when making the anime. Going through the animation machinery, their special fascination got lost.

Many people had the wordsworth reaper impression that the working and hitch 1974 characters almost look alike. So read the effect manga and see this isn't the case at model baddeley and hitch 1974 all. Unfortunately (or luckily) Otomo isn't so good in prophecy as in manga writing. Several dates for reaper, the beginning of World War III have expired so far. Original manga: 6th December, 1982 (Rather pessimistic. The manga started in the very same year in the very same month.) Anime: 16th July, 1988 (Still pessimistic. The anime started in 1988, too.) International manga release: 6th December, 1992 (10 years have been added.) The time didn't change: 14:17. You'll have to live with this paradox. Just think of a parallel universe in which WW III started in 1982 to solve the problem. The Japanese use Katakana for: - foreign words and names (e.g.

Mosukuwa: Moscow) - animals and plants (e.g. nezumi: mouse or rat) - some female christian names (e.g. Kaori) - sounds (e.g. DON: gunshot) - interjections (e.g. Are !: What ?!) - slang (e.g. deka: cop) - telegrams - words and names they want to emphasize (e.g. AKIRA) You surely agree that Katakana looks quite cool. Words written in Katakana attract attention more easily and are therefore often used in memory, advertisements. Ke-i, in Katakana (BTW Katakana is a japanese alphabet of syllables; the advantage and disadvantage other two Japanese alphabets are Hiragana and memory model baddeley and hitch, Kanji) but that's perhaps not what you wanted to know. First, it's more important by far to know the right pronunciation: Speak K-e-i as in Hey. To convert the word to romaji, the normal latin alphabet, a word must be chosen which matches the pronunciation correctly. Be careful: different languages may use different spellings.

Kei/Kay causes confusion because there are different spellings for the same pronunciation and different pronunciations for the same spelling at the same time. I'll try to cover the most important languages: Latin (If there would be a Latin Akira edition): Kei because there's no y in Latin. Latin gives you the equity examples right pronunciation for a Japanese word in most cases if you convert it to romaji. English: Both Kay and Kei are right but be extremely careful with Kay: People tend to pronounce Kay in an americanized way which is working memory baddeley and hitch 1974, wrong. Use the correct pronunciation as described in dictionaries. Kay is wordsworth the solitary, used in memory baddeley and hitch 1974, the English Akira release. French: I'd advise the French Akira fans to use Kei although the French Akira distributor Glenat uses Kay. The reason: apparently Glenat is sort of advantage essay, confused with the names in memory model 1974, Akira. They use Kei for Kai, the member of Kaneda's gang. More below. German/Italian: Kay would cause an Americanized pronunciation in these countries due to associations with the English christian name.

So Kei is the appropriate spelling. Wordsworth The Solitary Reaper? Asian languages: Well, these don't use the latin alphabet anyway. Non-Japanese people generally tend to lengthen a syllable when speaking a Japanese word which is working 1974, wrong. You should lengthen a syllable ONLY if you're told to payment do so, e.g. in shoojo. Consider these names: Akira Kaneda Tetsuo Yamagata Kai Kaori Kei Ryu Takashi Masaru Kyoko. All names don't contain lengthened syllables. So Akiira as used in and hitch 1974, Streamline's dub is completely wrong. To pronounce correctly, try to speak fluently with no special emphasis on any syllable even if it sounds a bit unusual to equity examples you. Use the latin pronunciation for working memory model and hitch, vocals.

For example Kaneeda would be also wrong. In the Japanese Akira release, it's not. The reason for this slight mistake is the standard method to convert mangas for the bandwagon, western releases. As manga are originally to be read from behind and and hitch, from right to left, they use a simple trick to convert them: they just mirror the pages. The text in the balloons is being replaced anyway so it doesn't matter. The pages which can be read in equity examples, either way needn't to be mirrored but in and hitch, this special case it couldn't be avoided. You can blame the helicopter pilot for this; he wanted to appear on this double page (and to say something). BTW this happens some more times near the wordsworth the solitary reaper end. Thanks to working memory and hitch 1974 Hitoshi Doi's Seiyuu Database, I found out almost all important Japanese voice-actors of Akira.

I've got too few informations about the voice-actors in any other language, sorry. Perhaps in a future version. Advantage And Disadvantage? Armi Kazumi Tanaka The Colonel Taro Ishida Girl C Yuka Ohno Kai Takeshi Kusao Kaneda Mitsuo Iwata Kaori Yuriko Fuchizaki Kei Mami Koyama Store owner Yoosuke Akimoto Tetsuo Nozomu Sasaki Watanabe Taro Arakawa. No. Just read on ^_^. His own powers prevent him to memory model and hitch act like a normal boy. The Power has taken over his mind leaving only a bit more than the body functions. In his current state, Akira's behavior is controlled mostly by the Power. Equity Examples? The rocks are forming two curved lines connected to working model baddeley 1974 each other.

This represents the wordsworth the solitary reaper double helix of the DNA carrying the genotype of a living being. Nobody. But Akira is being attracted when someone is using the Power or if it acts on its own. Working? This happens twice in the manga and once in the anime. Electronic? If you're talking about the first time, the answer is no. Memory Baddeley 1974? It's just for the show. At most it could be explained by normal hair growth.

The second time it's somewhat similar to 3-4-4 / 3-1-2. His hair was longer in the past and his body remembered that fact. Another example: Tetsuo's arm began to bleed when SOL's shot hit the ground right next to Miyako's temple. That was his old wound. Yes, and his behavior did change significantly, too. And his pain seems to secure electronic have vanished. This has something to do with the earthquake.

Go to 3-5-7 to find out more. He had the opportunity quite often. But he never did it. The idea is, that Tetsuo still cares (a last bit) about memory baddeley 1974, Kaneda. When Otomo was asked in an interview about the anime, he said it was about friendship. Whether this is the bandwagon effect, realistic or not is perhaps a point of working model baddeley 1974, controversy but hey! It's just a story. This phrase comes under the 'famous last words' category.

Do you have a problem with this? ^_^ Sorry, just kidding. It's one of those typical phrases which have got a deeper meaning than the obvious one (Yes, that's Tetsuo). We're talking about self-consciousness here. To be aware of oneself is not an easy task indeed. And Disadvantage Essay? Or do you know which part of your body or mind is actually you ? I don't know either. But here, exactly this part speaks: I am Tetsuo. And that's the point: In this universe (see 3-5-2 to 3-5-4), Tetsuo is baddeley and hitch, reduced down to his inner self.

I guess she's got her hair cut, because Otomo ordered her to. The new hairstyle looks better, doesn't it? That's all about it. Actually, Kyoko is speaking through Kei's mouth. Most of what she said is explained at advantage 3-1-1. But for further understanding (her explanations are a bit unfortunate), I'll add a little more info. She said there could be something like genes in the air.

She made this comparison to point out that the future is determined by working model baddeley and hitch 1974, some sort of energy as your looks are determined by your genes. What if amoebas had the and disadvantage same powers as humans ? Good question. She actually means the Power. If it's being used too much, it disturbs the flow (- Part 3) which leads to unpredictable results. Kei is a so-called medium. If there's nobody around making use of her abilities, she is memory model baddeley 1974, a normal human being like everybody else. Answer 3-2-5 (How can people give their powers to a medium ?) contains more detailed info. You think they put something in the water, eh? Actually not her character but only her behavior changed because of her decision.

And this change wasn't too surprising either. Just read the earlier issues more carefully. The bike was Yamagata's. Look at the emblem on it: Yamagata had the same one on his t-shirt. Don't you think, too, that young Japanese men of the Hobbes Institutional 21st century have some really obscure funeral ceremonies ? Remember this is a manga. Kaneda's guardian angel just has a full time job. Have you ever noticed that this always happens to memory model 1974 the same type of characters (semi-naive troublemakers)? Remember this is an anime. See previous question. Electronic Payment? Kei told him.

But NOT by speaking to him. And Miyako probably arranged it. Note that Kei stopped short at something shortly after the beginning of her trip with the Colonel. Uh, they look alike ? At least both are concerned with religious topics. He has seen it in Akira's head. That relief represents the flow of time. Tetsuo is so frightened about it because it's like a maelstrom to working memory model baddeley 1974 him. Chapter 3-3 (Dreams and visions) deals mostly with Tetsuo's experiences. The flow itself is roughly described in Chapter 3-1. The following paragraphs try to explain the meaning of some of Miyako's rather cryptic statements. She said the flow carries the stress psychologists universe to a final state.

Consider this: At the time of its birth the universe was very small. All matter/energy (You know, E=mcý) was very concentrated. You may have heard that the universe constantly expands. So the concentration decreases of course. The final state is reached when concentration reaches zero. But this state can't be reached forever and the flow will continue carrying us with it. Miyako stated that the Power wants to stop the flow. Actually nobody, how powerful he might be, could stop it.

Remember that the flow controls the whole universe and even earth is working baddeley, only a tiny grain of sand compared to it. Even Akira couldn't do that (if his powers were of the ordinary type; read next paragraph). But if somebody is able to use the Power, this person can stop a small part of the flow by destroying objects etc., but not for long. It will return to its original path with doubled force. That means it'll hit back on the originator of the disturbance. Definition Stress? It won't just cause the Power to deteriorate. The disturbance doesn't vanish that easily. Instead the flow will mess up with the Power with strange events as a result.

Akira isn't in the flow. That's a rather confusing fact at first sight. But let's see. Working Memory Baddeley? Akira's powers are different than Tetsuo's. He can create a huge sphere which vanishes after a while taking all swallowed objects with it. But where are they now ? Not in the flow anymore. Because the whole universe is in it, the objects are not in Hobbes Essay, this universe but in another NEW universe created by Akira.

Akira himself is some sort of a universe on two legs. Please don't take this literally. His body is in the flow anyway. Only that part of his mind which is the origin of his powers has detached itself from the flow. They want to play Tetsuo's power off against Akira's. Working Memory Model Baddeley 1974? To accomplish this they must bring the two together. Teasing Tetsuo is the last possibility left for Miyako and her companions to Hobbes on bring him to the right place (BTW do you happen to working model and hitch 1974 know 'Zork II' by secure electronic, Infocom?). The Japanese army started their project to use people with paranormal abilities as weapons.

The kids already had some potential but not enough to memory baddeley and hitch meet the army's expectations. The Solitary? So they give drugs to the kids to increase their powers. To learn more of this subject, look up question 3-2-3 (What effect do drugs have on psychic powers ?). First, read the Basics section in part 3 of this FAQ, then return here. From this point of view predicting future events should be quite easy if you're able to use the power, shouldn't it? Just be aware of that which will be. The main course is given but it's possible to choose many different paths to working memory baddeley and hitch follow it just by taking the corresponding actions (You only have to stress psychologists belong to the small group of memory and hitch, people whose decisions are of any importance for the future). That is and disadvantage essay, what Kyoko meant by talking about the different futures. Working Memory Baddeley 1974? The toys are hallucinations created by the kids. They plan to kill Tetsuo and are using this ability to threaten him.

They weren't too successful, though. No wonder, they can't stand the sight of blood for example. Just for fun: Who's who teddy bear - Takashi rabbit - Kyoko toy car - Masaru. Oh, well . . . ^_^ This question is directly related to the one at 4-2-1. They want to the bandwagon effect use Akira to stop Tetsuo. Akira has already reacted to Tetsuo's development. It's important to make use of Akira's power cleverly to fight Tetsuo's. Model Baddeley And Hitch 1974? To get out of this new universe and Hobbes Sovereignty, return to the normal world. There's even a chance to get Akira and Tetsuo back. But One day we'll get outta here. obviously doesn't sound so good.

They use the mystic phrases only for the show. That is memory baddeley 1974, Miyako. Her role in the anime is electronic, much less important than in baddeley and hitch 1974, the manga, though. His name is Kai. His name was mentioned in the anime only once so you may have missed it. In the manga his name is revealed in the Great Tokyo Empire era. You have seen him before. Have a look at the earlier issues of the manga: He's one of the two scientists assisting the Doctor in equity examples, the Akira project. No. In fact she was born on a completely different pla. Hey!

Which show do you watch right now?! You mean he looks like a rodent (most likely a rat). Well, i guess his looks are meant to fit his character. The anime doesn't go into this but in working memory model baddeley 1974, the manga Miyako and equity examples, Kaneda nicknamed him. Whether he deserves the and hitch 1974 nicknames or not should be left to everyone's discretion. BTW, do you know the Japanese word for rat? (You needn't look it up in a dictionary; It's somewhere in this FAQ.) They're just gifted. The Solitary Reaper? Miyako has trained them to model use the Power properly.

But their powers are weaker than the effect numbers'. More info on this subject is at 3-2-4 (Why are some people stronger than others ?). 3. Working Baddeley And Hitch 1974? The Power, the Universe and Hobbes on Institutional Essay, Everything. If you hold a stone above the ground and working model baddeley, release it, what will happen? Easy: It'll fall to the ground. Wordsworth Reaper? Of course, it just follows the laws of nature. But let me rephrase this statement: it's DESTINED to fall to the ground. Working Baddeley? That sounds a bit theatrical, but is electronic, very useful for working and hitch 1974, this answer.

You surely agree that the laws of nature apply to every other object (lifeless or not) in the universe. Now imagine that the natural laws predetermine the future of the equity examples whole universe, not only the stone's. Working 1974? Impossible ? You're right. The chaos theory defeats this model. But the philosophy in secure payment, Akira goes one step further. But first, let me construct a connection between this theory and the statements Miyako/Kei(Kyoko) has made in the manga/anime. Working Baddeley? So here's the. 2nd example (from the anime): Imagine yourself when you were just one mere cell.

At that time your gender, hair and skin color etc. were already a fact as well as parts of your character. Whatever you do is depends on your genes as well as on your environment. Genes are only information. And your environment, too, to a certain extent. And you do this and advantage and disadvantage essay, that, write, construct something etc. only as a result of this information. It's impossible to predict your future actions but think about simpler life forms e.g. Working Memory Model And Hitch? ants. Their behavior is mostly controlled by their genetic code. And it's (almost) possible to wordsworth the solitary simulate an memory model baddeley ant colony on a computer. The Bandwagon? So future events depend on information. And Hitch 1974? But where does this information come from ? As far as your hair color is concerned, from the solitary, your parents.

But the origin of it goes back to the beginning of time (Your parents, too, got their hair color from their parents and model baddeley and hitch, so on). So now we've got natural laws and information. As mentioned before, this is the solitary reaper, not enough to explain a predetermined future. There is model baddeley 1974, something else. To explain this, Miyako speaks about a giant flow which the universe is in. Important: Natural laws, as far as we know of equity examples, them, are only a part of it. The other part isn't physical but it's the more important one: it carries us and our world away to a final destination of the universe. Read more at working memory model and hitch 1974 2-5-3 (What's this fuss about a flow Miyako is talking about ?) about this topic. Some of Miyako's further statements are explained there. The flow's energy originated at the birth of our universe, the big bang.

And it's this kind of energy which can't be explained by natural laws and logical considerations. But that's still not the whole story (Last paragraph, I swear !). The flow can be compared to definition stress psychologists an ordinary river and for example you are sitting in a boat floating on it. So far, I've only working memory model baddeley and hitch 1974, explained why the river flows (Natural laws, information, maybe even more components of the equity examples gradient). Working Memory Model 1974? But of electronic, course, the river comes from somewhere and leads to somewhere. Working Memory Model And Hitch? Whereever your boat might float now, the secure payment place where it was before is still there. So is the place where its going to. The point is that the flow should be seen in its entirety. Don't just look at the present but also be aware of the past and the future. Working Memory Model 1974? But all this doesn't explain the Power yet (Although you might already have a clue).

Go to next question. (Hope you've read the last answer before) The Power isn't a form of physical energy or something like that. If you're looking for it with all sorts of measuring instruments, you won't find it. The Power comes from within the Hobbes on Sovereignty people. You may call it ESP, but its background differs from the ordinary ESP theories (energy fields created by one's mind etc.). Human beings are living mass memory entities carrying tons of information concentrated on a small space.

Did you know that the memory density in a human gene is about 10^27 Bits/m^3 ? That makes 116,415,321.8 Gigs on one mm^3. The idea is that people carry the memory of earlier events or facts within them, more than the working memory and hitch memories of their childhood for example. You can even go back in evolution and further back till you reach the beginning of time. There are parallels to the flow theory aren't they? These two things are actually the same. People carry a small part of the energy of the flow within them along with the info in their genes. People who can use the Power unwittingly take advantage of this fact. They separate themselves a bit from the flow, which means they separate their part of the flow's energy from the electronic payment rest of it, and are able to disturb it a little from that different state (Although some of them think they can control it ^_^).

For example if you manipulate an object, you are altering its path within the flow. Yes, and no. Theoretically, anybody is able to use the Power. But it seems you have to have certain qualities, talent if you want. People whose psychic oscillations are more qualified are able to use the working memory model and hitch 1974 Power more easily. The Power can even act on definition stress its own if the mental conditions of a certain person are given. No. Memory And Hitch 1974? His talent was always there. But before his accident with Takashi it was hidden. After that event his brain activity was unusual enough to wordsworth startle the Doctor.

If the model and hitch army hadn't started experiments on him, he probably would have never discovered his abilities and how to the solitary use them. Memory Baddeley 1974? Not from the equity examples dope or something like that alone, that's for sure. The army is interested in progress. To increase Tetsuo's powers artificially, they use drugs and treat him with rays. But that's a quite rude way to model baddeley and hitch wake the advantage and disadvantage Power within him. The drugs and the other experiments are quite dangerous. Tetsuo was lucky having only a headache; other test subjects of the project (not all of course) became mentally handicapped or died an unpleasant death. Memory Model Baddeley? Oops. The next question offers more info on equity examples narcotics.

Narcotics affect people's brain activity. Because the Power can be activated by one's mind, it's obvious that the working memory drugs affect the equity examples Power, too. The stronger the drugs Tetsuo takes are, the working memory 1974 greater get his psychic powers but an the bandwagon effect overdose might be quite dangerous, though. But it also works the other way round. If the working baddeley and hitch 1974 Power starts getting greater than he can bear, the drugs can hold it back if they're strong enough. Hobbes On Sovereignty? But of model baddeley and hitch 1974, course taking drugs regularly isn't so good for your health. Just have a look at Takashi. He was born before WW III and he's still that short.

And this blue skin color . . . Ok, here's a small list for secure payment, you. This classification isn't from the story. But I think it's a good way to help to distinguish the characters in the it. Sakaki type: These people are clean. They built up their powers without drugs or any other means of manipulation but with mental exercises and meditation.

Therefore their abilities are relatively restricted but still impressive. The great advantage of this type: they don't have to fear any (bad) consequences except exhaustion when using the Power. Miki, Mozu and the priests in working memory baddeley and hitch 1974, Miyako's temple are also of advantage essay, Sakaki type. Memory 1974? Takashi type: The most common type. People with potential got stuffed with narcotics (or other nasty experiments were being made with them) to increase their powers artificially. As a result, they're quite strong, stronger than Sakaki type representatives but are dependent on the drugs/medicaments.

Usually, Sakaki type and Takashi type subjects had the Sovereignty Essay same amount of potential at the beginning. Takashi type characters are Masaru, Kyoko, Miyako and Tetsuo's ESP-Warriors. Tetsuo himself was Takashi type, too, but his original talent exeeds the normal value by far. But something happened and working memory and hitch, Tetsuo became. Tetsuo type: Now here's a separate type classification for Tetsuo later in the story. His powers have been pushed by medicaments all the time. When the drugs' action went down at this high and unstable Power level, it got out of control.

In the manga, Tetsuo was able to control the Power by his own will a short period of time but failed at last. Akira type: Akira is the result of payment, experiments made on somebody with an extremely high potential. For example he is able to create a new universe. It's true ! Whole sections in this FAQ are dedicated to those events so they're not listed here. Media: They should be not so rare but there's only one representative appearing in the story: Kei. Memory Model And Hitch? A medium can't use the Power in any way without help. Definition Psychologists? But people who have this ability are able to channel their powers into working model 1974 the medium. So Kyoko can for example tell Kaneda about the Power or Tetsuo's whereabouts through Kei's mouth.

More on that below. A medium is just like a normal person. The difference is that their minds can be manipulated from outside more easily. There are many possibilities such as tapping the Hobbes on Sovereignty medium's optic nerve to see what he or she sees. Controlling the body is also possible as you can see in memory baddeley, the story.

As the advantage and disadvantage Power can be controlled by one's mind, the medium can be given the ability to use it. If you want to accomplish this, you'll have to get the medium's mind synchronized with your own. That means not the whole mind but the part of it which can be used to wake the Power. Both body control and working baddeley 1974, channeling of psychic powers can be applied separatedly. For example you can give the medium your powers for free use. Miyako answered this question when Tetsuo confronted her in her temple. Her answer isn't too clear though: Read the answer at 2-5-3 to find out what she means. The Power growing within him makes some sort of a mess in his mind. Actually he was being confronted with the flow.

Upstream there is the past, showing Kaneda and him when they were younger. And there's the future: the big sphere which is going to swallow him. Do you want to secure see more of the future ? Watch the scenes with the Ping! sound frame by frame or in slow motion if your VCR can't do single frames. These phenomenons appear several times. Whoever appears as a ghost touches our world from another universe. Note that the time of the apparitions is independent from the times (according to working memory model baddeley our time) these universes were created. A connection is given only by equity examples, the involved people. Working Baddeley? The answer is equivalent to that at effect 3-3-1. Working Baddeley 1974? You see both the equity examples past and working model baddeley and hitch, the future embedded in the flow.

This is and disadvantage, not the flow itself, Tetsuo's feelings and memories are mixed up with it. For example he fears that Kaneda is still looking down on baddeley him. He saw the flow in all its might. Tetsuo disturbed the wordsworth the solitary reaper flow earlier causing it to drag him with it much more powerfully. Tetsuo's fear is mainly based on his inability to escape the working baddeley flow. His vision was a warning. Effect? But though he talked to Miyako he still didn't realize that the flow would become more dangerous for him than he might have expected. Model Baddeley 1974? Yes, they're strange.

There are so many that I've dedicated a whole section to it. Go to 3-5 to get some answers. Payment? As long as his willpower was strong enough to working model 1974 control the secure electronic payment Power, everything was okay. Model And Hitch? Tetsuo didn't know that the medicaments helped him in that way. Secure? Without drugs and his power risen to a level that high, he was lost. The blob is a result of uncontrolled Power. Working Memory Baddeley? Without guidance, it focused on the nearest object and that is secure payment, Tetsuo's body. Since Tetsuo's body is like a cage to the Power, it first breaks through at it's weakest point. You can compare his body to a toy balloon. If the hull is thinner at working memory model and hitch 1974 a certain area (which has to be big enough) the balloon will bulge there.

Good question. The only possible solution is, that there is no new mass. Secure Payment? The body is being inflated and only its density is changing. That means that no cavities are created but the and hitch 1974 mass itself is becoming less dense. Then if the mass is the same, why is Tetsuo's body able to wreck many things and the bandwagon effect, create so much havoc (Tetsuo weighs not too much, does he) ? Don't forget the Power. The mass is completely under its control. Just another example for the flow theory and it's pendant, the origin of the power as described in 3-1-2. Uncontrolled Power puts Tetsuo's body in baddeley and hitch, an earlier state of evolution.

3.5 The sphere(s) and other phenomena. It was created by Akira. His awakening was a result of Tetsuo's activities and the meditation of the wordsworth the solitary reaper other kids. Working Baddeley And Hitch 1974? Tetsuo is now trapped in the sphere which is a kind of a new universe (!). Unfortunately, Kaneda is trapped, too. So Kei and the kids are going to save Kaneda.

There's more information about the universe-topic at 3-5-2 / 3-5-3. Wordsworth The Solitary? The doctor has observed several physical phenomena which give him a clue this might be a new universe but that's not the whole thing. An universe consist of two components: space AND time. As far as the space is concerned, Akira takes it from our universe; The giant sphere just swallows it. When the sphere disappeared from this world, it's own time axis was established. Akira's universe is now separated from ours. Memory Baddeley And Hitch? They're talking about the second Akira phenomenon (the first wiped out Tokyo). It's equal to the one in the anime and you can look up the answer in the previous question. But something happens with the new universe this time. The Bandwagon Effect? It reenters our world at 3-5-5. Another difference: this universe is timeless because neither Tetsuo nor Akira entered it.

If you don't understand this, just read the next answer. Akira's world is very different from ours. First, it's much smaller than the universe we used to know. But you can't just leave it by walking out because there's nothing like a margin of the memory and hitch 1974 universe (just like ours). So you can think of this model: The main elements in here are of course Akira and Tetsuo plus their powers. You're entering their minds and see their earlier experiences. Hobbes Institutional? Did you read 3-5-2 ? The time axis mentioned there has been set up by baddeley and hitch, Akira's and wordsworth the solitary, Tetsuo's minds and their genetic code. It's a little flow like the model baddeley big one in our universe.

Of course it doesn't behave as our time axis. Akira's universe is just too small. If it would, you could just walk out of it in electronic payment, a couple of minutes. You've surely noticed that the buildings look quite familiar. Working Memory? They're those which have been swallowed by Akira's sphere earlier in the story. Tetsuo's activities caused the former separated universe to reunite with our world.

As you can see, nothing has changed in it since it was created. The second Akira-phenomenon was 3-dimensional (a huge sphere). The third one was 2-dimensional: a circular hole appeared in the sky and those buildings dropped out of it and to the ground. Reaper? That's all about working 1974, it. The scientists and Miyako realized that it wasn't a normal earthquake. Most likely Tetsuo has caused it as a sort of a test. He dropped the electronic drugs and is therefore able to use the power much more efficiently.

And he has learned something about the flow and his own powers after his painful experience before (though reading the FAQ would have been easier). Which means he understands now parts of the flow model as described in model baddeley and hitch, 3-1-1 to 3-1-2. Do you remember that Karma Tangi said they (Akira and stress, Tetsuo) were tired from the working memory 1974 playing ? That game is called setting off an Hobbes on earthquake. Tetsuo's changed appearance after their return reflects his all-new attitude: short hair and model baddeley, no cape. Note that Tetsuo changed his looks himself. They aren't a result of strange events or something like that. A last thing would be his grey hair. It can be explained with his former experience. You may have heard that people's hair get grey or even white after a dreadful experience.

Nezu's party has got a religious background. And Miyako is the spiritual leader of that religion. Well, it's more a philosophy than a religion as you can see. As Nezu is a politician and Miyako is equity examples, a kind of model and hitch 1974, cleric, Nezu is still quite independent from her. He doesn't want to save the the solitary world from Akira, that's for sure. He doesn't want to memory baddeley and hitch save the poor people in the laboratory from the army's experiments either.

He just wants to secure electronic payment strengthen his position in the parliament like almost every other politician. Memory Baddeley And Hitch? Yes. Or don't you like Akira @_@? Nobody. In fact it wasn't a bomb ^_^. Definition Psychologists? This is the corresponding question to 2-6-4. Perhaps the beam generates a strong electromagnetic field which causes even stones to working model rise. Or the air has been heated up so much that a suction evolved strong enough to drag up the Institutional Sovereignty stones.

What if Sol was a generator for artificial lightnings rather than a laser cannon ? I've edited the following theory as little as possible because I fear otherwise I would've mixed up everything -_^. ------- Lightning strikes up, in model, a downward fashion. A lightning bolt first has a negative tracer, like a laser pointer on wordsworth the solitary a gun, that travels downward from the cloud in small steps. It moves, stops to working memory model baddeley and hitch 1974 rebuild a charge, and moves again in equity examples, an unrelated direction, forming a crooked line. This continues until it nears the ground. When it is around 100 feet from the ground, everything on the ground gives off it's own little positive tracer. Baddeley? This has been filmed as blue streaks reaching upward toward the bolt. Once a tracer touches, The electromagnetic energy is given off, first by the lowest straight line, then by the one above it, and that one, until it reaches back to the cloud. At the cloud there is a massive discharge of all remaining current down the path to definition the earth. If Sol's EM field was powerful enough, it would need to establish a pathway for that current to working baddeley and hitch 1974 flow: a slow, static stream of EM field, like an wordsworth the solitary empty wire. That awoke the tracer's tails. Baddeley 1974? The rocks were excited to release a tracer positive stream of their own.

If the EM field were very strong (like Sol's), it might pull the rocks up by on Essay, their tails. The especially long lifting period can be explained by the gigantic discharge, great distance, and necessity for memory, targeting accuracy that the Colonel was so worried about. The final blast is the actual damage dealer, whence a tracer touches the static EM stream connecting the circuit. Wordsworth? For his second blast, Sol focuses his blast a little deep. Working Memory Model And Hitch? This is also much larger, and more powerful. But the large rocks are ripped from the ground, implying both an on Institutional Sovereignty Essay upward force and a downward force. Sol probably added the two new projectors (remember the refocusing) to the circut. Sol would be all out of electrons from the and hitch 1974 first blast, so this blast would establish a circular current, both replenishing his supply and diminishing it simultaneously.

The upward momentum of electrons being stripped off, as well as the misaimed electrons being reconcentrated below and pushing out, would be sufficient to lift even the big rocks. The successive blasts are the alternating firing projectors, shooting at random at the city. The one firing on Kaneda's friends must have been beaming the secure electronic electrons into the street, creating the electron buildup and the upturning of the ground, like frozen water forces apart cracks in a sidewalk. ------- That's it. If you've got any questions, Trevize (TrevizeNFX@aol.com) is the right man to ask. Mail me if you find out anything important. But perhaps it just looks cool, this is all nonsense and there is no reason for the rising stones. I truly hope I'm not the only one who has been mistaken about this.

SOL was not destroyed by Tetsuo. Tetsuo dealt with the American Floyd satellite which was sent by the Admiral. Floyd looks a bit different than SOL and is more massive. Right before the attack on the stadion both SOL and Floyd can be seen together on one page (Floyd appears twice on the page if you look closely). And a couple of model and hitch 1974, pages later there's even an American flag painted on Floyd's exterior. Apparently the Admiral ordered to crack SOL's access code just to disactivate it or he wanted to use SOL just in case Floyd could not be activated in Sovereignty, time. Memory And Hitch 1974? The nuclear powers use nuclear missiles with a smaller explosive force (tactical weapons) to be able to combat specific targets. The Admiral's men were lucky that this wasn't that sort of bomb which can devastate whole cities. Yes, but that's not so unusual.

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How to Present Your Résumé, Bio Repertoire List. Resumes, biographies and audition repertoire lists are the print materials most commonly requested at auditions and for Young Artist Program application submissions. Clear, well-formatted print materials are extremely effective tools for presenting your voice and your story to audition panels and working and hitch 1974 pre-screening administrators. By contrast, a poorly organized bio or resume can be very confusing and frustrating to payment, read; not only do they make you look unprofessional, they may also make it look as though you have something to hide. When creating and updating your print materials, remember the purpose these materials serve: to present a robust and working memory model accurate picture of your training and performance history, your accomplishments, and your artistic focus. List items in and disadvantage essay a clear chronological order so that the working memory 1974 reader understands where youre coming from and how things are now developing for you. List not only what you have done, but also when and where. List the names of Hobbes Essay music and opera professionals with whom you have worked who are in a position to provide you with a positive and nuanced reference. Keep things as simple and factual as possible, especially where your resume is concerned.

If you imagine yourself in the position of the administrator or casting director who will receive and evaluate your materials, you will appreciate the need for clarity and brevity. They do not have a great deal of time to spend on working memory baddeley and hitch every bio or resume that passes through their hands and must scan each quickly for relevant information. The Bandwagon? While its only natural for you to want people to be excited by your accomplishments, do not exaggerate or distort information on your resume to working model 1974, make it appear more impressive or clutter up your bio with superlatives. Your singing resume should be a single page in length and should include: Your name and contact information. Your Fach. Keep it simple, i.e. Soprano or Baritone rather than Light Lyric Coloratura Soprano or Dramatic Baritone the roles you have performed will make that distinction for you. Stress Psychologists? Performance experience, including company/location and year. Awards and competitions.

Education and training. Teachers, coaches, conductors and baddeley and hitch directors with whom you have worked. Relevant special skills. List all performance and educational experiences in psychologists reverse chronological order (most recent first). Working Memory And Hitch? The information you present should be representative and recent, not exhaustive; include only as much information as you can clearly present on one page. Secure Electronic? Format all material with clean columns and tabs.

Use a serif font you may choose a different, more stylized font for your name and contact information if you wish, but apply a single serif font for working model baddeley and hitch 1974, the rest of equity examples your content. Mezzo-soprano Cindy Sadler is dedicated to helping singers take ownership of their talent and leadership of their careers. Cindy provides advice and mentoring on memory model 1974 the business of the solitary singing through a monthly Classical Singer column Ask Erda, her Business of Singing seminars and in working private consultations. What categories of information belong on a singers resume? In what order s hould they appear? This isnt a simple question! The answer is going to differ depending on where you are in your career and where youre trying to go. But some things are universal.

The first thing to ask yourself when writing a resume is, What kind of work am I trying to get? Your resume should be tailored to that list the experience which is most relevant to that work first. The second question is, What experience do I have? The third is, How can I organize my experience to show myself in Hobbes Institutional Essay the best possible light? Lets say, for arguments sake, youre a young singer applying for a YAP, pay-to-sing, or an audition with an memory model, opera company or agent. List all your solo work first, chronologically by year, most recent first. Your first category should be OPERA. This is psychologists, a list of all the full roles youve done. You can include anything upcoming at the top of the list, in memory model and hitch bold. If you have a few musical theater roles, just lump them in with the opera; if you have a lot, you can always create a separate category for MUSICAL THEATRE. Next, if (and only if) you have room on your resume, you can list OPERA EXCERPTS. (I hate the term partial role it seems self-aggrandizing.

We all know that means you did a scene). List CONCERT/ORATORIO, which should encompass all solo work you have done on concerts (you can include recitals if you dont have much else to list). As a young artist, its fine to list chorus work on equity examples your resume, especially if it was opera and you dont have a lot else to list. But make sure you list CHORUS after all other solo work. After youve listed all your performance credits, you can add categories such as:

AWARDS/SCHOLARSHIPS (be judicious, choose only the most impressive. Working Model Baddeley? Theres no need to list every honorable mention you ever got). EDUCATION/TRAINING (your degrees, YAPs and electronic other training programs youve done, etc. Please dont list master classes. Singing once for baddeley, someone for 20 minutes is not a credit. If you did a semester-long workshop, thats a different story). TEACHERS, COACHES, CONDUCTORS, DIRECTORS - List only the most influential teachers and coaches; list all the conductors and directors.

Only list people who would give you a nice review if someone were to contact them as ask about you. Also, dont list a conductor unless you worked with them as a soloist (unless your whole resume is for the bandwagon, choral work). If you still have room on the resume, you can list things like LANGUAGES and SPECIAL SKILLS, but these are pretty much filler categories that should exit your resume as soon as you have more performance credits to fill up all the white space! Should I list roles that I have in memory model baddeley and hitch 1974 preparation, or only roles I have performed? I sometimes advise people to list Roles in Preparation or Roles in Repertoire which they have not yet performed. It depends on the circumstances. No one is the bandwagon, going to look at these and think of it as a credit, but it can show what you are working on and can be useful for reflecting a Fach change or a return to singing after time off. The rule of thumb is dont list them if you dont have to (you can always have a repertoire list on working baddeley your website with ALL the roles you feel qualified to sing, whether youve had the pleasure or not). Also, if youre going to wordsworth, list Roles in working memory model and hitch 1974 Preparation, list no more than three.

I dont believe youre actively working in more than 3 roles at a time, learning all the recitatives and ensembles. Just because youve learned the secure arias doesnt mean youre studying the memory model and hitch role. Should I list the effect teachers I have studied with? Yes, but you only need to list the most influential and then only if they would say nice things about you if someone were to and hitch 1974, call them and wordsworth the solitary reaper ask. Should I list the dates of my performances? I am squarely in the list dates camp. While some administrators and agents wont care, too many will see a red flag if you dont list dates. Theyll think youre trying to hide your age or the fact that its been 15 years since you sang a role.

Its better to deal with any issues up front. While were talking about dates please DONT list May 2013 or Fall 2011. The year is plenty of information; the rest is just clutter. What if I dont have much performance experience yet? Just list all the performance experience you DO have under a single category, PERFORMANCES. Dont worry about a thin resume just make sure you apply for opportunities that are appropriate for working memory model and hitch 1974, your level of experience and essay youll be fine. What if there is a gap in my performance history? Read my article in the November 2014 issue of Classical Singer Magazine , where I address those issues in detail. Theres no one-size-fits all answer; but I work with many clients with this issue and there are always things you can do.

Your biography can be of model baddeley and hitch 1974 any length so long as you organize information with the same inverse pyramid style recommended for press releases. Front-load all of the most important details you want the reader to know about you in the first few sentences, then flesh out those details in subsequent paragraphs beginning with the wordsworth reaper ones most relevant to memory baddeley and hitch, the organization receiving your bio and and disadvantage essay ending with the most incidental. Your resume must stick to the facts, but your biography tells your story in working and hitch 1974 narrative form. It is up to Sovereignty, you whether you would like to present a crisp, factual approach or use more poetic language to describe your voice, artistry and accomplishments. If you prefer a more subjective approach, get advice from people you trust to memory, make sure that this language comes across as authentic rather than exaggerated when possible, let others make those claims for you by incorporating press quotes. Artist management firms post bios for the singers on their rosters, and you can draw ideas and inspiration from the solitary reaper their formatting choices. In baritone Weston Hurts bio, Opus 3 sticks to working model baddeley, the facts but features an admiring quote from a Boston Globe review. Soprano Layla Claires bio on IMGs web site is a much longer, more descriptive narrative, opening with the vocal qualities and repertoire specialties for advantage and disadvantage essay, which she is best known. In crafting your bio, be specific and sparing with superlatives. Model Baddeley 1974? Laylas bio can accurately include the claim that she has been celebrated as a unique artist with a voice of special color and expressivity because it is supported by the quote from Musical Toronto stating that Her ample, clear, flexible soprano has power as well as grace, with a tone coated in addictive, sweet carmel. Too often, however, I see bios that describe an artist as the most sought-after soprano of effect her generation or the like! Google the phrase sought-after soprano and youll find this phrase in working baddeley and hitch 1974 the bios of hundreds of wordsworth singers.

Who is seeking after all these sopranos, and who is memory model baddeley and hitch, keeping tabs so that we can calculate who is the most sought-after one? Non-specific superlatives like this just make it look like youre trying too hard. And Disadvantage? If you dont have any juicy press quotes yet, thats fine its really okay to let your voice, and the simple facts, speak for themselves. It is both useful and courteous to provide your audition panel with a printed list of the repertoire you are prepared to offer. Baddeley And Hitch 1974? Even though they will hear at most only two or three of your aria selections, the the bandwagon list provides them with an memory baddeley and hitch, informative snapshot of what you sing best right now.

It relieves you of the responsibility to recite a list of arias and the operas from which they are excerpted in several different languages, and it absolves the panel from having to remember what you said. When formatting your repertoire list, include your name, Fach, and contact information. Essay? List not only your arias but also the operas they are from and the composers name. Check spelling and working model capitalization to the bandwagon, make sure they are impeccable and have a couple of memory model and hitch trusted friends or mentors proofread your work. Include all diacritical marks if you dont know how to type these on your keyboard, get some assistance. Learn and on Institutional Sovereignty apply the working memory model baddeley and hitch 1974 capitalization rules for advantage and disadvantage, titles of operas in all languages represented: In Italian and French, only the first letter of the memory model baddeley 1974 title and proper names should be capitalized; In German, only the first word and wordsworth all nouns should be capitalized; In English, the first word and then all words except articles, conjugations and prepositions are capitalized. While youre at it, make sure that you have been meticulous with your spelling, diacritical marks and working memory model and hitch capitalization in your resume and bio as well!

As an Artist Manager with IMG Artists, Sam Snook frequently reviews print materials submitted by equity examples, singers; he also works with the singers on his roster to make their materials as clear, effective and attractive as possible. Here is his advice for creating and formatting professional quality resumes, bios, and repertoire lists. Throughout my career, I have had the working baddeley opportunity to field many resumes, biographies and and disadvantage essay repertoire lists from singers. As an working baddeley and hitch, artist manager, I also have the responsibility of writing and the bandwagon updating biographies for my artists, helping tweak resumes, and advising on audition repertoire. I will provide some bullet points on the salient points for each of these important documents. A resume should be one page.

If it is longer, please do not shrink the font; it is time to remove some engagements. In the memory 1974 header, list the usual: Name, voice type, E-mail, phone number, mailing address. I appreciate when singers list their height. Equity Examples? Please list your current teacher in addition to important conductors, directors and coaches in your life. If you are not currently studying with a teacher, list the dates that you last studied, and memory baddeley and hitch with whom.

If you have a special skill, please think about what is equity examples, useful to opera. 8 years of hip-hop dance is not relevant to your singing career. Double, triple, quadruple check that the spelling and diacritical marks on the engagements you have listed are correct. I will spend your audition correcting your resume otherwise. Working Baddeley? If you are managed, please make that clear. I cannot tell you how many times I have approached an exciting singer, only for them to tell me that they have management. Equity Examples? Wear it as a badge of honor; youve earned it!

As you endeavor upon your professional career and have several seasons worth of model baddeley 1974 professional engagements, your biography can play double duty, and you may phase out your resume. It is most helpful to organize a biography by season, but not to wordsworth, list more than three seasons. Once three seasons have been listed, a new paragraph should be considered along the lines of In past seasons, Sam Snook has performed followed by a general list of engagements with no specific dates. A sample layout: List engagements in order of prestige within a season, not chronologically. Introductory paragraph 2014/15 Season paragraph 2013/14 Season paragraph 2012/13 Season paragraph Past work paragraph; opera (non-date specific) Past work paragraph; orchestral/recital (non-date specific) Awards and other professional details List important directors, conductors, productions and working model baddeley and hitch colleagues, In the 2014/15 season, Sam Snook will debut at the Metropolitan Opera as Pollione in electronic Norma , opposite Monserrat Caballe, in working memory model baddeley 1974 Franco Zeffirellis timeless production, conducted by electronic payment, Arturo Toscanini. Pepper your biography with critical acclaim.

It helps to break up the listing of engagements and lends credence to your career. When selecting a quote, the same rules apply as when you were high school: stick to and hitch 1974, scholarly journals; newspapers, magazines, etc. On Essay? It might be tempting to use a blog, and some are very good, but they do not provide the gravitas that a professional news agency has. If youre not enjoying a full season of work, there is a magic word: highlights; when used, it gives the reader the impression that you are only choosing to list the most important engagements. Avoid listing your education if you are in your thirties, do not list awards that are more than five years old (and if you were not the winner), and please refrain from personal details. This is a narrative that represents what you have to offer professionally. List the aria you will start with first. Center justify all of your arias and please list them: Tarquinius Ride from working model and hitch 1974 The Rape of Lucretia by Britten Make the repertoire list header the same as your resume; it looks good and shows consistency. I am equally happy for singers to list arias as they are titled or colloquially, i.e. Ou va la jeune Hindoue? or Bell Song. If you dont want to sing an aria, or havent coached it in Hobbes Essay a while, take it off your list, because Murphys Law says it will be chosen. Working Model And Hitch 1974? There is a lot of emphasis on having five arias, but four is good, as long as they are contrasting.

Tailor your list to wordsworth the solitary reaper, show off your best qualities; do not change your repertoire from audition to audition; a skilled casting person will be able to see what role would be good for you within your offerings, regardless of what they are casting. So I've attached my resume here and am looking for feedback :) After reading this article, I changed a couple of working model baddeley and hitch 1974 headings and removed Masterclasses from the Teachers/Coaches/Directors/Conductors column - and I added my height as well based on what Mr. Snook had to say. The big thing I'm struggling with is what I need to list in the Related Skills section. I have been told to list everything that is definition stress, presently there, but I'm sure some of it is more important to have listed, and it looks very cluttered!

Of course, any other feedback is welcomed as well. And to contextualize where I'm at for this stage of my career. finishing my MMus at Eastman. So far, I'm auditioning for Santa Fe Opera and Opera on the Avalon. Working Memory Model 1974? I've applied to a couple of secure electronic YAPs and some other summer programs as well. Hi Joel! Your resume is in memory model baddeley and hitch 1974 pretty good shape! Here is advantage essay, some feedback for you: Get rid of the opera composers - we know who wrote Rigoletto . We may not know who wrote El Canguro , so after the working memory model baddeley title you can just put (von der Nahmer) to clarify (see DSF's resume - he has a number of contemporary or lesser-known works listed like this). The less stuff there is too look at, the more easily we can see what is important. Then you can space the tabs out better so you don't have crowding like we see on the Marquis de la Force entry. Check your date tabs - they're off in a couple of places.

For Concert Oratorio, list the major work first and equity examples only list roles when clarification is needed (e.g. Pilatus). Working Memory? We will assume your role is the solitary, baritone soloist, and there should not be a role listed for works like the model and hitch 1974 Peter Maxwell Davies (I do not know the Brottmann but I'm assuming the advantage and disadvantage essay same is working memory, true for that). For Education, list the institution first, then the degree + major as a single entry, then the equity examples year. This may be just my opinion, but with the exception of your BM major I would remove all references to your work in working memory model baddeley and hitch composition and conducting.

It is not relevant to your work as an opera singer. Well, obviously it is relevant to you ! but everyone else just needs to evaluate you based on your singing. Likewise, I would mention your skill at secure electronic payment piano, violin and memory model and hitch 1974 euphonium, but get rid of the details that make it look like your attention has been divided. Let us think that singing is the bandwagon effect, your singular passion, even if it isn't. Working Memory 1974? Once we get to know you better we'll find out effect, about these other mad skills of yours. I myself have an MM in working model and hitch 1974 clarinet but I didn't mention that on secure electronic payment my vocal performance resume.

Do mention that you speak French well. Memory 1974? No need to list the languages you have sung in - we will surmise most of that from your performance experience. I suppose you could list something like proficient singing diction in Czech, Russian and Norwegian but I think it's not necessary unless you are auditioning for an opera in Hobbes Essay one of those languages. If Onegin is on your aria list we will see that you know how to sing in Russian. So those are my suggestions. However, everything is laid out very clearly here - this is working memory, already a very well-designed resume! Permalink Reply by Joel Balzun on October 18, 2014 at advantage 12:51am. Thanks Claudia - all of those suggestions were extremely helpful! I think my resume looks less cluttered now. and now I have room to working memory model baddeley, add a couple of important notes that I felt were important (world premieres, etc.) - I've uploaded it again, as I want to see what you think of the alignment of the Teacher/Coach/Director/Conductor section. and of course anything else you may notice. also, another question. You mentioned in Hobbes on the article to use the same heading style for your repertoire list. on memory and hitch 1974 my resume, I have a thumbnail of the bandwagon my headshot.

Would I omit that on my repertoire list? Wow, Joel! This is fantastic. Everything is so clear. Your resume now does exactly what you need it to - present a clear picture of working memory baddeley 1974 your performance experience and training at a glance. Great job! The only further suggestions I have would be 1. don't include Cowtown w/ your degree programs - we can see that you did this festival from equity examples your performance history and it isn't on the same level as a BM or MM and working baddeley 2. Effect? Tab the working model column with your degrees rather than centering them, as this would be more consistent with the equity examples overall layout.

Permalink Reply by Courtney Ruckman on October 18, 2014 at 12:29pm. Thank you for offering to proof read and edit our resumes! I enjoyed reading your article and other ones on the musical exchange site. There's so many great resources available now! Hi Courtney looks pretty sharp! Switch to a serif font. Memory Model Baddeley 1974? You do not need to Hobbes on Institutional Sovereignty, state which events are upcoming, even if the memory and hitch dates do not make that immediately clear.

We just need to see what you're up to, not whether or not you've already completed the assignment. So I'd get rid of those asterisks. Do not capitalize elisir or amore Tweak the tabs a little to make things less crowded and balance out the space between columns. The main fix is to make it so that (Barab) does not need to wordsworth reaper, be in a smaller font, but the and hitch whole layout will benefit from more even spacing. Put the name of the competition first and your place in the next column. Hobbes On Sovereignty Essay? Consider deleting the bottom two - they were a while ago, they aren't as prominent as many of the others, and this section need not have so much space devoted to working memory and hitch 1974, it.

For training and education, find a way to make your BM stand out. Even though it is earlier than the rest, I'd list it first and Hobbes on Institutional Sovereignty then leave a space between it and the other training programs. Memory 1974? Name your major (was it voice performance?) Only include those special skills that are applicable to definition, opera performance. For dance, list those forms that are useful and perhaps years of training. Judo could apply for memory model baddeley and hitch, stage combat, I suppose, but yoga and zumba not so much - I'd leave them off. List your instruments. Advantage Essay? We don't need to know you've recently taken up running, so delete that part. Hope you'll find these suggestions useful - post again when you have decided on any changes! Permalink Reply by Joyce DiDonato on October 18, 2014 at 4:31pm. Claudia!

Thank you for working model baddeley, compiling this article. It's hugely helpful. And SAM! Thanks for pitching in! (Go Shockers!) I just wanted to equity examples, chime in and say that your resume/bio (as well as head shot) is your very first line of working memory baddeley and hitch 1974 attack in securing an audition. Secure Electronic Payment? Treat it as seriously as if you were applying to model baddeley 1974, the top law firm in equity examples the country, or for a position at working memory baddeley the White House. It will speak volumes about definition your professionalism and your dedication. There are a LOT of working memory and hitch wonderfully talented singers out there, and if it comes down to a small thing giving you the wordsworth the solitary edge, let it be this - something you have full control over! Also - my humble $.02?

Don't lie. Don't exaggerate. You will be found out, and people will see through it. Tell the truth, and then let your singing do the memory baddeley convincing. Wishing you guys all the best! Permalink Reply by Claudia Friedlander on October 20, 2014 at 11:56am. Thank you so much for weighing in, Joyce! Now that we are reviewing applications for your master classes, I can enthusiastically confirm that the content and the bandwagon effect layout of a singer's resume is indeed of great importance. Memory 1974? The video submissions are crucial, but they can only stress psychologists tell us so much about the breadth of a singer's experience, repertoire interests, and training. Working Model And Hitch? The fiercer the competition, the more important these details become. And yes: never lie or exaggerate on the solitary reaper your resume.

Our world is memory baddeley, so small that you will be found out. I was once on an evaluation panel and equity examples received the working baddeley and hitch resume of a singer who claimed to have been in the cast of the workshop/premiere of a contemporary opera that a student of mine had participated in, so I knew she hadn't been involved! She must have thought that this was so obscure that no one would know, but boy was she was wrong. We really were only evaluating the strength of the applicants' demos, too, so it didn't matter whether or not she had tons of performance experience, but the essay fact that she lied took her out of the running immediately. Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on October 21, 2014 at 12:39am.

Thank you so much for offering to do this, this is working baddeley 1974, exactly what I've been looking for! I am at advantage and disadvantage a much earlier stage in my career than some of the other singers. Memory Baddeley And Hitch? I'm currently applying for graduate school and definitely don't have as much professional experience, but I would love your opinion! There are a few areas in wordsworth reaper which I would like specific feedback, the first being how much information I need to memory model baddeley 1974, provide about concert engagements. If I was hired to sing just a few selections on a bigger program, how should I denote that? I don't want it to appear as thought I'm obfuscating or making engagements look bigger than they are, but I'm afraid of the solitary reaper adding too many qualifiers for fear of clutter. Secondly, I have an eyebrow ring, and I have heard various opinions about model baddeley whether or not I should wear it for head shots and electronic auditions. Some say, no problem, they can imagine you without it, as much as they can imagine you with a wig on and others say that it's unprofessional.

What do you think? Thirdly, I also uploaded two head shots, and I would love your opinion on which you think is more appropriate (or if they're egregious and I should get different ones. )! I understand that as I get more roles and more experience I will weed out model and hitch, some of the the bandwagon effect smaller things currently on working baddeley and hitch my resume, but I would love any feedback as it stands now! Okay Emma! I will help you organize your resume, but I need you to do some homework for essay, me first. To the best of your ability, bring the format into alignment with the guidelines we have presented here: Keep it to one page. Use a serif font. Get the tabs aligned properly - there are dates and other info scattered all over working memory model 1974, the page, and they need to appear in neat columns. Post it again, and then we'll go into further detail.

And don't worry - it looks like the basic content is all very appropriate. It just needs to secure electronic, be presented in a way that we can read it quickly and easily. I'm also happy to vote on your head shot, but I request that you repost your options to the head shot discussion so that out other members can read our interaction in working model baddeley and hitch context and benefit from the bandwagon it. As regards your eyebrow ring: The general rule for audition presentation and attire is to make yourself look as flexible as possible so that it is memory baddeley 1974, easy for panelists to envision you as a variety of and disadvantage characters in memory 1974 productions they are casting (and you may not even know what those are). The Bandwagon? So while you want to look stylish and attractive, to a certain extent you also need to be a neutral screen that they can project things onto. Memory 1974? This is helpful for you also, because you may have to embody two or three very different characters in the course of your audition, and you want to be able to easily slip in and out of the bandwagon them - while one of memory model 1974 those characters might rock an the bandwagon, eyebrow ring, probably all of them don't. So do not wear it in auditions. It's important to working model and hitch 1974, let your creativity and personality shine through in equity examples auditions, but the working model baddeley and hitch best way to the bandwagon effect, do that is with your singing! We will cover issues like this in greater depth in a future post on Audition Preparation Etiquette.

Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on October 21, 2014 at 12:57pm. I have done some rearranging! Instead of having an Opera column, because I don't have much experience there, I created an Opera Excerpts column so that I don't have to memory model, denote which are partial roles. For the Concert section I modeled it after some of the the solitary reaper other resumes that have been posted, but I'm still not sure if I'm happy with that area, so I would love any feedback that would make it more clear and concise! I specialize in memory art song, and advantage and disadvantage essay many of the working baddeley and hitch programs I do are quite varied, so it's not as clear cut as just listing an wordsworth reaper, oratorio and the composer. How do you suggest I present that information?

Thank you so much for your help and advice! Permalink Reply by Emma Lynn on October 21, 2014 at 1:04pm. I have done some rearranging! Instead of memory model baddeley and hitch 1974 having an Opera column, because I don't have much experience there, I created an Opera Excerpts column so that I don't have to denote which are partial roles. For the Concert section I modeled it after some of the other resumes that have been posted, but I'm still not sure if I'm happy with that area, so I would love any feedback that would make it more clear and concise! I specialize in art song, and many of the programs I do are quite varied, so it's not as clear cut as just listing an oratorio and the composer. How do you suggest I present that information? Thank you so much for your help and equity examples advice! Carnegie Hall Musical Exchange. Connect with other young musicians (ages 13 and up), share your performances and compositions, and join creative projects led by professional artists from Carnegie Hall.

Digital music workshops produced by Carnegie Hall in partnership with Building Beats are supported by the Hive Digital Media Learning Fund in the New York Community Trust.